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BR 60 .L52 V.3A 
John Chrysostom, d. A07. 
The homilies of S. John 
Chrysostom, Archbishop of 




























FEB 2 3 1971 

















-' -r-. r- 


The Homilies of St. Chrysostom on St. Matthew were 
undoubtedly delivered at Antioch, (see Horn. vii. p. 105.) 
and probably in the latter part of the time during which he 
preached as a Presbyter. Montfaucon considers his little 
mention of the sin of swearing a sign of his having accom- 
plished some reformation on that point by his previous 
exertions. In the Homilies delivered from 386 to 388, it is 
a constant topic; and the Homilies known to belong to that 
date are so numerous, as scarcely to leave room for such a 
series as the present. These, however, contain very little 
to mark the period to which they belong. The ai'gument 
from his reference to dissensions some time gone by, possibly 
those between St. Meletius and Paulinus and Evagrius, in 
commenting on St. Matt, xxiii. 6. is not very conclusive. 

A modern reader must sometimes be struck with finding 
in St. Chrysostom a kind of criticism, which we are apt to 
think belongs only to later times. His main object, however, 
is moral, and he searches out with diligence both the mean- 
ing and the applications of particular passages, usually con- 
cluding with an eloquent exhortation to some special virtue. 
Some of the most remarkable of these exhortations are on 
the subject of Almsgiving, which he seems to have pressed 
with success at last. His calculation in Hom. Ixvi. as to 
what might be done, is somewhat curious. In the end of 
Horn. Ixxxviii. he demands a reformation as the condition 
of his entering on the controversy with Infidels. In the 
next Homily he discusses the evidence of the Resurrcctioii 

A 2 


with nearly the same arguments as would still be used 
against an objector. 

The Theatres are the theme of his frequent reprobation, 
and the Monks of the mountains near Antioch of his praise. 
In Horn. Ixjx. and Ixx. he describes their mode of life as 
an edifying example to all. He frequently attacks the 
Anomoean or extreme Arian Heresy, and sometimes also 
the Manichean. It is perhaps worth while to recollect the 
nearly contemporaneous prevalence of Manicheism in the 
West, as it appears in the early history of St. Augustine. In 
Hom. Ixxxvi. there are some remarks on the device of 
Satan by which evil is introduced by little and little, which 
are worthy of consideration as applicable to the growth of 
erroneous doctrine and practice within the Church. 

For all information with respect to the Text and Manu- 
scripts of these Homilies, the learned reader is referred to 
the Greek Edition of Mr. Field, which has been of great 
service, as affording a safe basis for the Translation. The 
paucity of materials possessed by Savile, and the carelessness 
of the Benedictine Editor, had left much room for improve- 
ment by a judicious and faithful use of the existing copies. 
It may now at last be hoped, that we have a Text very 
closely approximating to the genuine work of the Author. 

For the Translation, the Editors are indebted to the 
Rev. Sir George Prevost, M.A. of Oriel College, and for 
the Index to the Rev. J. E. Tweed, M.A. of Christ Church, 
Oxford. It will be their endeavour to complete the Com- 
mentaries of St. Chrysostom on the New Testametit, by 
bringing out the remainder of the Homilies on the Acts of 
the Apostles, and those on the Epistle to the Hebrews, as 
soon as they are able. In both instances, however, the 
corrupt state of the Text has occasioned some difficulty and 

C. M. 
Advent, 1851. 


Page 801, 

Matt, xviii. 7. 
Woe unto the world because of offences ; for it must needs h^ 
that offences come; hut woe to that man by whom the 
offence comelh. 

Page 818. 

Matt, xviii. 15. 
If thy brotlier shall trespass ayainst thee, yo and tell him, 
his fault between thee and him alone. If he shall hear 
thee, thou hast yained thy brother. 

Page 826. 
Matt, xviii. 21. 
Then came Peter to Him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my 
brother sin ayainst me, and I for y ire him? till seven 
times? Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until 
seven times, but, Until seventy times seven. 


Page 839. 

Matt. xix. 1. 
And it came to pass, that tvken Jesus had finished these 
sayinys. He departed from Galilee, and came into the 
coasts ofJudcea beyond Jordan. 



Page 852. 

Matt. xix. 16. 

And, behold, one came and said unto Him, Good Master, 

by doing toJiat, shall I inherit eternal lije? 


Page 861. 

Matt. xix. 27. 
Then answered Peter, and said vnto Him, Behold, we have 
forsaken all, and followed Thee: what shall we have 
therefore ? 


Page 874. 

Matt. xx. 17—19. 
And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples 
apart in the way, and said unto them. Behold, tie go up to 
Jerusalem, and the Son of Man shall be betrayed unto the 
chief priests and unto the Scribes, and they shall condemn 
Him to death, and shall deliver Him to the Gentiles to 
mock, and to scourge, and to crucify Him, and the third 
day He shall be raised. 


Page 889. 

Matt. xx. 29, 30. 
And as they departedfrom Jericho, great multitudes followed 
Him. And, behold, two blind men sitting by the wayside, 
when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying. 
Have mercy on us, O Lord, Thou Son of David. 


Page 901. 

Matt. xxi. 12, 13. 
And Jesus went into the Temple, and cast out all them that 
sold and bought in the Temple, and overthrew the tables of 
the moneychangers, and the seats of tliem that sold doves, 
and saiih unto them. It is tvritten, My house shall be 
called a house of prayer, hut ye have made it a den of 


Page 913, 
Matt. xxi. 33 — 44. 
Hear another parable. There laas a certain householder, 
which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and 
digged a winepress, and built a tower, and let it out to 
husbandmen, andivent into a far country. And ivlien the 
time of the fruit drew near, lie sent his servants to receive 
the fruits. And the husbandmen took the servants, and 
beat some, and killed some, and stoned some. Again he sent 
other servants more than the first : and they did unto them 
likewise. But last he sent unto them his son, saying, It 
may be they will reverence my son. But when the htisband- 
nien saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the 
heir, come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance. 
And they cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him. 
When the Lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what 
will he do to those husbandmen? They say unto Him, He 
will miserably destroy those ivicked men, and uill let out 
his vineyard to other husbandmen , which shall render him 
the fruits in their seasons. Jesus saith unto litem. Did 
ye never read hi the Scriptures, " The Stone Which the 
builders rejected, the Same is become the Head of the 
corner ; this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in 
our eyesV Therefore I say unto you. The Kingdom of 
God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation 
bringing forth, tlie fruits thereof And whosoever shall 
fall on Tills Stone shall be broken, but on whomsoever It 
shall fall. It will grind him to powder. 

Page 927. 

Matt. xxii. 1 — 14. 

And Jesus answered and spake again in parables. The 
Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a certain king, which 
made a marriage for his son; and sent forth his servants 
to call thctn which were bidden to the wedditig; and they 
would not come. Again, he sent forth other servants. 


saying, Tell them which are hidden, 1 have prepared mxj 
dinner; my oxen and my failings are killed, and all 
things are ready; come unto the marriage. But they 
made light of it, and ivent tJieir ways, one to his farm, 
another to his merchandise : and the remnant took his 
servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew them. 
But ivhen the king heard thereof, lie was wroth ; and he 
sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and 
burned up their city. Then saith he to his servants, The 
wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not 
tcorthy. Go ye into the high a- ays, and as many as ye 
shall find, bid to the marriage. So those servants went 
out into the highuays, and gatJiered together all as many 
as they found, both, bad and good: and the wedding was 
furnished with guests. And when the king came in to 
see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a 
wedding garment : and he saith unto him. Friend, hoiv 
earnest thou in hither, not having a wedding garment ? 
And he was speechless. And he said to the servants. 
Bind Jiim hand and foot, and cast him into outer darkness ; 
there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many 
are called, but few chosen. 


Page 940. 
Malt. xxii. 15. 

Tiien went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might 
entangle Him in His talk. 


Page 951. 

Matt. xxii. 34—36. 

Bui when the Pharisees had heard that He had jnit the 
Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together; and one 
of them, which was a lawyer, asked Him a question, 
tempting Him, and saying, Master, which is the great 
commandment in the Law? 



Page 961. 

Matt, xxiii. 1 — 3. 

Then spake Jesus to ihe muUiiudes and to His disciples, 
saying, The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in 3Ioses' seat . 
all therefore whatsoever they bid you do, that do ; but do 
not after their works. 


Page 971. 

Matt, xxiii. 14. 

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye 
devour nidoics' houses, and for a pretence make long 
prayers: therefore ye shall receive greater damnation. 


Page 982. 

Matt, xxiii. 29, 30. 

Woe unto you, because ye build the tombs of the Prophets, 
(rnd garnish their sepulchres, and say. If we had been in 
the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers 
icith them in the blood of the Prophets. 

Page 994. 

Matl. xxiv. 1, 2. 

And Jesus nent from ihe temple, and departed. And His 
disciples came to Him to shew Him the buildings of the 
temple. And He answered and said unto them, Sec ye not 
all these things? Verily I say unto you, there shall not be 
left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown 


Page 1007. 
Matt. xxiv. 16—18. 

Then Jet them which be in Judcca Jiee into the mount ahu. 
And let him that is on the housetop not come down to 
take any thing out of his house. Neither let him which 
is in hisjield return back to take his clothes. 


Page 1020. 

Matt. xxiv. 32, 33. 

Now learn a parable of the Jig tree ; when his branch is yet 
tender, and putt eth forth leaves, ye know that summer is 
nigh : so likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, 
know that it is near, even at the doors. 


Page 1035. 

Matt. XXV. 1—30. 

Then shall the kingdom of Heaven, He saitb, be likened 
unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth 
to meet the Bridegroom. But five of them were wise, 
and the o/ her five foolish , which took not, He saitb, oil. 

Then, while the Bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered 
and slept. And at midnight there ivas a cry made, 
Behold,4he Bridegroom cometli ; go ye out to meet Him. 
And the five arose, and being in perplexity, said to the 
wise. Give us of your oil. Bui they consented not, saying, 
Not so, lest there be not enough for us and you ; go to 
them that sell, and buy. 

And while they were gone for this, the Bridegroom, came, 
and those went in ; but these came afterwards, saying, 
Lord, Lord, open to us. But He answered and said. Verily 
I say unto yon, I know you not. Watch therefore, for ye 
know not the day, nor the hour. 

Then He spake again another parable. A man tra- 


veiling into afar country, called his. own servants^ and 
delivered unto them his goods; to one Jive talents, to 
another two, to another one, to every man according to 
his several ability, and took his journey. Tlieu, when 
the two had hrought him the double, he that had been 
entrusted tenth the one talent brougJit it alone, and being 
blamed saith, I knew that thou art a hard man, reaping 
where thou hast not sown, and gathering wlcere tliou hast 
not strawed ; and I was afraid, and hid thy talent ; lo I 
there thou hast that is thine. His Lord answered and 
said, Thou wicked servant, thou knewest that I reap 
where I have not soicn, and gather where I have not 
strawed : thou oughtest therefore to have put my money 
to the exchangers, and then at my coming I might have 
received mine own with usury. Take there/ore the 
talent from him, and give it to him that hath ten talents. 
For to him that hatlt shall be given, and lie shall have 
more abundantly ; but from him that hath not, shall he 
taken away even that which he hath. And cast ye the 
unprofitable servant into outer darkness, there shall be 
weeping and gnasliing of teeth. 


Page 1046. 

Matt. XXV. 31—41. 

When the Son of Man shall come in the glory of His Father^ 
and all the holy Angels with Him, then shall He sit, saith 
He, upoti the throne of His glory, and He shall divide the 
sheep from the kids; and the one He will accept, because 
they fed Him, tihen an hungred, and gave Him drink when 
thirsty, and took Him in when a stranger., and clothed Him 
when naked, and visited Hint tvhen sick, and came to see 
Him when in prison : and He ivill give the kingdom to 
them. But the others, accusing them for the opposite 
things, He tcill send into the eternal fire, prepared for the 
devil and his angels. 



Page 1058. 

Matt. xxvi. 0, 7. 

Now ir/iffi Jesus teas fit Belhdinj, in ihe house of Simon the 
leper, there came unto Him a u-oinan liariiiy an alabaster 
box of very precious ointment, and poured it on His Head, 
as He sat at meat. 


Page 1069, 

Matt. xxvi. 17, 18. 

Noio the firs! day of the feast of unleavenedhread the disciples 
came to Jesus, saying, Where wilt Thou that we prepare 
for Tliee to eat the Passover? And He said, Go into the 
city to such a man, and say nnto hint, The Master sailh. 
My time is at hand ; J will keep the Passocer at thy house 
with My disciples. 


Page 1082. 

Matt. xxvi. -20— -28. 

And as they were eatiuy, Jesus took bread, and gave thanks, 
and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said. Take, 
eat; This is My Body. 

And He took a cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, 
saying, Drink ye all of it; This is My Blood of the New 
Testament, Which is shed for many, for the remission of 



Page 1095. 

Matt. xxvi. 36—38. 

Then cometii Jesus with fhetn mito a place called Ge'h- 
seniane,ancl sailh unto the Disciples, Sit ye here, white I 
go and pray yonder. And He took uith Him Peter and 
the two sons of Zehedee, and began to Ije rery sorrowful 
and very heary: and He saith unto them, My Soul is 
exceeding sorrouful, even unto death ; tarry ye here, and 
natch uith Me, 


Page 1105. 

Matt. xxvi. 51—54. 

And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched 
forth his hand, and drem his sivord, and struck a servant 
oy the high priesfs, and smote off his ear. 

Then said Jesus unto him. Put up again thy sword unto his 
place, for all they that take the sword, shall perish by the 
sword. Thinkest thou that I cannot pray to My Father, 
and He shall presently give me more than twelve legions 
of angels? Hoiv then should the Scriptures he fuljilled 
that thus it nrust be? 


Page 1116. 

Matt. xxvi. 67, 68. 

Then did they spit in His Face, and buffeted Him, and others 
smote Him with the palms of their hands, saying. Prophesy 
unto us, Thou Christ, toko is he that smote Thee ? 



Page 1126. 

Matt, xxvii. 11, \2. 

And Jesus stood before the governor ; and the governor ashed 
Him, saying. Art Thou the King of the Jews ? And Jesus said 
loito him, Thou sayest. And when He was accused of the 
chief priests and elders. He answered nothing. 


Page 1 136. 

• Matt, xxvii. 27—29. ' 

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common 
hall, and gathered unto him the whole hand of soldiers ; 
and they stripped Him, and put on Him a purple robe ; and 
ivhen they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it on His 
Head, and a reed i?i His Right Hand; and they bowed the 
knee bejore Him, and mocked Him, saying, Hail, Iving of 
the Jews ! 

Page 1145. 

Matt, xxvii. 4.5—48. 

Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the earth 
until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried 
with a loud voice, and said, Eli, Eli, lima sabachthani? 
that is to say, My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken 
Me ? Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, 
said. This Man calleth for Elias. And straightway one of 
them ran, and took a sponge, and jiilcd it with vinegar, aiid 
put it on a reed, and gave Him to drink. 


Page 1156. 

Matt, xxvii. 6-2—64. 

Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, 
the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, 
saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while He 
zvas yet alive, After three days I will rise again. Command 
therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, 
lest His Disciples come and steal Him away, and say to the 
people, He is risen from the dead : so the last error should 
be worse than the first. 


Page 1167. 

Malt, xxviii. 11 — 14. 

Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came 
into the city, and declared unto the chief priests all the 
things that ivere done. And when they had assembled idth 
the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money 
unto the soldiers, saying, Say ye, His disciples came by 
night, and stoh Him away lohile we slept, and if this come 
to the governor'' s ears, toe ivill persuade him, and secure you. 





Matt, xviii. 7. 

Woe unto the ivorld because of offences : for it must needs he 
that offences come : but woe to that man by whom the offence 

" And if it must needs he that offences come" (some one 
of our adversaries may perchance say,) why doth He lament 
orer the world, when He ought rather to afford succoui", and 
to stretch forth His hand in its behalf? For this were the 
part of a " Physician, and a Protector, whereas the other 
might be looked for even from any ordinary person." 

What then could we possibly say, in answer to so shameless 
a tongue ? nay what dost thou seek for equal to this healing 
care of His ? For indeed being God He became Man for 
thee, and took the form of a slave, and underwent all extre- 
mities, and left undone none of those things which it con- 
cerned Him to do. But inasmuch as unthankful men were 
nothing the better for this, He laments over them, for that after 
so much fostering care they continued in their unsoundness. 

It was like as if over the sick man, that had had the ad- 
vantage of much attendance, and who had not been willing 
to obey the rules of the physician, any one were to lament 
and say, " Woe to such a man from his infirmity, which he 
has increased by his own remissness." But in that case indeed 
there is no advantage from the bewailing, but here this too 
is a kind of healing treatment to foretel what would be, and 
to lament it. For many oftentimes, though, when advised, 
they were nothing profited, yet, when mourned for, they 


802 Offences must come, hut may he overcome. 

HoMiL. For which reason most of all lie used the word Woe, 


I ' thoroughly to rouse them, and to make them in earnest, and 
to work upon them to be wakeful. And at the same time 
He shews forth the good will He had towards those very 
men and His own mildness, that He mourns for them even 
when gainsaying, not taking mere disgust at it, but correcting 
them, both witli the mourning, and with the prediction, so as 
to win them over. 

But how is this possible ? he may say. For if it must 
needs he thai offences come, how is it possible to escape 
these .'' Because that the offences come indeed must needs 
be, but that men should perish is not altogether of necessity. 
Like as though a physician should say, (for nothing hinders 
our using the same illustration again,) It must needs be that 
this disease should come on, but it is not a necessary con- 
sequence that he who gives heed should be of course de- 
stroyed by the disease. And this He said, as I mentioned, to 
awaken together with the others His disciples. For thai they 
may not slumber, as sent unto peace and unto untroubled 
life, He shews many wars close upon them, from without, 
from within. Declaring this, Paul said. Without loere 
1 2 CoT.jightifjys^ within were fears^ ; and. In perils among false 
^ib. 11 hrethren^; and in his discourse to the Milesians too He said, 
3^* Also of you shallsome arise speaking perverse things^; and He 
20, 30. Himself too said, TJie man^s foes shall be they of his own 
10 36 household*. But when He said. It must needs he, it is not as 
taking away the power of choosing for themselves, nor the 
freedom of the moral principle, nor as placing man's life 
under any absolute constraint of circumstances, that He saith 
these things, but He foretels what would surely be ; and 
this Luke hath set forth in another form of expression. It is 
« Luke impossible but thai offences should come^. 
6 J^i'y. But what are the offences*? The hindrances on the right 
Sa\a Yvay. Thus also do those on the stage call them that are 
skilled in those matters, them that distort their bodies. 

It is not then His prediction that brings the offences; 
far fi'om it ; neither because He foretold it, therefore doth it 
take place ; but because it surely was to be, therefore He 
foretold it ; since if those who bring in the offences had not 
been minded to do wickedly, neither would the offences have 

Why they are not taken out of the loay. 803 

come ; and if they had not been to come, neither would they Matt. 
have been foretold. But because those men did evil, and 7 
were incurably diseased, the offences came, and He foretels 
that which is to be. 

But if these men had been kept right, it may be said, and 
there had been no one to bring in an offence, would not this 
saying have been convicted of falsehood ? By no means, for 
neither would it have been spoken. For if all were to have 
been kept right, He would not have said, it must needs be 
that they come, but because He foreknew they would be of 
themselves incorrigible, therefore He said, the offences will 
surely come. 

And wherefore did He not take them out of the way ? it 
may be said. Why, wherefore should they have been taken 
out of the way ? For the sake of them that are hurt ? But 
not thence is the ruin of them that are hurt, but from their 
own remissness. And the virtuous prove it, who, so far from 
being injured thereby, are even in the greatest degree profited, 
such as was Job, such as was Joseph, such as were all the 
righteous, and the Apostles. But if many perish, it is from 
their own slumbering. But if it were not so, but the ruin 
was the effect of the offences, all must have perished. And 
if there are those who escape, let him who doth not escape 
impute it to himself For the offences, as I have said, 
awaken, and render moi-e quicksighted, and sharper, not 
only him that is preserved; but even him that hath fallen 
into them, if he rise up again quickly, for they render him 
more safe, and make him more difficult to overcome; so that 
if we be watchful, no small profit do we reap from hence, even 
to be continually awake. For if when we have enemies, and 
when so many dangers are pressing upon us, we sleep, what 
should we be if living in security. Nay, if thou wilt, look at 
the first man. For if having lived in Paradise a short time, 
perchance not so much as a whole day, and having enjoyed 
delights, he drove on to such a pitch of wickedness, as even 
to imagine an equality with God, and to account the deceiver 
a benefactor, and not to keep to one commandment ; if he 
had lived the rest of his life also without afiliction, what 
would he not have done ? 

[2.] But when we say these things, they make other 
3 F 2 

804 Free will proved by our jiidijments on othern. 

HoMiL. objections again, asking, And why did God make him such? 
2. ' God did not make liira such, far from it, since then neither 
Mould He have punished him. For if we in those matters 
in which we are the cause, do not find fault with our servant, 
much more will not the God of all. "But whence did this 
come to pass?" one may say. Of himself and his own 
remissness. " What means, of himself?" Ask thyself For 
if it be not of themselves the bad are bad, do not punish thy 
servant nor reprove thy wife for what errors she may commit, 
neither beat thy son, nor blame thy friend, nor hate thine 
enemy that doth despite to thee : for all these deserve to be 
pitied, not to be pimished, unless they offend of themselves. 
" But I am not able to practise self-restraint," one may say. 
And yet, when thou perceivest the cause not to be with them, 
but of another necessity, thou canst practise self-restraint. 
When at least a servant being taken with sickness doth 
not the things enjoined him, so far from blaming thou dost 
rather excuse him. Thus thou art a witness, that the one 
thing is of one's self, the other not of one's self So that here 
too, if thou knewest that he was wicked from being born 
such, so far from blaming, thou wouldest rather have shewn 
him indulgence. For surely, when thou makest him allow- 
ance for his illness, it could not be that thou wouldest have 
refused to make allowance for God's act of creation, if indeed 
he had been made such from the very first. 

And in another way too it is easy to stop the mouths of 
such men, for great is the abounding power of the truth. 
For wherefore dost thou never find fault with thy servant, 
because he is not of a beautiful countenance, that he is not 
of fine stature in his body, that he is not able to fly? Be- 
cause llit'se things are natural. So then from blame against 
his naluve he is acquitted, and no man gainsays it. When 
therefore thou blamest, thou shewest that the fault is not of 
natiu-e but of his choice. For if in those things, which we do 
not blame, we bear witness that the whole is of nature, it is 
evident that where we reprove, we declare that the offence is 
of the choice. 

Do not then bring forward, I beseech thee, perverse rea- 
sonings, neither sophistries and webs slighter than the 
spider's, but answer me this again ; Did God make all men ? 

Evil noi from God or nature, nor self- existent. 805 

It is surely plain to every man. How then are not all Matt. 
equal in respect of virtue and vice? whence are the good, ^^I^- 
and gentle, and meek ? whence are the worthless and evil ? 
For if these things do not require any purpose, but are of nature, 
how are the one this, the others that ? For if by nature all 
were bad, it were not possible for any one to be good ; but if 
good by nature, then no one bad. For if there were one 
nature of all men, they must needs in this respect be all one, 
whether they were to be this, or whether they were to be 

But if we should say that by nature the one are good, the 
other bad, which would not be reasonable, (as we have 
shewn); these things must be unchangeable, for the things 
of nature are unchangeable. Nay mark. All mortals are 
also liable to suffering ; and no one is free from suffering, 
though he strive without end. But now we see of good 
many becoming worthless, and of worthless good, the one 
through remissness, the other by earnestness; which thing 
most of all indicates that these things do not come of nature. 

For the things of nature are neither changed, nor do they 
need diHgence for their acquisition. For like as for seeing 
and hearing we do not need labour, so neither should we 
need toils in virtue, if it had been apportioned by nature. 

" But wherefore did He at all make worthless men, when 
He might have made all men good ? Whence then are the 
evil things.'*" saith he. Ask thyself; for it is my part to shew 
they are not of nature, nor from God. 

" Come they then of themselves ?" he saith. By no 
means. " But are they unoriginated ?" Speak reverently, O 
man, and start back from this madness, honouring with one 
honour God and the evil things, and that honour the highest. 
For if they be unoriginate they are mighty, and cannot so 
much as be plucked up, nor pass into annihilation. For 
that what is unoriginate is imperishable, is surely manifest 
to all. 

[3.] And whence also are there so many good, when evil 
hath such great power? how are they that have an origin 
stronger than that which is unoriginate ? 

"But God destroys these things," he saith. When ? And how 

80C Oriym of evil not to be sought beyond our will. 

HoMiL. will He destroy, what are of equal honour, and of equal 
3 ■ strength, and of the same age, as one might say, with Himself? 
Oh malice of the devil ! how great an evil hath he in- 
vented ! With what blasphemy hath he persuaded men to 
surround God ! with what cloke of godliness hath he devised 
another profane account ? For desiring to shew, that not of 
Him was the evil, they brought in another evil doctrine, 
saying, that these things are unoriginate. 

" Whence then are evils?" one may say. From willing 
and not willing. " But the very thing of our willing and 
not willing, whence is it?" From ourselves. But thou dost 
the same in asking, as if when thou hadst asked, whence is 
seeing and not seeing? then when I said, from closing the 
eyes or not closing the eyes, thou wert to ask again ; the 
very closing the eyes or not, whence is it ? then having 
heard that it was of ourselves, and our will, thou wert to seek 
again another cause. 

For evil is nothing else than disobedience to God. 
" Whence then," one may say, " did man find this ?" " Why, 
was it a task to find this ? I pray thee." " Naj^, neither do I 
say this, that this thing is difficult; but whence became 
he desirous to disobey." " From remissness. For having 
power for either, he inclined rather to this." 

But if thou art perplexed yet and dizzy at hearing this, I 
will ask thee nothing difficult nor involved, but a simple and 
plain question. Hast thou become some time bad ? and 
hast thou become some time also good ? What I mean, is 
like this. Didst thou prevail some time over passion, and 
wast thou taken again by passion ? Hast thou been over- 
taken by drunkenness, and hast thou prevailed over drunken- 
ness? Wast thou once moved to wrath, and again not moved 
to wrath ? Didst thou overlook a poor man, and not over- 
look him ? Didst thou commit whoredom once ? and didst 
thou become chaste again ? Whence then are all these 
things ? tell me, whence ? Nay if thou thyself do not tell, I 
will say. Because at one time thou didst restrain thyself 
and strive, but after that thou becamest remiss and careless. 
For to those that are desperate, and are continually in 
wickedness, and are in a state of senselessness, and are mad. 

Were evil necessary, we could blame no one. 807 

and who are not willing so much as to hear what will amend Matt. 
them, I will not even discourse of self restraint; but to them 7 
that have been sometimes in the one, and sometimes in the 
other, I will gladly speak. Didst thou once take by violence 
the things that belonged not to thee ; and after this, subdued 
by pity, didst impart even of thine unto him that was in 
need? Whence then this change ? Is it not quite plain it is 
from the mind, and the choice of will ? 

It is quite plain, and there is no one who would not say 
this. Wherefore I entreat you to be in earnest, and to cleave 
to virtue, and ye will have no need of these questions. For 
our evils are mere names, if we be willing. Inquire not then 
whence are evils, neither perplex thyself; but having found 
that they are from remissness only, flee the evil deeds. 

And if any one should say, that these things come not 
from us ; whenever thou seest him angry with his servants, 
and provoked with his wife, and blaming a child, and con- 
demning them who injure him, say to him, how then saidst 
thou, that evils come not from us ? For if they be not from 
us, wherefore dost thou find fault ? Say again ; is it of thyself 
thou revilest, and insultest? For if it be not of thyself, let no 
man be angry with thee ; but if it be of thyself, of thyself 
and of thy remissness are thy evil deeds. 

But what ? thinkest thou there are some good men ? For 
if indeed no man is good, whence hast thou this word ? 
whence are praises ? But if there are good men, it is quite 
plain that they will also reprove the bad. Yet if no one is 
voluntarily wicked, nor of himself, the good will be found to be 
unjustly reproving the bad, and they themselves too will be in 
this way bad again. For what can be worse than to subject the 
guiltless to accusations ? But if they continue in our esti- 
mation good men, though reproving, and this especially is 
a proof of their goodness, even to the very fools it is hereby 
plain, that no one is ever by necessity bad. 

But if after all this thou wouldest still enquire, whence are 
evils? I would say, from remissness, from idleness, from 
keeping company with the bad, from contempt of virtue; 
hence are both the evils themselves, and the fact that some 
enquire, whence are the evils. Since of them surely who do 
right no one enquires about these things, of them that are 

808 Offences foretold that ive may beware of them. 

HoMiL. purposed to live equitably and temperately; but they, who dare 
4. ' to coraniit wicked acts, and wish to devise some foolish comfort' 

Wapa- to themselves by these discussions, do weave spiders' webs. 

llelT' ^"^ ^^^ ^^ ^®^*' ^li^se in pieces not by our words only, but 
by our deeds too. For neither are these things of necessity. 
For if they were of necessity, He would not have said, IVoe 
to the man, by whom the offence cometh. For those only 
doth he bewail, who are wicked by their choice. 

2"5,''o5. And if He saith 'by whom^* marvel not. For not as 
though another were bringing in it by him, doth He say this, 
but viewing him as himself causing the w^hole. For the 
Scripture is wont to say, " by whom," for "of whom;" as when 

3 Gen. it saith, I have gotten a man by 6'orf'', putting not the second 

LXX cause, but the first; and again. Is not the interpretation of 

* Gen. them, by God\ and, God is faithful, by whom ye are called 

5°'^* unto the fellowship of His Son\ 

1, 9. [4.] And that thou mayest learn that it is not of necessity, 

hear also what follows. For alter bewailing them, He saith, 

V. 8. 9. If thy hand, or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast 
them from thee : for it is better for thee to enter into life halt 
or maimed, rather than having two hands or feet to be cast 
into the fire. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out ; 
it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, than 
having two eyes to be cast into the furnace of fire ; not 
saying these things of limbs; far from it; but of friends, of 
relations, whom we regard in the rank of necessary members. 
This He had both said further back, and now He saith it. 
For nothing is so hurtful as bad company. For what 
things compulsion cannot, friendship can often effect, both 
for hurt, and for profit. Wherefore with much earnestness 
He commands us to cut off them that hurt us, intimating 
these that bring the offences. 

Seest thou how He hath put away the mischief that would 
result from the offences ? By foretelling that there surely will 
be offences, so that they might find no one in a state of 
carelessness, but that looking for them men might be 
watchful. By shewing the evils to be great, (for He would 
not have said without purpose, Woe to the world because of 
the offences, but to shew that great is the mischief there- 
from,) by lamenting again in stronger terms over him that 

Avoid bad men. Care for Christ's little ones. 809 

brings them in. For the saying, But itoe to that man, was Matt. 
that of One shewing that great was the punishment, but not'^X,^^^* 

this only, but also by the comparison which He added He ' — 

increased the fear. 

Then He is not satisfied with these things, but He sheweth 
also the way, by which one may avoid the offences. 

But what is this ? The wicked, saith He, though they be 
exceeding dear friends to thee, cut off from thy friendship. 

And He giveth a reason that cannot be gainsaid. For if 
they continue friends, thou wilt not gain them, but thou wilt 
lose thyself besides ; but if thou shouldest cut them off, thine 
own salvation at least thou wilt gain. So that if any one's 
friendship harms thee, cut it off from thee. For if of our 
own members we often cut off many, when they are both in 
an incurable state, and are ruining the rest, much more 
ought one to do this in the case of friends. 

But if evils were by nature, superfluous were all this ad- 
monition and advice, superfluous the precaution by the 
means that have been mentioned. But if it be not super- 
fluous, as surely it is not superfluous, it is quite clear that 
wickedness is of the will'. ^yvdfiris 

Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones ; for i v. lo. 
say unto you, that their Angels do always behold the Face of 
My Father, Which is in Heaven. 

He calleth little ones not them that are really little, but 
them that are so esteemed by the multitude, the poor, the 
objects of contempt, the unknown, (for how should he be 
little who is equal in value to the whole world, how should 
he be little, who is dear to God.'') but them who in the 
imagination of the multitude are so esteemed. 

And He speaks not of many only, but even of one, even 
by this again warding off the hurt of the many offences. For 
even as to flee the wicked, so also to honour the good, hath 
very great gain, and would be a twofold security to him 
who gives heed, the one by rooting out the friendships with 
them that offend, the other from regarding these saints with 
respect and honour. 

Then in another way also He makes them objects of 
reverence, saying. That their Angels do always behold ike 
Face of My Father, Which is in Heaven. 

810 The little ones cared for by Angels, yea by our Lord. 

HoMiL. Hence it is evident, that the Saints have Angels, or even 
^4,'^' all men. For the Apostle too saith of the woman. That she 

TTcor. ought to have power on her head because of the Angels^. And 

11, 10. Moses, He set the bounds of the nations according to the 

sDeut. number of the Angels" of God ^. 

^^' ^' But here He is discoursing not of Angels only, but rather 
of Angels that are greater than others. But when He saith, 
The Face of My Father, He means nothing else than their 
fuller confidence, and their great honour. 

V. 11. For the Son of Man is come to save that which was lost. 

Again, He is putting another reason stronger than the 
former, and connects with it a parable, by which He brings 

v.12.14. in the Father also as desiring these things. For how think 
ye ^ saith He; If a man have an hundred sheep, and one of 
them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, 
and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is 
gone astray? And if so be that he find, it, he rejoiceth over 
it more than over the ninety and nine, which went not 
astray. Even so it is not willed before your Father, that 
one of these little ones should perish. 

Seest thou by how many things He is urging to the care 
of our mean brethren. Say not then, " Such a one is a 
blacksmith, a shoemaker, he is a ploughman, he is a fool," 
and so despise him. For in order that thou shouldest not 
feel this, see by how many motives He persuades thee 
to practise moderation, and presses thee into a care for 

He set a little child, and saith. Be ye as little children. 
And, Whosoever receivelh such a little child receiveth Me; 
and, Whosoever shall off end, shdM suffer the utmost penalties. 
And He was not even satisfied with the comparison of the 
millstone, but added also His woe, and commanded us to cut 
off such, though they be in the place of hands and eyes to 
us. And by the angels again that are entrusted with these 
same mean brethren, He makes them objects of veneration, 
and from His own Will and Passion; (for when He saidy 
The Son of Man is come to save that ichich ivas lost. He 
signifies oven the Cross, like as Paul saith, speaking of a 
brother, ' For whom Christ died;'') and from the Father, for 

» E. V. ' Children of Israel,' al. ' Sons of God,' and hence ^Angels.' 

God wills their salvation. No excuse for despising. 811 

that neither to Him doth it seem good that one should Matt. 
perish ; and from common custom, because the shepherd ^^^^^• 
leaves them that are safe, and seeks what is lost ; and when 
he hath found what was gone astray, he is greatly delighted 
at the finding and the saving of this. 

[5.] If then God thus rejoices over the little one that is 
found, how dost thou despise them that are the objects of 
God's earnest care, when one ought to give up even one's 
very life for one of these little ones ? But is he weak and 
mean ? Therefore for this very cause most of all, one ought 
to do every thing in order to preserve him. For even He 
Himself left the ninety and nine sheep, and went after this, 
and the safety of so many availed not to throw into the shade 
the loss of one. But Luke saith, that He even brought it 
on his shoulders, and that There was greater joy over one 
sinner that repenteth^ than over ninety and nine just 
persons^. And from His forsaking those that were saved for> Luke 
it, and from His taking more pleasure in this one, He shewed ' * 
His earnestness about it to be great. 

Let us not then be careless about such souls as these. 
For all these things are said for this object. For by threat- 
ening, that he who has not become a little child should not 
so much as at all set foot in the Heavens, and speaking of 
the millstone. He hath brought down the haughtiness of the 
boastful; for nothing is so hostile to Love as pride; and by 
saying, It must needs he that offences come, He made them 
to be wakeful; and by adding, Woe unto him by lohom the 
offence comelh, He hath caused each to endeavour that it be 
not by him. And while by commanding to cut off them that 
offend He made salvation easy; by enjoining not to despise 
them, and not merely enjoining, but with earnestness, (For 
take heed, saith He, that ye despise not one of these little 
ones,) and by saying, Their Angels belt old the Face of My 
Father, and, " For this end am 1 come," and " My Father 
vvilleth this," He hath made those who should take care of 
them more diligent. 

Seest thou what a wall He hath set around them, and what 
earnest care He taketh of them that are contemptible and 
perishing, at once threatening incurable ills to them tliat 
make them fall, and promising great blessings to them that 

812 The Christian soldier must look to his fellow'' s safety, 

HoMiL. wait upon them, and lake care of them, and bringing an 
5/ ' example from Himself again and from the Father ? 

Him let us also imitate, refusing none of the tasks that 
seem lowly and troublesome for our brethren's sake ; but 
though we have to do service, though be be small, though he 
be mean for whom this is done, though the work be laborious, 
though w'e must pass over mountains and precipices, let all 
things be held endurable for the salvation of our brother. 
For a soul is an object of such earnest care to God, that He 

' Rom. spared not His own Son '. 
' * Wherefore I entreat, when morning hath appeared, 
straightway as we come out of our house, let us have this one 
object in view, this earnest care above all, to rescue him that 
is in danger; I do not mean this danger only that is known 
by sense, for this is not danger at all, but the danger of 
the soul, that which is brought upon men by the devil. 

For the merchant too, to increase his wealth, crosses the 
sea ; and the artizan, to add to his substance, doeth all 
things. Let us also then not be satisfied with our own 
salvation only, since else we destroy even this. For in a war 
too, and in an engagement, the soldier who is looking to this 
only how he may save himself by flight, destroys the rest 
also with himself; much as on the other hand the noble 
minded one, and he who stands in arms in defence of the 
others, with the others preserves himself also. Since then 
our stale too is a war, and of all wars the bitterest, and an 
engagement and a battle, even as our King commanded us, 
so let us set ourselves in array in the engagement, prepared 
for slaughter, and blood, and murders, looking to salvation in 
behalf of all, and cheering them that stand, and raising up 
them that are down. For indeed many of our brethren lie 
fallen in this conflict, having wounds, wallowing in blood, 
and there is none to heal, not any one of the people, not a 
priest, no one else, no one to stand by, no friend, no brother, 
but we look every man to his own things. 

By reason of this we maim our own interests also. For 
the greatest confidence and means of approval is the not 
looking to our own things. 

Therefore I say, are we weak and easy to be overcome 
both by men, and by the devil, because we seek the opposite 

IVe must bear with others for their amendment. 813 

to this, and lock not our shields one with another, neither Matt. 
are fortified with godly love, but seek for ourselves other ^y^^' 
motives of friendship, some from relationship, some from 
long acquaintance, some from community of interest, some 
from neighbourhood ; and from every cause rather are we 
friends, than from godliness, when one's friendships ought to 
be formed upon this only. But now the contrary is done ; 
with Jews, and with Greeks' we sometimes become friends, '•• e. 
rather than with the children of the Church. thens. 

[6.] Yes, saith he, because the one is worthless, but the 
other kind and gentle. What sayest thou ? Dost thou call 
thy brother worthless, who art commanded not to call him 
so much as Raca ? And art thou not ashamed, neither dost 
thou blush, at exposing thy brother, thy fellow member, him 
that hath shared in the same Birth with thee, that hath par- 
taken of the same Table ? 

But if thou hast any brother after the flesh, if he should 
perpetrate ten thousand evil deeds, thou labourest to conceal 
him, and accountest thyself also to partake of the shame, 
when he is disgraced ; but as to thy spiritual brother, when 
thou oughtest to free him from calumny, thou dost rather 
encompass him with ten thousand charges against him ? 

" Why he is worthless and insufferable," thou mayest say. 
Nay then for this reason become his friend, that thou mayest 
put an end to his being such a one, that thou mayest convert 
him, that thou mayest lead him back to virtue. — " But he 
obeys not," thou wilt say, " neither doth he bear advice." — 
Whence knowest thou it.'' What, hast thou admonished him, 
and attempted to amend him ? — " I have admonished him 
often," thou wilt say. How many times ? — Oftentimes, both 
once, and a second time. — Oh ! Is this often ? Why, if thou 
hadst done this throughout all the time, oughtest thou to 
grow weary, and to give it up ? Seest thou not how God 
is always admonishing us, by the Prophets, by the Apostles, 
by the Evangelists ? What then ? have we performed all ? 
and have we been obedient in all things ? By no means. 
Did He then cease admonishing ? Did He hold His peace ? 
Doth He not say each day, Ye cannot serve God, and m amm on ^^ Mutt, 
and with many, the superfluity and the tyranny of wealth ' 
yet increases ? Doth He not cry aloud each day, Foryive, and 

814 Salvation neglected, uhile other things are cared for. 

HoMii.. ye shall have /org iven ess \ and we become wild beasts more 
6. and more ? Doth He not continually admonish to restrain 

1 Luke desire, and to keep the mastery over wicked lust, and many 
' '' wallow worse than swine in this sin ? But nevertheless, He 

ceases not speaking. 

Wlierefore then do we not consider these things with our- 
selves, and say that even with us God reasons, and abstains 
not from doing this, although we disobey Him in many 
things ? 

2 See Therefore He said that, Fetv are the saved^. For if virtue 
Lukel3, . 

23. in ourselves suffices not for our salvation, but we must 

take with us others too when we depart ; when we have saved 
neither ourselves, nor others, what shall we suffer? Whence 
shall we have any more a hope of salvation ? 

But why do 1 blame for these things, when not even of 
them that dwell with us do we take any account, of wife, 
and children, and servants, but we have care of one thing 
instead of another, like drunken men, that our servants may 
be more in number, and may serve us with much diligence, 
and that our children may receive from us a large inherit- 
ance, and that our wife may have ornaments of gold, and 
costly garments, and wealth ; and we care not at all for 
themselves, but for the things that belong to them. For 
neither do we care for our own wife, nor provide for her, but 
for the things that belong to the wife ; neither for the child, 
but for the things of the child. 

And we do the same as if any one seeing a house in a 
bad state, and the walls giving way, were to neglect to raise 
up these, and to make up great fences round it without; or 
when a body was diseased, were not to take care of this, but 
were to weave for it gilded garments ; or when the mistress 
was ill, were to give heed to the maid-servants, and the 
looms, and the vessels in the house, and mind other things, 
leaving her to lie and moan. 

For this is done even now, and when our soul is in evil 
and wretched case, and angr}-, and reviling, and lusting 
wrongly, and full of vain glory, and at strife, and dragged 
down to the earth, and torn by so many wild beasts, we 
neglect to drive away the passions from her, and are careful 
about house and servants. And while if a bear has escaped 

Passions, like tvild beasts. The young, unbridled colts. 815 

by stealth, we shut up our houses, and run along by the Matt. 
narrow passages, so as not to fall in with the wild beast; ^Y^^' 

now while not one wild beast, but many such thoughts are 

tearing in pieces the soul, we have not so much as a feeling 
of it. And in the city we take so much care, as to shut up 
the wild beasts in solitary places and in cages, and neither 
at the senate house of the city, nor at the courts of justice, 
nor at the king's palace, but far off somewhere at a distance 
do we keep them chained; but in the case of the soul, where 
the senate house is, where the King's palace, where the 
court of justice is, the wild beasts are let loose, crying and 
making a tumult about the mind itself and the royal throne. 
Therefore all things are turned upside down, and all is full 
of disturbance, the things within, the things without, and we 
are in nothing different from a city thrown inio confusion 
from being overrun by barbarians ; and what takes place in 
us is as though a serpent were setting on a brood of sparrows, 
and the sparrows, with their feeble cries, were flying about 
every way affrighted, and full of trouble, without having any 
place whither to go and end their consternation. 

[7.] Wherefore I entreat, let us kill the serpent, let us 
shut up the wild beasts, let us stifle them, let us slay them, 
and these wicked thoughts let us give over to the sword of 
the Spirit, lest the Prophet threaten us also with such things 
as he threatened Judaea, that * The ivild asses shall dance ^ Isa.\a.h 
there, and porcupines, and serpents. 22! 

For there are, there are even men worse than wild asses, 
living as it were in the wilderness, and kicking; yea the 
more part of the youth amongst as is like this. For indeed 
having wild lusts they thus leap, they kick, going about 
unbridled, and spend their diligence on no becoming object. 

And the fathers are to blame, who while they constrain 
the horsebreakers to discipline their horses with much atten- 
tion, and suffer not the youth of the colt to go on long 
untamed, but put upon it both a rein, and all the rest, from 
the beginning; but their own young ones they overlook, going 
about for a long season unbridled, and without temperance; 
disgracing themselves, by fornications, and gamings, and 
cdntinuings in the wicked theatres, when they ought before 
fornication to give him to a wife, to a wife chaste, and highly 

816 Early marriage a prudent safeguard. 

HoMiL. endued with wisdom; for she will both biinff off her husband 
I I X ■ • 

^j. ■ from his most disorderly course of life, and will be instead of 

a rein to the colt. 

For indeed fornications and adulteries come not from any 
other cause, than from young men's being unrestrained. 
For if he have a prudent wife, he will take care of house and 
honour and character. " But he is young," you say. I know 
it too. For if Isaac was forty years old when he took his 
bride, passing all that time of his life in virginity, much more 
ought young men under Grace to practise this self-restraint. 
But oh what grief! Ye do not endure to take care of their 
chastity, but ye overlook their disgracing, defiling them- 
selves, becoming accursed ; as though ye knew not that the 
profit of marriage is to preserve the body pure, and if this be 
not so, there is no advantage of marriage. But ye do the 
contrary ; when they are filled with countless stains, then ye 
bring them to marriage without purpose and without fruit. 

"Why I must wait," thou wilt say, " that he may become 
approved, that he may distinguish himself in the affairs of the 
state ;" but of the soul ye have no consideration, but ye over- 
look it as a cast-away. For this reason all things are full of 
confusion, and disorder, and trouble, because this is made a 
secondary matter, because necessary things are neglected, 
but the unimportant obtain much forethought 

Knowest thou not, that thou canst do no such kindness to 
the youth, as to keep him pure from whorish uncleanness .'' 
For nothing is equal to the soul. Because, What is a man 
profited, saith He, if he shall gain the whole tcorld, but lose 
1 Matt, his own souP. But because the love of money hath over- 
^ ' turned and cast down all, and hath thrust aside the strict fear 
of God, having seized upon the souls of men, like some 
rebel-chief upon a citadel; therefore we are careless both of 
our children's salvation, and of our own, looking to one object 
only, that having become wealthier, we may leave riches to 
others, and these again to others after them, and they that 
follow these to their posterity , becoming rather a kind of passers 
on of our possessions and of our money, but not masters. 

Hence great is our folly ; hence the free are less esteemed 
than the slaves. For slaves we reprove, if not for their sake, 
yet for our own; but the free enjoy not the benefit even of 

T'he soul should he first thought of in education. 817 

this care, but are more vile in our estlmatiou than these Matt. 

slaves. And -why do I say, than our slaves ? For our children 7. 

are less esteemed than cattle ; and we take care of horses 

and asses rather than of children. And should one have a 

mule, great is his anxiety to find the best groom, and not 

one either harsh, or dishonest, or drunken, or ignorant of 

his art; but if we have a set a tutor* over a child's soul, we 

take at once, and at random, whoever comes in our way. 

And yet than this art there is not another greater. For what 

is equal to training the soul, and forming the mind of one 

that is young ? For he that hath this art, ought to be more 

exactly observant than any painter and any sculpturer. 

But we take no account of this, but look to one thing only, 
that he may be trained as to his tongue. And to this again 
we have directed our endeavours for money's sake. For not 
that he may be able to speak, but that he may get money, 
does he learn speaking; since if it were possible to grow rich 
even without this, we should have no care even for this. 

Seest thou how great is the tyranny of riches ? how it has 
seized upon all things, and having bound them like some 
slaves or cattle, drags them where it will \ 

But what are we advantaged by such accusations against 
it ? For we indeed shoot at it in words, but it prevails over 
us in deeds. Nevertheless, not even so shall we cease to 
shoot at it with words from our tongue. For if any advance 
is made, both we are gainers and you ; but if you continue in 
the same things, all our part at least hath been performed. 

But may God both deliver you from this disease, and 
cause us to glory in you, for to Him be glory, and dominion, 
world without end. Amen. 

* KaiZariurfhv , a man-servaat who took care of boys. 



Matt, xviii. 15. 

If thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his 
» lit. re- fault ' between thee and him alone. If he shall hear thee, 

convict thou hast gained thy brother. 


For, since He had used vehement language against them 
that cause oflfence, and on every hand had moved them to 
fear; in order that the offended might not in this way on 
the other hand become supine, neither supposing all to be 
cast upon others, should be led on to another vice, softening 
themselves, and desiring to be humoured in every thing, and 
run upon the shoal of pride ; seest thou how He again checks 
them also, and commands the telling of the faults to be 
between the two alone, lest by the testimony of the many he 
should render his accusation heavier, and the other become 
excited to opposition should continue incon'igible. 

Wherefore He saith. Between thee and him alone, and, If 
he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. What is, 
If he shall hear thee? If he shall condemn himself, if he 
shall be persuaded that he has done wrong. 

Tliou hast gained thy brother. He did not say. Thou 
hast a sufficient revenge, but, Thou hast gained thy brother, 
to shew that there is a common loss from the enmity. For 
He said not, " He hath gained himself only," but, " thou too 
hast gained him," whereby He shewed that both the one and 
the other were losers before this, the one of his brother, the 
other of his own salvation. 

Merciful dealing with an offending Brother. 819 

This, when He sat on the mount also, He advised ; at one Matt. 
... xviii 

time bringing him who has given the pain to him that had been ig. 

pained, and saying, ^Be reconciled to thy brother, and at 'Mat. 6, 

another commanding him that had been wronged to forgive his 

neighbour. For He taught men to say, "^Forgive tis our debts, ^M.sit.6, 

like as we forgive our debtors. 

But here He is devising another mode. For not him that 
gave the pain, [doth He now call upon,] but him that was 
pained He brings to this one. For because this who hath 
done the wrong would not easily come to make excuse, out 
of shame, and confusion of face, He draws that other to him, 
and not merely so, but in such way as also to correct what hath 
been done. And He saith not, "Accuse," nor " Charge him," 
nor " Demand satisfaction, and an account," but, " Tell him of 
his fault V' saith He. For he is held in a kind of stupor '°''» 
through anger and shame with which he is intoxicated ; and vict 
thou, who art in health, must go thy way to him that is ill, *""" 
and make the tribunal private, and the remedy such as may 
be readily received. For to say, " Tell him of his fault," is 
nothing else than " Remind him of his error," tell him 
what thou hast suffered at his hand," which very thing, if it 
be done as it ought, is the part of one making excuse for 
him, and drawing him over earnestly to a reconciliation. 

What then, if he should disobey, and be disposed to 
abide in hardness ? Take with thyself yet one or tuo, that in v. 16. 
the mouth of two witnesses every word may be established. 
For the more he is shameless, and bold, the more ought we 
to be active for his cure, not in anger and indignation. For 
the physician in like manner, when he sees the malady 
obstinate, doth not give up nor grow impatient, but then 
makes the more preparation ; which He commands us to do 
in this case too. 

For since thou appearedst to be too weak alone, make 
thyself more powerful by this addition. For surely the two 
are sufficient to convict hira that hath sinned. Seest thou 
how He seeketh not the good of hitn that hath been pained 
only, but of him also that halh given the pain. For the 
person injured is this one who is taken captive by his 
passion, he it is that is diseased, and weak, and infirm. 
Wherefore He often sends the other to this one, now alone, 

3 G 2 

8Q0 Our Lord aims throughout at the offender^ repentance. 

HoMiL.and now with others: but if he continue in it, even with 
2.' the Church. For, Tell it, saith He, to the Church. For if 

V. 17. He were seeking this one's advantage only, He would not 

have commanded to pardon, seventy times seven, one lepent- 

ing. He would not so often have set so many over him to 

correct liis passion ; but if he had remained incorrigible 

after the first conference, would have let him be ; but now 

once, and twice, and thrice. He commands to attempt his 

cure, and now alone, and now with two, now with more. 

Wherefore, with respect to them that are without He saith 

' Matt, no such thing, but, ^ If any one smite thee, He saith, on thy 

' ' right cheek, turn to him the other also, but here not in such 

3 1 Cor. wise. For what Paul meaneth, saving, " What have I to do 
5 12 ' ► o/ 

' ■ to Judge them also that are without? but the brethren he 

commands both to tell of their faults, and to avoid them, 

and to cut them off, not being obedient, that they may be 

ashamed ; this Himself also doeth here, making these laws 

about the brethren ; and He sets these over him for teachers 

and judges, to teach him the things that are done at the 

time of his drunkenness. For though it be himself that hath 

said and done all those unreasonable things, yet he will need 

others to teach him this, like as the drunken man. For 

' iKtxra- anger and sin is a more frantic thing'' than any drunkenness, 

and puts the soul in greater distraction. 

Who, for instance, was wiser than David ? Yet for all that, 
when he had sinned he perceived it not, his lust keeping in 
subjection all his reasoning powers, j nd like some smoke 
filling his soul. Therefore he stood in need of a lantern 
from the Prophet, and of words calling to his mind what he 
had done. W^herefore here also He brings these to him that 
hath sinned, to reason with him about the things he had 

[2.] But for what reason doth He command this one to 
tell him of his fault, and not another .-' Because this man he 
would endure more quietly, this, who bath been wronged, 
who hath been pained, who hath b(>on despilefully used. 
For one doth not bear in the same way being told by another of 
one's fault concerning him that hath been insulted, as by the 
insulted person himself, especially when this person is alone 
convicting him. For when he who should demand justice 


Appeal to the Church is a last resort. 82l 

against him, even this one appears to be caring for his salva- Matt. 
tion, this will have more power than any thing in the world ig. 
to shame him. 

Seest thou how this is done not for the sake of just 
punishment, but of amendment ? Therefore He doth not at 
once command to take with him the two, but when himself 
hath failed ; and not* even then doth He send forth a multi- 
tude against him ; but makes the addition no further than 
two, or even one ; but when he has contemned these too, 
then and not till then He brings him out to the Church. 

So much earnestness doth He shew, that our neighbour's 
sins be not exposed by us. And indeed He might have 
commanded this from the first, but that this might not be. 
He did not command it, but after a first and second admo- 
nition He appoints this. 

But what is. In the mouth of two or three tvitnesaes every 
word shall be established? Thou hast a suflScient testimony. 
His meaning is, that thou hast done all thy part, that thou 
hast left undone none of the things which it pertained to 
thee to do. 

But if he shall neglect to hear them also, tell it to the 
Church, that is, to the rulers of it ; But if he neglect to 
hear the Church, let him be to thee as an heathen man and 
a publican. For after this such a one is incurably diseased. 

But mark thou, I pray thee, how every where He putteth 
the publican for an example of the greatest wickedness. 
For above too He saith, ^ Do not even the publicans the i Matt, 
same? And further on again; ^ Even the publicans and //^^ 2 Matt 
harlots shall go before you into the kingdom of Heaven, "21, 31. 
that is, they who are utterly reprobated and condemned. 
Let them hearken, who are rushing upon unjust gains, who 
are counting up usuries upon usuries. 

But why did He set him with these } To soothe the 
person wronged, and to alarm him. Is this only then 
the punishment ? Nay, but hear also what follows. IVhaf-v-^s. 
soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven. 
And He did not say to the ruler of the Church, " Bind such 
a. man," but, " If thou bind," committing the whole matter 
to the person himself, who is aggrieved, and the bonds abide 
indissoluble. Therefore he will suffer the utmost ills; but 

8*22 Promises to concord. All things why not granted. 

HoMiL. not he who hath brought him to account is to blamcj but 
2 ■ he who hath not been willing to be persuaded. 

Seest thou how He hath bound him down with twofold 
constraint, both by the vengeance here, and by the punish- 
ment hereafter ? But these things hath He threatened, that 
these circumstances may not arise, but that fearing, at once 
the being cast out of the Church, and the danger from the bond, 
and the being bound in Heaven, he may become more gentle. 
And knowing these things, if not at the beginning, at any 
rate in the multitude of the tribunals he will put off his 
anger. Wherefore, I tell you. He hath set over him a first, 
and a second, and a third court, so that though he should 
neglect to hear the first, he may yield to the second ; and 
even if he should reject that, he may fear the third ; and 
though he should make no accouut of this, he may be dis- 
mayed at the vengeance to come, and at the sentence and 
judgment to proceed from God, 
V. 19.20. And again I say unto you, that if two of you shall agree 
on earth, as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall 
he done for them of My Father Which is in Heaven. For 
ivhere two or three are gathered together in My Name, there 
am I in the midst of them. 

Seest thou how by another motive also He puts down our 
' ixiKpo- enmities, and takes away our petty dissensions^, and draws 
'''"''^ us one to another, and this not from the punishment only 
which hath been mentioned, but also from the good things 
which spring from charity ? For having denounced those 
threats against contentiousness, He putteth here the great 
rewards of concord, if at least they who are of one accord 
do even prevail with the Father, as touching the things they 
ask, and have Christ in the midst of them. 

" Are there then indeed no where two of one accord ?" 
Nay, in many places, perchance even every where. " How 
then do they not obtain all things V Because many are the 
causes of their failing. For either they often ask things 
inexpedient. And why marvellest thou, if this is the case 
with some others, whereas it was so even with Paul, when he 
82 Cor. hejird, ^ My grace is sufficient for thee ; for My strength is 
^^' ^' perfected in tceakness. Or they are unworthy to be reckoned 
with them that heard these words, and contribute not their 

What is to be 'gathered together in Christ^ s name.* 823 

own part, but He seeks for such as are like them ; therefore Matt. 
He saith of you, of the virtuous, of them that shew forth an ^ ' 
angelic rule of life'. Or they pray against them that havei ttom. 
aggrieved them, seeking for redress and vengeance; and this"^* 
kind of thing is forbidden, for, ^Pray, saith He,/or your ewe-sMat.S, 
mies. Or having sins unrepented they ask mercy, which thing ' 
it is impossible to receive, not only if themselves ask it, but 
although others having much confidence towards God entreat 
for them, like as even Jeremiah praying for the Jews did 
hear, ^Pray not thou for this people, because I will not hear^, 

But if all things are there, and thou ask things expedient, 
and contribute all thine own part, and exhibit an aposto- 
lical life, and have concord and love towards thy neighbour, 
thou wilt obtain on thy entreaty ; for the Lord is loving 
towards man. 

[3,] Then because He had said. Of My Father, in order that 
He might shew that it is Himself that givelh, and not He 
Who begat Him only. He added. For wlieresoever two or 
three are gathered together in My Name, there am I in the 
midst of them. 

What then ? are there not two or three gathered together 
in His Name? There are indeed, but rarely. For not merely 
of the assembling doth He speak, neither this doth He 
require only ; but most surely, as I said before also, the rest 
of virtue too together with this, and besides, even this itself 
He requires with great strictness. For what He saith is 
like this, "If any holds Me the principal ground of his love 
to his neighbours, I will be with Him, if he be a virtuous man 
in other respects." 

But now we see the more part having other motives of 
friendship. For one loves, because he is loved, another 
because he hath been honoured, a third because such a one 
has been useful to him in some other worldly matter, a fourth 
for some other like cause; but for Christ's sake it is a difBcult 
thing to find any one loving his neighbour sincerely, and as he 
ought to love him. For the more part are bound one to another 
by their worldly affairs. But Paul did not love thus, but for 
Christ's sake; wherefore even when not loved in such wise as 
he loved, he did not cease his love, because he had planted 

8*24 Love for Christ's sake yields not to circumstances. 

HoMiL. a strong root of bis affection ; but not so our present state, 
3 ' but on enquiry we shall find with most men any thing likely 
to produce friendship rather than this. And if any one 
bestowed on me power in so great a multitude to make this 
enquiry, I would shew the more part bound one to auother 
by worldly motives. 

And this is evident from the causes that work enmity. For 
^ i-rriK'f)- because they are bound one to another by these temporal' 
motives, therefore they are neither fervent towards one another, 
nor constant, but insult, and loss of money, and envy, and 
love of vain-glory, and every such thing coming upon them, 
severs the love-tie. For it finds not the root spiritual. Since 
if indeed it were such, no worldly thing would dissolve things 
spiritual. For Love for Christ's sake is firm, and not to be 
broken, and impregnable, and nothing can tear it asunder; 
not calumnies, not dangers, not death, no other thing of this 
kind. For though he suffer ten thousand things, who thus 
loves ; looking to the Ground of his love, he will not desist. 
For he who loves because of being loved, should he meet 
with any thing painful, puts an end to his love ; but he who 
is bound by this, will never desist. 
3 1 Cor. Wherefore Paul also sa\d,^ C/tarily never faileth. For what 
' ■ hast thou to say ? That when honoured he insults .'' that 
receiving benefits he was minded to slay thee? But even this 
works upon thee to love more, if thou lovest for Christ's sake. 
For what things are in the rest subversive of love, these 
here become apt to produce it. How ? First, because such 
a one is to thee a cause of rewards; secondly, because he that 
is so disposed stands in need of more succour, and much 
attention. Therefore I say, he who thus loves enquires not 
about race, nor country, nor wealth, nor his love to himself, 
nor any other such matter, but though he be hated, though 
he be insulted, though he be slain, continues to love, having 
as a sufficient ground for love, Christ; wherefore also he 
stands stedfast, firm, not to be overthrown, looking unto 

For Christ too so loved his enemies, having loved the 
obstinate, the injurious, the blasphemers, them that hated 
Him, them that would not so much as see Him; them that 
were preferring wood and stones to Him, and with the highest 

Our Lord'' s forbearance a pattern for us. 825 

Love beyond which one cannot find another. ^For greater Matt. 

love hath no man than this, He saith, that one lay down his 7^ 

life for his friends. ' John 

And those even that crucified Him, and acted in so many ' 
instances with contumely against Him, see how He continues 
to treat with kindness. For even to His Father He speaks 
for them, saying,^ Forgive them, for they know not what theyi Luke 
do. And He sent His disciples moreover, after these things, 2^' ^^' 
unto them. 

This Love then let us also imitate, unto this let us look, 
that being followers of Christ, we may attain both unto the 
good things here, and unto those to come, by the grace and 
love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be 
glory and might world without end. Amen. 


Matt, xviii. 21. 

Then came Peter to Him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my 
brother sin against me, and I forgive him f till seven 
times ? Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until 
seven times, hut. Until seventy times seven. 

Peter supposed he was saying something great, wherefore 
also as aiming at greatness he added, Until seven times ? For 
this thing, saith he, which Thou hast commanded to do, how 
often shall I do ? For if he for ever sins, but for ever when 
reproved repents, how often dost thou command us to bear 
with this man r For with regard to that other who 
repents not, neither acknowledges his own faults, Thou hast 
set a limit, by saying, Let him he to thee as the heathen and 
the publican ; but to this no longer so, but Thou hast com- 
manded to accept him. 

How often then ought I to bear with him, being told his 
faults, and repenting ? Is it enough for seven times ? 

What then saith Christ, the good God, Who is loving 
towards man? L say not unto thee, Until seven times, but, 
Until seventy times seven, not setting a number here, but 
what is infinite and perpetual and for ever. For even as ten 
thousand times signifies often, so here too. For by saying, 
' 1 Sam.iJ^e barren hath borne seven, the Scripture means many. 
So that He hath not limited the forgiveness by a number, 
but hath declared that it is to be perpetual and for ever. 

This at least He indicated by the parable that is put after. 
For that He might not seem to any to enjoin great things 
and hard to bear, by saying, Seventy times seven, He added 
this parable, at once both leading them on to what He had 


Our sins against God exceed infinitely all against us. 827 

said, and putting down him who was priding himself upon Matt. 
this, and shewing the act was not grievous, but rather very23_25. 
easy. Therefore let me add, He brought forward His own 
love to man, that by the comparison, as He saith, thou 
mightest learn, that though thou forgive seventy times seven, 
though thou continually pardon thy neighbour for absolutely 
all his sins, as a drop of water to an endless sea, so much, 
or rather much more, doth thy love to man come short in 
comparison of the boundless goodness of God, of which thou 
standest in need, for that thou art to be judged, and to give 
an account. 

Wherefore also He went on to say. The kingdom of Heaven v.23-25. 
is likened unto a certain king^ which would take account 
of his servants. And when he had begun to reckon, one was 
brought unto him, which oued him ten thousand talents. 
But forasmuch as he had not to pay, he commanded him to 
he sold, and his wife, and his children, and all that he had. 
Then after this man had enjoyed the benefit of mercy, he 
went out, and took by the throat his fellow-servant, which ^- 28. 
owed him an hundred pence ; and having by these doings 
moved his lord, he caused him to cast him again into prison, 
until he should pay off the whole. 

Seest thou how great the difference between sins against 
man and against God ? As great as between ten thousand 
talents, and a hundred pence, or rather even much more. 
And tliis arises both from the difference of the persons, and 
the constant succession of our sins. For when a man looks 
at us, we stand off and shrink from sinning : but when God 
sees us every day, we do not forbear, but do and speak all 
things without fear. 

But not hereby alone, but also from the benefit and from 
the honour of which we have partaken, our sins become more 

And if ye are desirous to leara how our sins against Him 
are ten thousand talents, or rather even much more, I will 
try to shew it briefly. But I fear lest to them that are 
inclined to wickedness, and love continually to sin, I should 
furnish still greater security, or should drive the meeker sort 
to despair, and they should repeat that saying of the disciples, 
' Who can be saved ? Jg'^^J^*; 

828 The many great benefits God has bestowed on us. 

HoMu. Nevertheless for all that I will speak, that I may make those 
2. ' that attend more safe, and more meek. For they that are 
incurably diseased, and past feeling, even vviihout these words 
of mine, do not depart from their own carelessness, and 
wickedness ; and if even from hence they derive greater 
occasion for contempt, the fault is not in what is said, but 
in their insensibility ; since what is said surely is enough 
both to restrain those that attend to it, and to prick their 
hearts ; and the meeker sort, when they see on the one hand 
the greatness of their sins, and learn also on the other hand 
the power of repentance, will cleave to it the more, wherefore 
it is needful to speak. 

I will speak then, and will set forth our sins, both wherein 
we offend against God, and wherein against men, and I will 
set forth not each person's own, but what are common ; but 
his own let each one join to them after that from his con- 

And I will do this, having first set forth the good deeds of 
God to us. What then are His good deeds? He created us 
when we were not, and made all things for our sakes that ai'e 
seen, Heaven, sea, air, all that in them is, living creatures, 
plants, seeds; for we must needs speak briefly for the 
boundless ocean of the works. Into us alone of all that are on 
earth He breathed a living soul such as we have, He planted 
a Garden, He gave a helpmeet. He set us over all the brutes, 
He crowned us with glory and honour. 

After that, when man had been unthankful towards his 
Benefactor, He vouchsafed unto him a greater Gift. 

[2.] For look not to this only, that He cast him out of 
Paradise, but mark also the gain that arose from thence. For 
after having cast him out of Paradise, and having wrought 
those countless good works, and having accomplished His 
various dispensations. He sent even His own Son for the 
sake of them that had been benefited by Him and were 
hating Him, and opened Heaven to us, and unfolded Paradise 
itself, and made us sons, the enemies, the unthankful. 

Wherefore it were even seasonable now to say, O the 
depth of the richer both of the wisdom and knowledge of 
'^""i- God'! 

1 1^ 33. .... 

And He gave us also a Baptism of the remission ol snis. 

Bad return from men of all classes. TJie army. 829 

and a deliverance from vengeance, and an inheritance of a Matt, 



kingdom, and He promised numberless good things on om-g^^gs* 

doing what is right, and stretched forth His Hand, and shed 
abroad His Spirit into our hearts. 

What then ? After so many and such great blessings, what 
ought to be our disposition ; should we indeed, even if each 
day we died for Him Who so loves us, make due recompense, 
or rather should we repay the smallest portion of the debt ? 
By no means, for moreover even this again is turned to our 

How then are we disposed, whose disposition ought to be 
like this? P^ach day we insult His law. But be ye not 
angry, if I let loose my tongue against them that sin, for not 
you only will I accuse, but myself also. 

Where then would ye that I should begin ? With the 
slaves, or with the free.'' with them that serve in the army, or 
with private persons ? with the rulers, or with the subjects? 
with the women, or with the men ? with the aged men, or 
with the young ? with what age? with what race? with what 
rank ? with what pursuit ? 

Would ye then that I should make the beginning with 
them that serve as soldiers ? What sin then do not these 
commit every day, insulting, reviling, frantic, making a gain 
of other men's calamities, being like wolves, never clear from 
offences, unless one might say the sea too was without waves. 
What passion doth not trouble them ? what disease doth not 
lay siege to their soul ? 

For to their equals they shew a jealous disposition, and 
they envy, and seek after vain glory; and to those that are 
subject to them, their disposition is covetous ; but to them 
that have suits, and run unto them as to a harbour, their 
conduct is that of enemies and perjured persons. How 
many robberies are there with them! How many frauds! 
How many false accusations, and meannesses ! how many 
servile flatteries ! 

Come then, let us apply in each case the Law of Christ. 

He^ that saiih to his brother. Thou fool, shall be in danger i jj^^^ 

of hell fire. He"^ that hath looked on a woman to lust after ^>_^'2- 

her, hath already committed adultery with her^. ^^-"^^^5 3 Matt 

18, 3. ' 

830 Haughtiness and ill language. Sins of craftsmen. 

UoMii.. one humble himself as the little child, he shall tiot enter into 


3^ ■ the Kingdom 0/ Heaven. 

But these even study haughtiness, becoming towards them 
that are subject to them, and are delivered into their hands, 
and who tremble at them, and are afraid of them, more fierce 
than a wild beast; for Christ's sake doing nothing, but all 
things for the belly, for money, for vain glory. 

Can one indeed reckon up in words the trespass of their 
actions ? What should one say of their derisions, their 
laughter, their unseasonable discourses, their filthy language ? 
But about covetousness one cannot so much as speak. 
For like as the monks on the mountains know not even what 
covetousness is, so neither do these ; but in an opposite way 
to them. For they indeed, because of being far removed from 
the disease, know not the passion, but these, by reason of being 
exceedingly intoxicated with it, have not so much as a per- 
ception how great the evil is. For this vice hath so thrust 
aside virtue and tyrannizes, that it is not accounted so much 
as a heavy charge with those madmen. 

But will ye, that we leave these, and go to others of a gentler 
kind ? Come then, let us examine the race of workmen and 
artizans. For these above all seem to live by honest labours, 
and the sweat of their own brow. But these too, when they do 
not take heed to themselves, gather to themselves many evils 
from hence. For the dishonesty that arises from buying and 
selling they bring into the work of honest labour, and add 
oaths, and perjuries, and falsehoods to their covetousness often, 
and are taken up with worldly things only, and continue riveted 
to the earth ; and while they do all tilings that they may get 
money, they do not take much heed that they may impart to 
the needy, being always desirous to increase their goods. 
What should one say of the revilings that are uttered touching 
such matters, the insults, the loans, the usurious gains, the 
bargains full of much mean trafficking, the shameless buyings 
and sellings. 

[3.] But will ye that we leave these too, and go to others 
who seem to be more just ? Who then are they } They 
that are possessed of lands, and reap the wealth that springs 
from the earth. And what can be more unjust than these ? 

Oppressions committed by Landholders. 831 

For if any one were to examine how they treat their wretched Matt. 
and toilworn labourers, he will see them to be more cruel JZ^g"* 
than savages. For upon them that are pining with hunger, 
and toiling throughout all their Ufe, they both impose con- 
stant and intolerable payments, and lay on them laborious 
burdens, and like asses or mules, or rather like stones, do they 
treat their bodies, allowing them not so much as to draw 
breath a little, and when the earth yields, and when it doth 
not yield, they alike wear them out, and grant them no 
indulgence. And what can be more pitiable than this, when 
after having laboured throughout the whole winter, and being 
consumed with frost and rain, and watchings, they go away 
with their hands empty, yea moreover in debt, and fearing 
and dreading more than this famine and shipwreck, the 
torments of the overlookers, and their dragging them about, 
and their demands, and their imprisonments, and the services 
from which no entreaty can deliver them ! 

Why should one speak of the merchandise which they 
make of them, the sordid gains which they gain by them, 
by their labours and their sweat filling winepresses, and 
wine vats, but not suffering them to take home so much as a 
small measure, but draining off the entire fruits into the 
casks of their wickedness, and flinging to them for this a 
little money ? 

And new kinds of usuries also do they devise, and not 
lawful even according to the laws of the heathens, and they 
frame contracts for loans full of many a curse. For not the 
hundredth part of the sum, but the half of the sum they press 
for and exact ; and this when he of whom it is exacted has 
a wife, is bringing up children, is a human being, and is 
filling their threshing floor and their winepress by his own 

But none of these things do they consider. Wherefore now 
it were seasonable to bring forward the prophet and say, 
^ Be astonished, O Heaven, and be horribly afraid, O earth,^Jer.2, 
to what great brutality hath the race of man been madly * 
carried away^ ! ^i^f^aK- 

But these things I say, not blaming crafts, nor husbandry, ^^"^ 
rior military service, but ourselves. Since Cornelius also 
was a centurion, and Paul a worker in leather, and after his 

832 Our debts to Cod should teach us mercy to man. 

HoMiL. preaching? practised his craft, and David was a king, and 
3, ■ Job enjoyed the possession of hind and of large revenues, 
and there was no hindrance hereby to any of these in the 
way of virtue. 

Bearing in mind all these things, and considering the ten 
thousand talents, let us at least hence hasten to remit to 
our neighbours their few and trifling debts. For we too 
have an account to give of the commandments wherewith we 
have been trusted, and we are not able to pay all, no not 
whatever we may do. Therefore God hath given us a way 
to repayment both ready and easy, and which is able to 
cancel all these things, I mean, not to be revengeful 

In order then that we may learn this well, let us hear the 
whole parable, going on regularly through it. For there was 
brought unto Him, it saith, one uJiich owed ten thousand 
talents, and when he had not to pay, He commanded him to 
, he sold, and his wife, and his children. Wherefore, I pray 
thee? Not of cruelty, nor of inhumanity, (for the loss came 
back again upon himself, for she too was a slave,) but of 
unspeakable tenderness. 

For it is His purpose to alarm him bj- this threat, that He 
might bring him to supplication, not that he should be sold. 
For if He had done it for this intent. He would not have 
consented to his request, neither would He have granted the 

Wherefore then did He not do this, nor forgive the debt 
before the account .? Desiring to teach him, from how many 
obligations He is delivering him, that in this way at least 
he might become more mild towards his fellow- servant. 
For even if when he had learnt the weight of his debt, 
and the greatness of the forgiveness, he continued taking his 
fellow-servant by the throat ; if He had not disciplined him 
beforehand with such medicines, to what length of cruelty 
might he not have gone ? 
v.26.27. What then saith the other? Have patience with vie, and 
I will pay thee all. And his Lord teas moved with com- 
passion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt. 

Seest thou again surpassing benevolence ? The servant 
asked only for delay and putting off the time, but He gave 
more than he asked, remission and forgiveness of the entire 

Ingratitude of the unmerciful servant. 833 

debt. For it had been his will to give it even from the first Matt. 
but he did not desire the gift to be his only, but also to oo^'i* 

come of this man's entreaty, that he might not go away ~~" 

uncrowned. For that the whole was of him, although this 
other fell down to him and prayed, the motive of the forgive- 
ness shewed, for moved with compaaaion he forgave him. But 
still even so he willed that other also to seem to contribute 
something, that he might not be exceedingly covered with 
shame, and that he being schooled in his own calamities, 
might be indulgent to his fellow-servant. 

[4.] Up to this point then this man was good and accept- 
able ; for he confessed, and promised to pay the debt, and 
fell down before him, and entreated, and condemned his 
own sins, and knew the greatness of the debt. But the 
sequel is unworthy of his former deeds. For going out 
straightway, not after a long time but straightway, having 
the benefit fresh' upon him, he abused to wickedness the 


gift, even the freedom bestowed on him by his master. ^'"' 

For he found one of his fellow- servants, which owed him v. 28. 
an hundred pence, and took him by the throaty saying, Pay 
me what tliou owest. 

Seest thou the master's benevolence ? Seest thou the 
servant's cruelty? Hear, ye who do these things for money. 
For if for sins we must not do so, much more not for money. 

What then saith the other? Have patience with me, and v. 29. 
/ will pay thee all. But he did not regard even the words 
by which he had been saved, (for he himself on saying this 
was delivered from the ten thousand talents,) and did not 
recognise so much as the harbour, by which he escaped 
shipwreck ; the gesture of supplication did not remind him 
of his master's kindness, but he put away from him all these 
things, from covetousness and cruelty and revenge, and was 
moi-e fierce than any wild beast, seizing his fellow-servant 
by the throat. 

What doest thou, O man ? perceivest thou not, thou art 
making the demand upon thyself, thou art thrusting the sword 
into thyself, and revoking the sentence and the gilt ? But 
none of these things did he consider, neither did he remember 
his own state, neither did he yield ; although the entreaty 
was not for equal objects. 


834 God's pardon a claim on us to forgive. 

H.-.Mii. Yqx ilic one besought for ten tliousand talents, the other 

'4. for a hiin(h-c(l pence; tlie one liis fellow-servant, the other 

his lord; the one received entire forgiveness, tlie otlier asked 

for delay, and not so much as this did he give him, for he cast 

him into prison. 

But when his felloic-scrvdnts saiv if, thcj/ accused him to 
their lord. Not even to men is this well-pleasing, much less 
to God. They therefore wlio did not owe, partook of the 
V. 32. What then saith their lord? thon wicked servant^ I 
forgaiethee nil that debt, because thou desiredst me; shouldest 
not thou also have had cotnpassion, even as I had pity on 
thee ? 

See again the lord's gentleness. He pleads with him, and 
excuses himself, being on the point of revoking his gift ; or 
rather, it was not he that revoked it, but the one who had 
received it. Wherefore He saith, I forgave thee all that debt, 
because thou desiredst me ; shouldest not thou also have had 
compassion on thy fellow- servant ? For even if the thing doth 
seem to thee hard ; yet shouldest thou have looked to the 
gain, which hath been, which is to be. Even if the injunc- 
tion be galling, thou oughtest to consider the reward; neither 
that he hath grieved thee, but that thou hast provoked God, 
Whom by a mere prayer thou hast reconciled. But if even 
so it be a galling thing to thee to become friends with hira 
who hath grieved thee, to fall into hell is far more grievous; 
and if thou hadst set this against that, then thou wouldest 
have known liiat to forgive is a much lighter thing. 

And whereas, when he owed ten thousand talents, he called 
him not wicked, neither reproached him, but shewed mercy 
on hira ; when he had become harsh to his fellow-servant, 
then he saith, O thou wicked servant. 

Let us hearken, the covetous, for even to us is the word 
spoken. Let us hearken also, the merciless, and the cruel, 
for not to others are we cruel, but to ourselves. When then 
thou art minded to be revengeful, consider that against thyself 
art thou revengeful, not against another; that thou art binding 
up thine own sins, not thy neigh])Ours. For as to thee, what- 
soever thou mayest do to this man, thou doest as a man and 
in the present life ; but God not so, but more mightily will 

Forgiveness forfeited hy implacable anger. 835 

He take vengeance on tliee, and with the vengeance here- Matt 
after. xvili. 


For He delivered him over till he should pay that which 

was due, that is, for ever ; for he will never repay. For since 
thou art not become better by the kindness sliewn thee, it 
remains that by vengeance thou be corrected. 

And yet, ' The graces and the gifts are without repentance, ' Rom. 
but wickedness has had such power, as to set aside even this ^^' ^^• 
law. What then can be a more grievous thing than to be 
revengeful, when it appears to overthrow such and so great a 
gift of God. 

And he did not merely deliver him, but was wroth. For 
when he commanded him to be sold, his were not the words 
of wratli, (therefore neither did he do it,) but a very great 
occasion for benevolence ; but now the sentence is of much 
indignation, and vengeance, and punishment. 

What then means the Parable? So- likewise shall 7?/^/-Matt. 
Father do also unto you, He saith, if ye from your hearts ' 
forgive not every one his brother their trespasses. 

Pie saith not "your Father," but My Father. For it is not 
meet for God to be called the Father of such a one, who is so 
wicked and malicious. 

[5.] • Two things therefore doth He here require, both to 
condemn ourselves for our sins, and to forgive others ; and 
the former for the sake of the latter, that this may become 
more easy ; (for he who considers his own sins is more in- 
dulgent to his fellow- servant;) and not merely to forgive with 
the lips, but from the heart. 

Let us not then thrust the sword into ourselves by being 
revengeful. For what grief hath he who hath grieved thee 
inflicted upon thee, like thou wilt work unto thyself by keeping 
thine anger in mind, and drawing upon thyself the sentence 
from God to condemn thee ? For if indeed thou art watchful, 
and keepest thyself under control, the evil will come round 
upon his head, and it will be he that will suffer harm ; but if 
thou shouldest continue indignant, and displeased, then thy- 
self wilt undergo the harm not from him, but from thyself. 

Say not then, that he insulted thee, and slandered thee, 
and did unto thee ills beyond number ; for the more thou 
tellest, so much the more dost thou declare him a benefactor, 

3 H 2 

836 Various benefits 0/ the practice of forgiving. 

HoMiL. For he hath given thee an opportunity to wash away thy 

* sins ; so that the greater the injuries he hath done thee, so 

much more is he become to thee a cause of a greater re- 
mission ol" sins. 

For if we be willing, no one shall be able to injure us, but 
even our enemies shall advantage us in the greatest degi'ee. 
And why do I speak of men ? For what can be more wicked 
than the devil ; yet nevertheless, even hence have we a 
great opportunity of approving ourselves ; and Job sheweth 
it. But if the devil hath become a cause of crowns, why art 
thou afraid of a man as an enemy ? 

See then how much thou gainest, bearing meekly the 
spiteful acts of thine enemies. First and greatest, deliver- 
ance from sins; secondly, fortitude and patience; thirdly, 
mildness and benevolence ; for he that knowelh not how to be 
angry with them that grieve him, much more will he be ready 
to serve them that love him. Fourthly, to be free from anger 
continually, to which nothing can be equal. For of him 
that is free from anger, it is quite clear that he is delivered 
also from the despondency hence arising, and will not spend 
his life on vain labours and sorrows. For he that knows 
not how to hate, neither doth he know how to grieve, but 
will enjoy pleasure, and ten thousand blessings. 

So that we punish ourselves by hating others, even as 
on the other hand we benefit ourselves by loving them. 

Besides all these things, thou wilt be an object of venera- 
tion even to thy very enemies, though they be devils ; or 
rather, thou wilt not so much as have an enemy whilst thou 
art of such a disposition. 

But what is greater than all, and first, thou gainest the 
favour of God. Shouldest thou have sinned, thou wilt obtain 
pardon ; shouldest thou have done what is right, thou wilt 
obtain a greater confidence. Let us accomplish therefore 
the hating no one, that God also may love us, that, though 
we be in debt for ten thousand talents, He may have com- 
passion and pity us. 

But hast thou been injured by him ? Pity him then, do 
not hate him ; weep and mourn, do not turn away from him. 
For thou art not the one that hath offended against God, 
but he ; but thou hast even approved thyself, if thou endure it. 

Our Lord's example of forgiving. Saints of old. 8.37 

Consider that Christ, when about to be crucified, rejoiced Matt. 

for Himself, but wept for them that were crucifying Him. ^ ^2. 

This ought to be our disposition also; and the more we are 
injured, so much the more should we lament for them that 
are injuring us. For to us many are the benefits hence 
arising^ but to them the opposites. 

But did he insult thee, and strike thee before all ? Then 
hath he disgraced and dishonoured himself before all, and 
hath opened the mouths of a thousand accusers, and for thee 
hath he woven more crowns, and gathered for thee many to 
publish thy forbearance. 

But did he slander thee to others ? And what is this ? 
God is the one that is to demand the account, not they that 
have heard this. For to himself hath he added occasion of 
punishment, so that not only for his own sins he should give 
account, but also of what he said of thee. And upon thee 
hath he brought evil report with men, but he himself hath 
incurred evil report with God, 

And if these things are not sufficient for thee, consider 
that even thy Lord ' was evil reported of both by Satan, and ' Ai(nr6- 
by men, and that to those most loved by Him ; and His Only- 
Begotten the same again. Wherefore He said, - //' ///e// have^ Matt. 
called the Master of the house Beelzebub, much more shall 
iheij call them of His household. 

And that wicked demon did not only slander Him, but was 
also believed, and slandered Him not in ordinary matters, 
but with the greatest reproaches and accusations. For he 
affirmed Him to be possessed, and to be a deceiver, and an 
adversary of God. 

But hast thou also done good, and received evil ? Nay, 
in respect of this most of all lament and grieve for him that 
hath done the wrong, but for thyself rather rejoice, because 
thou art become like God, ^ Who mnJcelh the sun to rise upon 3 Matt. 
evil and good. ' 

But if to follow God is beyond thee, although to him that 
watcheth not even this is hard ; yet nevertheless if this seem to 
thee to be too great for thee, come let us bring thee to thy 
fellow-servants, to Joseph, who suffered countless things, 
and did good unto his brethren ; to Moses, who after their 
countless plots against him, prayed for them ; to the blessed 

838 Forgwing temper of St. Paul and St. Stephen. 

HoMiL.Paul, who cannot so much as number what he suffered from 
5 ■ them, and is willing to be accursed for them ; to Stephen, 

who is stoned, and entreating this sin may be forgiven them. 

And having considered all these things, cast away all anger, 

that God may forgive us also all our trespasses by the grace 

and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom 

to the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, might, honour, 

now and always, and world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xix. 1, 

And it came to pass, that tvhen Jesus hadjinished these sayings, 
He departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of 
Judcea beyond Jordan, 

Having constantly left Judoca on account of the envy of 
those men, now He frequents it from this time forth, because 
the Passion was to be nigh at hand ; He goeth not up, how- 
ever, unto Jerusalem for a while, but into the coasts of Judcea. 

And when He was come, great multitudes follotved Him,"'' 
and He liealed them. 

For neither in the teaching by words doth He continue 
always, nor in the wonderful working of signs, but He doeth 
now one now the other, variously working the salvation of them 
that were waiting upon Him and following Him, so as by the 
miracles to appear, in what He said, a Teacher worthy of 
belief, and by the teaching of His word to increase the profit 
from the miracles ; and this was to lead them by the hand to 
the knowledge of God. 

But do thou mark, I pray thee, this too, how the disciples 
pass over whole multitudes with one word, not declaring by 
name each of them that are healed. For they said not, that 
such a one, and such another, but that many, teaching us to be 
unostentatious. But Christ healed, benefitting both them, and 
by them many others. For the healing of these men's in- 
firmity was to others a foundation for the knowledge of God. 

But not so to the Pharisees, but even for this selfsame 
thing they become more fierce, and come unto Him tempting 

V. 3. 

840 Vain Jiope of the Jews to entrap oar Lord. 

Ho-MiL. Him. For because ibey could not lay hold of the works that 
1. were doing, they propose to Him questions. For they came 
unto Him, and tempting Him said. Is it lairfuljor a man 
to put away his wife for every cause? 

O iblly ! They thought to silence Him by their questions, 
although they had already received certain proof of this 
power in Him. When at least they argued much about 
the sabbath, when they said, He blasphemelh, when they 
said, He hath a devil, when they found fault with His 
disciples as they were walking in the corn fields, when 
they argued about unwashen hands, on every occasion 
having sewed fast their mouths, and shut up their shame- 
less tongue. He thus sent them away. Nevertheless, not 
even so do they keep off from Him. For such is wicked- 
ness, such is envy, shameless and bold ; though it be 
put to silence ten thousand times, ten thousand times doth 
it assault again. 

But mark thou, I pray thee, their craft also from the form 
of their question. For neither did they say unto Him, Thou 
didst command not to put away a wife, for indeed He had 
already discoursed about this law ; but nevertheless they 
made no mention of those words ; but took occasion from 
hence, and thinking to make their snare tlie greater, and being 
minded to drive Him to a necessity of contradicting the Law, 
they say nut, Why didst Thou enact this or that? but as 
though nothing had been said, they ask, Is it lawful ? 
expecting that He had forgotten having said it ; and being 
ready if on the one hand He said, " It is lawful to put away," 
to bring against Him the things He Himself had spoken, and 
to say. How then didst Thou affirm the contrary .'' but if the 
same things now again as before, to bring against Him the 
words of Moses. 

What then said He.'' He said not. Why tempt ye Me, 
ye hypocrites? although afterwards He saith this, but here 
He speaks not thus. Wliy can this be ? In order that 
together with His power He might shew forth His gentleness 
also. For He doth neither always keep silence, lest they 
should suppose they are hidden ; nor doth He always reprove, 
in order tl)at Ho may instruct us to bear all things with 

His proof of the primitive law of Marriage. 84 1 

How then doth He answer them ? Have ye not read, that Matt, 
He Which made them at the beginning, made them male and ^]\' 
female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave his father \7i^Q, 
and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they twain 
shall he one jlesh, so that tliey are no more twain hut one 
Jlesh ? What therefore God hath joined together, let not 
man put asunder. 

See a teacher's wisdom. I mean, that being asked, Is it 
lawful ? He did not at once say, It is not lawful, lest they 
should be disturbed and put in disorder, but before the 
decision by His argument He rendered this manifest, shewing 
that it is itself too the commandment of His Father, and that 
not in opposition to Moses did He enjoin these things, but 
in full agreement with him. 

But mark Him arguing strongly not from the creation only, 
but also from His command. For He said not, that He 
made one man and one woman only, but that He also gave this 
command that the one man should be joined to the one 
woman. But if it had been His will that he should put this 
one away, and bring in another, when He had made one 
man, He would have formed many women. 

But now both by the manner of the creation, and by 
the manner of lawgiving, He shewed, that one man must 
dwell with one woman continually, and never break off from 

And see how He saith, He II hich made them at the 
beginning, made them male and female, that is, from one root 
they sprung, and into one body came they together, /or the 
twain shall be one Jlesh. 

After this, to make it a fearful thing to find fault with this 
lawgiving, and to confirm the law. He said not, " Sever not 
therefore, nor put asunder, " but. What God hath Joined 
together, let not man put asunder. 

But if thou put forward Moses, I tell thee of Moses' Lord, 
and together with this, 1 rely upon the time also. For God 
at the beginning made them male and female ; and this law 
is older, (though it seem to have been now introduced by Me,) 
and with much earnestness established. For not merely did 
He bring the woman to the man, but also commanded him 
to leave father and mother. And neither did He make it a 

842 The livv one Jlcsh. The Jews' ohjeclion. /"or him merely to come to ilie woman, but also to cleave 
2 ' to her, by the form of the language intimating that they 

might not be severed. And not even with this was He satisfied, 

but sought also for another greater union, for the laain, 

He saith, shall be onejlesh. 

Then after He had recited the ancient law, which was 

brought in both by deeds and by words, and shewn it to be 

worthy of respect because of the Giver, with authority after 

that He Himself too interprets and gives the law, saying, So 

that they are no more twain, hut one jleah. Like then as 

» cVa^es to sever flesh is a horrible thing', so also to divorce a wife 

is unlawful. And He stayed not at this, but brought in God 

also by saying, What therefore God hath Joined together, 

let not man put asunder, shewing that the act was both 

against nature, and against law; against nature, because one 

flesh is dissevered; against law, because that when God hath 

joined and commanded it not to be divided, ye conspire 

to do this. 

[2.] What then ought they to have done after this .? Ought 

they not to have held their peace, and to have commended 

the saying? ought they not to have marvelled at His 

wisdom ? ought they not to have stood amazed at His 

accordance with the leather .f' But none of these things do 

they, but as though they were contending for [the Law], 

V. 7. they say, Hoiv then did Moses command to give a writing 

of divorcement, and to put her awag? And yet they ought 

not now to have brought this forward, but rather He to 

them ; but nevertheless He doth not take advantage of them, 

nor doth He say to them, " I am not now bound by this," 

but He solves this too. 

And indeed if He had been an alien from the old Covenant, 

He would not have striven tor Moses, neither would He have 

argued positively from the things done once for all at the 

beginning; He would not have studied to shew that His 

own precepts agreed with those of old. 

And indeed Moses had given many other commandments 

besides, both those about meats, and those about the Sabbath; 

wherefore thoi do they no where bring him forsvard, as 

here? From a wish to enlist the multitude of the husbands 

against him. For this was considered a thing indifierent 

Our Lord's convincing reason, and new Law, 843 

with the Jews, and all used to do so much as this. Accord- Matt. 
ingly it was for this reason that when so many things had 9" ' 

been said on the Mount, they remembered this commandment 
only now. 

Nevertheless, unspeakable Wisdom maketh a defence even 
for these things, and saith, Moses for the hardness of your 
hearts thus made the law. And not even him doth He suffer 
to remain under accusation, forasmuch as He had Himself 
given him the law ; but delivers him from the charge, and 
turns the whole upon their head, as every where He doth. 

For again when they were blaming His disciples for 
plucking the ears of corn. He shews themselves to be guilty; 
and when they were laying a transgression to their charge as 
to their not washing their hands, He shews themselves to be 
the transgressors, and touching the Sabbath also: both every 
where, and here in like manner. 

Then because the saying was hard to bear, and brought 
on them much blame, He quickly directs back His discourse 
to that ancient law, saying as He had said before also. But 
in the beginning it uas not so, that is, God by His acts at 
the beginning ordained the contrar3\ For in order that 
they may not say, Whence is it manifest, that for our 
hardness 3Ioses said this ? hereby again He stoppeth their 
mouths. For if this were the primary law, and for our good, 
that other would not have been given at the beginning; God 
in creating would not have so created. He would not have 
said such things. 

But I say unto you. Whosoever shall put away his wife v. 9. 
except it Jje for fornication, and marry another, committeth 
adultery. For since he had stopped their mouths. He then 
gives the law with His own authority, like as touching the 
meats, like as touching the Sabbath. 

For with regard to the meats likewise, when He had over- 
come them, then, and not till then. He declared unto the 
multitude, that, Not that w/iich yoeth in clejilcih the man\- \ Matt. 
and with regard to the Sabbath, when He had stopped their ^''j ^^* 
mouths, H..^ saith, Wherefore it is laufnl to do well on the 
sabbath day"- ; and here this selfsame thing. .. j,j.jjf^ 

But what took place there, this happened here also. For^^> ^'^• 
as there, when the Jews had been put to silence the disciples 

S44 Our Lord indirectly recommends virgiyiity. 

HoMiL. were troubled, and came unto Him with Peter and said, 
2 Declare iinlo us this parable ; even so now also they were 

¥iat,i5, troubled and said, If the case of Ihe man be so, it is good 

^,\q not to marry. 

For now they understood the saying more than before. 
Therefore then indeed they held their peace, but now when 
there hath been gainsaying, and answering, and question, 
and learning by reply, and the Law appeared more clear, 
they ask Him. And openly to contradict they, do not dare, 
but they bring forward what seemed to be a grievous and 
galling result of it, saying, If the case of the man be so with 
his uife, it is not good to marry. For indeed it seemed to 
be a very hard thing to have a wife full of every bad quality, 
and to endure a wild beast perpetually shut up with one in 
the house. And th;\t thou mayest learn that this greatly 

Marlf troubled them, Mark said, to shew it, that they spake to 

^^' ^°' Him privately. 

[3.] But what is, '' if such be the case of a man with his 
wifeY" That is, if to this end he is joined with her, that they 
should be one, or, on the other hand, if the man shall get to 
himself blame for these things, and ahvays transgresses by 
putting away, it were easier to fight against natural desire and 
against one's self, than against a wicked woman. 

What then saith Christ ? He said not, " yea, it is easier, 
and so do," lest they should suppose that the thing is a 

V. 11. law; but He subjoined, Not all men receire it, but they to 
whom it is given, raising the tiling, and shewing that it is 
great, and in this way drawing them on, and urging them. 

But see herein a cimtradiction. For He indeed saith this 
is a great thing; but they, that it is easier. For it was meet 
that both these things should be done, and tliat it should be 
at once acknowledged a great thing by Him, that it might 
rc^nder them more forward, and by the things said by them- 
selves it should be shewn to be easier, that on this gr-ound 
loo they might the rather choose virginity and continence. 
For since to speak of virginity seemed to be grievous, by the 
constraint of this law He drove them to this desire. Then 

V. 12, to shew the possibility of it. He saith. There are some 
eunuchs, who were so born from their moihefs ivomb, 
there are some eunuchs which icerc made eunuchs of men , 

Voluntary continence better than involuntary. 845 

and there be eunuchs which have made themselves eunuchs Matt. 

XI x^ 
for the kingdom of Heaven's sake, by these words secretly 12. * 

leading ihern to choose the thing, and establishing the pes- 

sibility of this virtue, and all but saying. Consider if thou 

wert in such case by nature, or hadst endured this selfsame 

thing at the hands of those who inflict such wanton injuries, 

what wouldest thou have done, behig deprived indeed of the 

enjoyment, yet not having a reward ? Thank God therefore 

now, for that with rewards and crowns thou undergoest this, 

which those men endure without crowns ; or rather not even 

this, but what is much lighter, being supported both by hope, 

and by the consciousness of the good work, and not having 

the desire so raging like waves within thee. 

For the excision of a member is not able to quell such 
waves, and to make a calm, like the curb of reason ; or rather, 
reason only can do this. 

For this intent therefore He brought in those others, even 
that He might encourage these, since if this was not what 
He was establishing, what means His saying concerning the 
other eunuchs ? But when He saith, that they made them- 
selves eunuchs. He means not the excision of the members, 
far from it, but the putting away of wicked thoughts. Since the 
man who hath mutilated himself, in fact, is subject even to a 
curse, as Paul saith, / icould^ they were even cut off^ which 1 Gal. 5, 
trouble you. And very reasonably. For such a one is] >' 
venturing on the deeds of murderers, and giving occasion ioK6>i/ov- 
them that slander God's creation, and opens the mouths of ^"j'-^jj 
the Manicha;ans, and is guilty of the same unlawful acts as may 
they that mutilate themselves amongst the Greeks. For to this. 
cut off our members hath been from the beginning a work of 
demoniacal agency, and satanic device, that they may bring 
up a bad report upon the work of God, that they may mar 
this living creature, that imputing all not to the choice, but 
to the nature of our members, the more i)art of them may sin 
in security, as being irresponsible; and doubly harm this 
living creature, both by mutilating the members, and by 
impeding the forwardness of the free choice in behalf of 
good deeds. 

These are the ordinances of the devil, bringing in, besides 
the things which wc have mentioned, another wicked doctrine 

84G The gift of continence, though not exacted, may he won. 

HoMTL. also, and making way beforehand for tlie arguments con- 
"3, ■ cerning destiny and necessity oven from hence, and every 
where marring the freedom given to ns of God, and per- 
suading us that evil deeds are of nature, and hence secretly 
implanting many other wicked doctrines, although not openly. 
For such are the devil's poisons. 

Therefore I beseech you to flee from such lawlessness. 
For together with the things I have mentioned, neither doth 
the force of lust become milder hereby, but even more fierce. 
For from another origin hath the seed that is in us its 
sources, and from another cause do its waves swell. And 
some say from the brain, some from the loins, this violent 
impulse hath its birth ; but I should say from nothing else 
than from an ungoverned will and a neglected mind : if this 
be temperate, there is no evil result from the motions of nature. 

Having spoken then of the eunuchs that are eunuchs for 
nought and fruitlessly, unless with the mind they too practise 
temperance, and of those that are virgins for heaven's sake. He 
proceeds again to say. He that is able to receive it, let him 
receive it, at once making them more earnest by shewing 
that the good work is exceeding in greatness, and not suffer- 
ing the thing to be shut up in the compulsion of a law, because 
of His unspeakable gentleness. And this He said, when He 
shewed it to be most possible, in order that the emulation of 
the free choice might be greater. 

And if it is of free choice, one may say, how doth He say, 
at the beginning. All men do not receive it, but they to uhoin 
it is given ? That thou mightest learn that the conflict is 
great, not that thou shouldest suspect any compulsory allot- 
ments. For it is given to those, even to the willing. 

But He sjiake thus to shew that much influence from 
above is needed by him who enterelh these lists, whereof 
He that is willing shall surely partake. For it is customary 
for Him to use this form of speech when the good work done is 
great, as when He saith, To yon it is given to know tJiennjsteries. 

And that this is true, is manifest even from the present 
instance. For if it be of the Gift from above only, and they 
that live as virgins contribute nothing themselves, for nought 
did He promise them the kingdom of Heaven, and distin- 
guish them from the other cunuclis. 

Oar Lord, in receiving children, condemned pride. 847 

But mark thou, I pray, how from some men's wicked Matt. 
doings, other men gain. I mean, that the Jews went away jf^^s 
having learnt nothing, for neither did they ask with the intent 
of learning, but the disciples gained even from hence. 

[4.] Then were ihere htought unto Him little children, that v. 13-15. 
He should put His ha?id.<i on them, and pray ; and the din- 
ciples rebuked them. Bat He said unto them. Suffer the 
little children to come unto Me, for of such is the kingdom of 
Heaven ; andHelaid His hands on them, anddeparied thence. 
And wherefore did the disciples repel the little children? 
For dignity. What then doth He ? Teaching them to be 
lowly, and to trample under foot worldly pride. He doth 
receive them, and takes them in His arms, and to such as 
them promises the kingdom ; which kind of thing He said 
before also'. i Matt. 

Let us also then, if we would be inheritors of the Heavens, ^^' ^' '** 
possess ourselves of this virtue with much diligence. For 
this is the limit of true Wisdom ; to be simple with under- 
standing ; this is Angelic life ; yes, for the soul of a little 
child is pure from all the passions. Towards them who have 
vexed him he bears no resentment, but goes to them as to 
friends, as if nothing had been done; and how much soever 
he be beaten by his mother, after her he seeks, and her doth 
he prefer to all. Though thou shevv him the Queen with a 
diadem, he prefers her not to his mother clad in rags, but 
would choose rather to see her in these, than the Queen in 
splendour. For he useth to distinguish what pertains to him 
and what is strange to him, not by its poverty and wealth, 
but by friendship. And nothing more than necessary things 
doth he seek, but just to be satisfied from the breast, and 
then he leaves sucking. The young child is not grieved .at 
what we are grieved, as at loss of money and such things as 
that, and he doth not rejoice again at what we rejoice, namely, 
at these temporal things, he is not eager about the beauty of 

Therefore He said, of such is the kingdom of Heaven, that 
by choice we should practise these things, which young 
children have by nature. For since the Pharisees from 
nothing else so much as out of craft and pride did what 
they did, therefore on every hand He charges the disciples 

848 Simplicity of children our example. 

HoMiL. to be single hearted, both darkly hinting at those men, and 
^5 ■ instructing these. For nothing so much lifts up unto haugh- 
tiness, as power and precedence. Forasmuch then as the 
disciples were to enjoy great honours throughout the whole 
world, He preoccupies their mind, not suffering them to feel 
any thing after the manner of men, neither to demand honours 

' o-jjSer^ from the multitude, nor to have men clear the way' before 

For though these seem to be little things, yet are ihey 
a cause of gi'eat evils. The Pharisees at least being thus 
trained were carried on into the very summit of evil, seeking 

5 ixiaa- after the salutations, the first seats, the middle places ^ for from 

'^'^"^^ these they were cast upon the shoal of their mad desire of 
glory, then from thence upon impiety. So therefore those 
men went away having drawn upon themselves a curse by 
their tempting, but the little children a blessing, as being freed 
from all these. 

] Cor. Lgj yg ihew also be like the little children, and '* in malice 

14, 20. 

he ue babes." For it cannot be, it cannot be for one other- 
wise to see Heaven, but the crafty and wicked must needs 
sui'ely be cast into hell. 

[5.] And before hell too, we shall here suffer the utmost ills. 
Prov. 9, JPor if thou be evil, it is said, thou alone shall endure the evil > 


LXX. but if good, it is for thyself and for thy neighbour. Mark 
at any rate, how this took place in the former instances also. 
For neither was any thing more wicked than Saul, nor more 
simple and single-hearted than David. Which therefore 
was the stronger ? Did not David get him twice into his 
hands, and having the power to slay him, forebore ? Had 
he not him shut up as in a net and prison, and spared 
him } And this when both others were urging him, and when 
he himself was able to accuse him of countless charges; but 
nevertheless he suffered him to go away safe. And yet 
the other was pursuing him with all his army, but he was, 
with a few desperate fugitives, wandering and changing from 
place to place ; nevertheless the fugitive had the advantage 
of the king, forasmuch as the one came to the conflict with 
simplicity, the other with wickedness. 

For what could be more wicked than that man, who when 
hfi was leading his armies, and bringing all his wars to a 

David's example in his forhearatice towards Saul. 84t) 

successful issue, and undergoing the labours of the victory Matt. 
and the trophies, but bringing the crowns to him, assayed to i3_"i5. 
slay him ? 

[5.] Such is the nature of envy, it is ever plotting against 
its own honours, and wasting him that hath it, and encom- 
passing him with countless calamities. And that miserable 
man, for instance, until David departed, burst not forth 
into that piteous cry, bewailing himself and saying, /«W'iSam. 
sore distressed, and the Philistines make war against me, ' 
and the Lord is departed from me. Until he was sepa- 
rated from David, he fell not in war, but was both in safety, 
and in glory; for indeed unto the king passed the glory of the 
captain. For neither was the man disposed to usurpation, 
nor did he assay to depose the other from his throne, but 
for him did he achieve all things, and was earnestly attached 
to him, and this is evident even from what followed after- 
wards. For when indeed he was set under him, any one of 
them who do not search carefully might perhaps suppose 
these things to be by the usual custom of a subject; but after 
he had withdrawn himself out of Saul's kingdom, what then 
was there to restrain him, and to persuade to abstain from war 
against Saul ; or rather what was wanting that could provoke 
him even to slay ? Had not the other been evil towards him 
once, twice, and often ? Was it not after having received 
benefits from him ? Was it not having nothing whereof to 
accuse him ? Was not Saul's kingdom and safety danger and 
insecurity to himself? must he not needs wander and be a 
fugitive, and be in trembling for fear of the utmost ills, 
while the other is alive, and reigning? Nevertheless none of 
these things constrained him to stain his sword with blood, 
but when he saw him asleep, and bound, and alone, and in 
the midst of his own men, and had touched his head, and 
when there were many rousing him to it, and saying the 
opportunity thus favourable was a judgment of God, he at 
once rebuked those who were urging him on, and refrained 
from the murder, and sent him away both safe and well ; and as 
though he had been rather a body guard of his, and a shield- 
bearer, not an enemy, so did he chide the host for their 
treachery towards the kiug^ ^ ^ Sam, 

26 16. 

What could be equal to this soul ? What to that mild- 

3 I 

830 Vainglory defeats its own purpose. 

HoMiL. ness? For tliis it is iiossible to see e^'eii by tlie tilings 
6. ' that have been inentioned ; but imich more by what are 
clone now. For when we have considered onr vileness, then 
we shall Icnow more perfectly the virtue ol" those saints. 
Wherefore I entreat you to hasten towards the emulation of 

For indeed if thou lovcst glory, and for this cause art 
plotting against thy neighbour, then shalt ihou enjoy it 
more largely, when having spurned it, thou wilt abstain from 
the plotting. For like as to become rich" is contrary to 
covctousness, so is the loving of glory to the obtaining of 
glory. And if ye be minded, let us enquire into each. For 
since we have no fear of hell, nor much regard for the 
liingdora, con^e and even from the things present let us lead 
you on. 

For who are they that are ridiculous ? Tell me. Is it 
not they that arc doing any thing for the sake of glory from 
the multitude ? And who are the objects of praise.'' Is it not 
they who spurn the ])raise of tlie multitude } Therefore if tlie 
love of vain glory be matter of reproach, and it cannot be con- 
cealed that the vain-glorious man loves it, he will assuredly be 
an object of rejn'oach, and tiie love of glory is become to him a 
cause of dishonom*. And not in this respect only doth he 
disgrace himself, but also in that he is compelled to do many 
things shameful, and teeming witli the utmost disgrace. And 
like as with resjiect to their gains men are wont to suffer harm 
more than any thing from the disease of covctousness, (they 
become at least the subjects of many tricks, and of small gains 
make great losses, wherefore this saying hath prevailed even to 
be a proverb ;) and as to the voluptuous man likewise, his 
passion becomes a hindrance to the enjoyment of liis pleasure. 
These at least that are exceedingly given up tlicreto, and are 
the slaves of women, these above all do women carry about 
as servants, and will never vouchsafe to treat them as men, 
l)uffetthig, spm-ning them, leading, and taking them about 
every where, and giving themselves airs, and in every thing 
merely giving them orders. 

Even so also than him that is arrogant and mad about 

» Mss. ' not to make mone)',' and Savile's reading is rightly adopted by 
presently, 'not to love glory;' but Mr. Field, with the Latin Translator. 

Pride is haled ; love of praise despised. 851 

glory, and accounts himself to be higli. nothing is more base Matt. 
and dishonoured. For the race of man is fond of contention, i3_i5. 
and against nothing else doth it set itself so much, as 
against a boaster, and a contemptuous man, and a slave of 

And he himself too, in order to maintain the fashion of his 
pride, exhibits the conduct of a slave to the common sort, 
flattering, courting them, serving a servitude more grievous 
than that of one bought for money. 

Knowing then all these things, let us lay down these 
passions, that we may not both pay a penalty here, and there 
be punished without end. Let us become lovers of virtue. 
For so both before reaching the kingdom we shall reap th6 
greatest benefits here, and when we are departed thither we 
shall partake of the eternal blessings ; unto which God grant 
we may all attain by the grace and love towards man of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and might world with- 
out end. Amen. 

3 I 2 


Matt. xix. 16. 

A7id, behold^ one caine and said unto Him, Good Master, 
by doing what, shall I inherit eternal life ? 

Some indeed accuse this young man, as one dissembling 
and ill-minded, and coming with a temptation to Jesus, but 
I, though I would not say he was not fond of. money, and 
under subjection to his wealth, since Christ in fact convicted 
him of being such a character, yet a dissembler I would by 
no means call him, both because it is not safe to venture on 
things uncertain, and especially in blame, and because Mark 
» Mark hath taken away this suspicion ; for he saith, that ' having come 
21' running unto Him, and kneeling to Him, he besought Him, 
and that Jesus beheld him, and loved him. 

But great is the tyranny of wealth, and it is manifest 

hence ; I mean, that though we be virtuous as to the rest, 

this ruins all besides. With reason hath Paul also aflSrmed to be the root of all evils in general. "^ For the love of 

^' ^^' money is the root of all evils, he saith. 

Wherefore then doth Christ thus reply to him, saying, 

■V. 17. There is none good? Because lie came unto Ilim as a 

mere man, and one of the common sort, and a Jewish teacher ; 

for this cause then as a man lie discourses with him. And 

indeed in many instances He replies to the secret thoughts 

8 John of them that come unto Him ; as when He saith, ^ We worship 

* j^h* *^^ liuow What ; and, ■* If I hear ivitness of Myself, My witness 

6,31. is not true. When therefore He saith, There is none good ; 

not as putting Himself out from being good doth He say 

this, far from it; for lie said not, Why dost thou call Me 

Good dispositions of the rich young man. 853 

good? I am not good ; but, there is none good^ that is, none Matt. 
amongst men. j« ' 

And when He saith this selfsame thing, He saith it not 
as depriving even men of goodness, but in contradistinction 
to the goodness of God. Wherefore also He added. 
But one, that is, God; and He said not, " but My Father," 
that thou mightest learn that He had not revealed Himself 
to the young man. So also further back He called men 
evil, saying, ^ If ye, being evil, know how to give good gifts ^o 'Matt. 
your children. For indeed there too He called them evil, ' 
not as condemning the whole race as evil, (for by ye. He 
means not "ye men,") but comparing the goodness that is in 
men with the goodness of God, He thus named it; therefore 
also He added, How much more shall your Father give good 
things to them that ask Him ? And what was there to urge 
Him, or what the profit that He should answer in this way? 
He leads him on by little and little, and teaches him to be 
far from all flattery, drawing him off from the things upon 
earth, and fastening him upon God, and persuading him to 
seek after the things to come, and to know that which is 
really good, and the Root and Fountain of all things, and to 
refer the honours to Him. 

Since also when He saith. Call no one master upon earth, it 
is in contradistinction to Himself He saith this, and that they 
might learn what is the chief sovereignty over all things that 
are. For neither was it a small forwardness the young man 
had shewn up to this time in having fallen into such a desire ; 
and when of the rest some were tempting, some were coming to 
Him for the cure of diseases, either their own or others, he 
for eternal life was both coming to Him, and discoursing with 
Him. For fertile was the land and rich, but the multitude of 
the thorns choked the seed. Mark at any rate how he is 
prepared thus far for obedience to the commandments. For 
^ By doing what,' he saith, ' shall I inherit eternal life?'' So 
ready was he for ihe performance of the things that should 
be told him. But if he had come unto Him, tempting Him, 
the Evangelist would have declared this also to us, as He 
doth also with regard to. the others, as in the case of the 
Lawyer. And though himself had been silent, Christ would 
not have suffered him to lie concealed, but would have con- 

854 Our Lord's teaching of the rich young man. 

HoMiL. victed him plainly, or at least would have intimated it, so 

J 2. that he should not seem to have deceived Him, and to be 

hidden, and thereby have suffered hurt. 

If he had come unto Ilim tempting, he woidd not have 
departed sorrowing for what he heard. This was not at any 
rate ever the feeling of any of the Pharisees, but they grew 
fierce when their mouths were stopped. But not so this 
man ; but he goeth away cast down, which is no little sign 
that not with an evil will he had come unto Ilim, but with 
one too feeble, and that he did indeed desire life, but was 
held in subjection by another and most grievous feeling. 

Therefore when Christ said, If thou wilt enter into life., 
heej) the commaoulmenis, he sailh, Which ? Not tempting, 
far from it, but supposing there were some others besides 
those of the Law that should procure him life, which was like 
one who was very desirous. Then since Jesus mentioned 
y, 20. those out of the Lau', he sailh. All these things have I kept 
from my youth i(p. And neither at this did he stop, but 
again asks, What lack I yet? which itself again was a sign of 
his yery earnest desire. 

What then saith Christ ? Since He was going to enjoin 
something great, He setteth forth the recompenses, and sailh, 
If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give 
to the poor, and thou shall have treasure in Heavefi, and 
come, and follow 3Ie. 

[2.] Sees£ thou how many prizes, how many crowns 
He appoints for this race? If he had been tempting, He 
would not have told him these things. But now He both 
saith it, and in order to draw him on, He also shews him 
tlie reward to be great, and leaves it all to his own will, 
by all means throwing into the shade that which seemed 
to be grievous in His advice. Wherefore even before men- 
tioning the conflicts and the toil. He shews him the prize, 
saying, If thou wilt be perfect, and then saith. Sell that 
thou hast, and give to the poor, and straightway again the 
rewards, Thou shall have treasure in Heaven ; and come, 
and follow 3Ie. For indeed to follow Him is a great recom- 
pense. And thou shalt have treasure in Heaven. 

For since his discourse was of money, even of all did He 
advise him to strip himself, shewing that he loses not what 

Excessive power of the love of riches. 855 

he hatli,biit adds to his possessions, He gave him more tlian Matt. 
He required him to give up ; and not only more, but also as 22. 23, 

much greater as Heaven is greater than earth, and yet more so. 

But He called it a treasure, shewing the plenteousness of 
the ^recompense, its permanency, its security, so far as it was 
possible by human similitudes to intimate it to the hearer. 
It is not then enough to despise wealth, but we must also 
maintain poor men, and above all things follow Christ; that 
is, do all the things that are ordered by Him, be ready for 
slaughter and daily death. ^ For if any man will come after^ ^^'*- 
ilf(?, let him deny himself and take up his cross, and follow ' 
Ble. So that to cast away one's money is a much less thing 
than this last commandment, to shed even one's very blood ; 
yet not a little doth our being freed from wealth contribute 
towards this. 

But ivhen the young man heard it, he went away sorrowful, v. 22. 
After this the Evangelist, as it were to shew that he hath not 
felt any thing it was unlikely he should feel, saith, For he 
had great possessions. For they that have little are not 
equally held in subjection, as they that are overflowed with 
great affluence, for then the love of it becomes more tyran- 
nical. Which thing I cease not always saying, that the 
increase of acquisitions kindles the flame more, and renders 
the getters poorer, inasmuch as it puts them in greater 
desire, and makes them have more feeling of their want. 

See, for example, even here what strength did this passion 
exhibit. Him that had come to Him with joy and forward- 
ness, when Christ commanded him to cast away his riches, 
it so overwhelmed and weighed down, as not to suffer him so 
much as to answer touching these things, but silenced and 
become dejected and sullen to go away. 

What then sailh Christ } How hardly shall the rich enters. 23. 
into the Kingdom of Heaven ! blaming not riches, but them 
that are held in subjection by them. But if the rich man 
hardly, much more the covetous man. For if not to give 
one's own be an hindrance to entering the Kingdom, even to 
take of other men's goods, think how much the it heapeth up. 

Why can it have been, however, that He said to His dis- 
ciples, that hardly shall a rich man enter in, they being poor 
men, and having no possessions ? Instructing them not to be 

B56 The Apostles perplexed how others could he saved. 

HoMiL. ashamed of their poverty, and, as it were, excusing Himself 
2. 3. " to them for suffering them to have nothing. 

But having said it was hard; as He proceeds, He shews 
that it is even impossible, and not merely impossible, but 
even in the highest degree impossible ; and this He shewed 
^fie\6- \)y tlie comparison concerning the camel and the 'needle, 
y!'24. Il^ i^ easier, saith He, /or a camel to enter in by the eye 
of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom 
of Heaven. Whence it is shewn, that there is no ordinary 
veward for them that are rich, and are able to practise self 
command. Whei-efore also He affirmed it to be a work of 
God, that He might shew that great grace is needed for 
him who is to achieve this. At least, when the disciples 
T. 26. were troublerl, He said, With men this is impossible ; 
but icith God all things are p)0SsiJjle. 

And wherefore are the disciples troubled, being poor, yea 
exceedingly poor.? Wherefore then are they confounded? 
Being in pain about the salvation of the rest, and having a 
great affection for all, and having already taken upon them- 
selves the tender bowels of teachers. They were at least in 
such trembling and fear for the whole world from this 
declaration, as to need much comfort. 

Therefore, having first beheld them, He said tmio ihemy 
Tlie things which are impossible iiiih men, are possible with 
God. For with a mild and meek look, having soothed their 
shuddering mind, and having put an end to their distress, (for 
this the Evangelist signified by saying, He beheld them,') 
then by His words also He relieves them, bringing before 
them God's power, and so making them feel confidence. 

But if thou wilt learn the manner of it likewise, and how 
what is impossible may become possible, hear. For neither 
for this end did He say, The things which are impossible icilh 
men, are possible with God, that thou shouldest give it up, 
and abstain, as from things impossible; but that having 
considered the greatness of the good work, thou shouldest 
hasten to it readily, and having besought God to assist thee 
in these noble contests, shouldest attain unto life. 

[3.] How then should this become possible.'* If thou cast 
away what thou hast, if thou empty thyself of thy wealth, if 
thou refrain from the wicked desire. For in proof that He does 

Renouncing wealth, tliouyh difficult, possible by Grace. 857 

not refer it to God alone, but that to this end He said it, that Matt. 

thou shouldest knovv the vastness of the good work, hear what 27—29. 

follows. For when Peter hjid said, Behold, we have forsaken v.27-29. 
all, and followed Thee, and had asked, What shall we have 
therefore? having appointed the reward for them ; He added. 
And every one who hath forsaken houses, or lands, or brothers, 
or sisters, or fathers, or mothers, shall receive an hundredfold, 
and shall inherit eternal life. Thus that which is impossible 
becometh possible. But how may this very thing be done, 
one may say, to forsake these ? how is it possible for him 
that is once sunk in such lust of wealth, to recover himself? 
If he begin to empty himself of his possessions, and cut off 
what are superfluous. For so shall he both advance further, 
and shall run on his course more easily afterwards. 

Do not then seek all at once, but gently, and by little and 
little, ascend this ladder, that leads thee up to Heaven. For 
like as those in fevers having acrid bile abounding within 
them, when they cast in thereon meats and drinks, so far 
from quenching their thirst, do even kindle the flame ; so 
also the covetous, when they cast in their wealth upon this 
wicked lust more acrid than that bile, do rather inflame it. 
For nothing so slays it, as to refrain for a time from the lust 
of gain, like as acrid bile is stayed by abstinence and evacu- 

But this itself, by what means will it be done? one may say. 
If thou consider, that whilst rich, thou wilt never cease 
thirsting, and pining with the lust of more ; but being freed 
from thy possessions, thou wilt be able also to stay this 
disease. Do not then encompass thyself with more, lest thou 
follow after things unattainable, and be incurable, and be 
more miserable than all, being thus frantic. 

For answer me, whom shall we affirm to be tormented and 
pained ? him that longs after costly meats and drinks, and 
is not able to enjoy them as he will, or him that hath not 
such a desire? it is quite clear one must say, him that 
desires, but cannot obtain what he desires. For this is so 
painful, to desire and not to enjoy, to thirst and not to drink, 
that Christ desiring to describe hell to us, described it in this 
way, and introduced the rich man thus tormented. For 
longing for a drop of water, and not enjoying it, this was 
his punishment. So then he that despises wealth quiets the 

858 Wrong desires are best cured by starving them. 

HoMii. desire, but lie tliat desires to be rich Lath innanied it more, 
3. 4. 'and not yet doth he stay; but though he liave got ten thou- 
sand talents, he desireth as much more ; though he obtain 
these, again he aims at twice as much more, and going on he 
desires even the mountains, and the earth, and the sea, and 
all to become gold for him, being mad with a kind of new 
and fearful madness, and, one that can never thus be extin- 

And that thou mightest learn, that not by addition but by 
taking away this evil is stayed ; if thou hadst ever had an 
absurd desire to fly^ and to be borne through the air, how 
wouldest thou extinguish this unreasonable desire ? By 
fashioning wings, and preparing other instruments, or by con- 
vincing the mind that it is desiring things impossible, and 
that one should attenipt none of these things ? It is quite 
plain, that by convincing the mind. But that, thou mayest 
say, is impossible. But this again is more impossible, to find 
a limit for this desire. For indeed it is more easy for men 
to fly, than to make this lust cease by an addition of more. 
For when the objects of desire are possible, one may be 
soothed by the enjoyment of them, but when they are im- 
possible, one must labour for one thing, to draw ourselves 
off from the desire, as otherwise at least it is not possible to 
recover the soul. 

Therefore thatw^e may not have superfluous sorrows, let us 
forsake the love of money that is ever paining, and never 
endures to hold its peace, and let us remove ourselves to 
another love, which both makes us happy, and hath great 
facility, and let us long after the treasures above. For 
neither is the labour here so great, and the gain is unspeak- 
able, and it is not possible for him to fail of them who is but 
in any wise watchful and sober, and despises the things 
present; even as on the other hand, as to him that is a slave 
to these last, and is utterly given up to lh^.'m, it is altogether 
of necessity that he fail of those better riches. 

[4 ] Considering then all these things, put aw^ay the wicked 
desire of vvealth. For neither couldest thou say this, that it 
gives the things present, though it deprive us of the things 
to come, albeit even if this were so, this were extreme 
punishment, and vengeance. But now not even this may be. 
For besides hell, and before that hell, even here it casts 

Wretched effects of avarice on the soul. 859 

thee into a more grievous punishment. For many houses Matt. 
hath this lust overthrown, and fierce wars hath it stirred up, 27—29. 
and compelled men to end their lives by a violent death; 
and before these dangers it ruins the nobleness of the soul, 
and is wont often to make him that hath it coward)}^, and 
unmanly, and rash, and false, and calumnious, and ravenous, 
and over-reaching, and all the worst things. 

But seeing perhaps the briglitness of the silver, and the 
multitude of the servants, and the beauty of the buildings, 
the court paid in the market-place, art thou bewitched 
thereby ? What remedy then may there be for this evil 
wound ? If thou consider how these things affect thy soul, 
how dark, and desolate, and foul they render it, and how 
ugly; if thou reckon with how many evils these things were 
acquired, with how many labours they are kept, with how 
many dangers: or rather they are not kept unto the end, but 
when thou hast escaped the attempts of all, death coming on 
thee is often wont to remove these things into the hand of 
thine enemies, and goeth and takelh thee with him destitute, 
drawing after thee none of these things, save the wounds 
and the sores only, which the soul received from these, 
before its departing. When then thou seest any one resplen- 
dent outwardly with raiment and large attendance, lay open 
his conscience, and thou shalt see many a cobweb within, and 
much dust. Consider Paul, Peter. Consider John, Elias, 
or rather the Son of God Himself, VVho hath not where to 
lay His head. Be an imitator of Him, and of His servants, 
and imagine to thyself the unspeakable riches of these. 

But if having obtained a little sight by these, thou sliouldest 
be darkened again, as in any shipwreck when a storm hath 
come on, hear the declaration of Christ, which affirms, that 
it is impossible for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of 
Heaven. And against this declaration set the mountains, 
and the earth, and the sea; and all things, if thou wilt, 
suppose' to be gold ; for thou shalt see nothing equal to the ' t(J? 
loss arising to thee from thence. And thou indeed makest^J^^^^ 
mention of acres of land, so many and so many, and of 
houses ten or twenty or even more, and of baths as many, 
and of slaves a thousand, or twice as many, and of chariots 
fastened with silver and overlaid with gold ; but I say this, 
diat if each one of vou that are rich were to leave this 

860 Misery of Heaven lost shewn from disappointed avarice. 

HoMiL. poverty, (for these things are poverty compared with what I 
'4. 'am about to say,) and were possessed of a ^vhole world, and 
each of them had as many men, as are now every where on 
land and sea, and each a world both sea and land, and every 
where buildings, and cities, and nations, and from every side 
instead of water, instead of fountains, gold flowed up for him, 
I would not say those who are thus rich arc worth three 
farthings, when they are cast out of tlie kingdom. 

For if now aiming at riches that perish, when they miss 
them, they are tormented, if they should obtain a perception 
of those unspeakable blessings, what then will suffice for 
consolation for them ? There is nothing. Tell me not then 
of the abundance of their possessions, but consider how 
great loss the lovers of this abundance undergo in con- 
sequence thereof, for these things losing Heaven, and being 
in the same state, as if an}- one after being cast out of the 
highest honour in kings' courts, having a dung heap, were to 
• pride himself on that. For the storing up of money differs 
nothing from that, or rather that is even the better. For 
that is serviceable both for husbandry, and for heating a 
bath, and for other such uses, but the buried gold for none 
of these things. And would it were merely useless; but as 
it is, it kindles moreover many furnaces for him that hath it, 
unless he use it rightly; countless evils at least spring there-, 

Therefore they that are without used to call the love of 
money the citadel" of evils; but the blessed Paul spake much 

'1 Tim. better, and more vividly, pronouncing it ' tJie root of all evils. 
' ' Considering then all these things, let us emulate the things 
worthy of emulation, not gorgeous buildings, not costly 
estates, but the men that have much confidence towards 
God, those that have riches in Heaven, the owners of those 
treasures, them that are really rich, them that are poor for 
Christ's sake, that we may attain unto the good things of 
eternity by the grace and love towards man of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, with Whom be unto the Father, together with 
the Holy Ghost, glory, might, honour, now and always and 
world without end. Amen. 

" Mr. Field cites StobcTus, p. 130, 52. say /UTjTpi^TroAis, uot aKp6iro\ts. See 
of Bion, and Diog. Laert. vi. 50. of Adnot. p. 133. 
Diogenes the Cyjiic, noting that both 


Matt. xix. 27. 

Then answered Peter, and said unio Him, Behold, we have 
forsaken all, and followed Thee; what shall we have 
therefore ? 

All which? O blessed Peter; the rod? the net? the 
boat? the craft? These things dost thou tell me of, as all? 
Yea, saith he, but not for display do I say these things, but 
in order that by this question I may bring in the multitude 
of the poor. For since the Lord had said. If thou wilt be ^^21. 
perfect, sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou 
shall have treasure in Heaven ; lest any one of the poor 
should say, What then? if I have no possessions, can I not 
be perfect ? Peter asks, that thou, the poor man, mayest 
learn, that thou art made in no respect inferior by this: 
Peter asks, that thou mayest not learn from Peter, and 
doubt, (for indeed he was imperfect as yet, and void of the 
Spirit,) but that, having received the declaration from Peter's 
Master, thou mayest be confident. 

For like as we do, (we make things our own often when 
speaking of the concerns of others,) so did the Apostle, when 
he put to Him this question in behalf of all the world. Since 
that at least he knew with certainty his own portion, is 
manifest from what had been said before ; for he that had 
already received the keys of the Heavens, much more might 
feel confidence about the things hereafter. 

But mark also how exactly his reply is according to 
Christ's demand. For He had required of the rich man 
these two things, to give that he had to the poor, and to 

8G2 The promises conditional on obedience. 

HoMiL. follow Him. Wlicrofore he also expresses these two things, 
1 'to forsake, and to follow. For behold we have forsaken all, 

' saith he, and have fdloircd Thee. For the forsaking was 

done for the sake of following, and the following was ren- 
dered easier by the forsaking, and made them feel confidence 
and joy touching the forsaking. 

V, 28. What then saith He? Verily, I say unto you, that ye 
rchich have followed Me, in the Regeneration, when the Son 
of Man shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit 
upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 
What then, one may say, shall Judas sit there? By no 
means. How, then, doth He say. Ye shall sit on twelve 
thrones? how shall the terms of the promise be fulfilled? 

Hear how, and on what principle. There is a law or- 
dained of God, recited by Jeremiah the Prophet to the Jews, 

* Jer. 18, and in these words. ' At ivhat instant I shall speak a sentence 

'~ ' concerning a nation and kingdom, to pluck up and destroy ; 
if that nation turn from their evil deeds, I also it ill repent 
of the evils, which I thought to do unto them. And at what 
instant I shall speak concerning a nation and kingdom to 
build and to plant it ; and if they do evil in My sight, that 
they obey not My voice, I also will repent of the good, ichich 
I said I would do unto them. 

For the same custom do I observe with respect to the 
good things as well, saith He. For though I spake of 
building up, should they shew themselves unworthy of the 
promise, I will no longer do it. Which sort of thing was 
done with respect to man upon his creation, For the dread 

^Geii.9,ofyou, it is said, ^and the fear of you shall be on the wild 
beasts, and it came not to pass, for he proved himself 
unworthy of the sovereignty, even as did Judas also. 

For in order that neither at the denunciations of punish- 
ment any men should despair, and become more hardened, 
nor by the promises of good things be rendered causelessly 
more remiss. He remedies both these evils, by that which I 
have before mentioned, saying in this way : Though I 
should threaten, do not despair ; for thou art able to repent, 
and to reverse the denunciation, like the Ninevites. Though 
I should promise anj- good thing, grow not remiss because 
of the promise. For shouldest thou appear unworthy, the 

Temporal promises given Jirst to the imperfect. 863 

fact of my having proniised will not advantage thee, but will Matt 
rather bring punishment. For 1 promise thee being worthy. 29.. * 

Therefore even then in His discourse with His disciples 
He did not promise to them simpl}^, for neither did He say, 
you, only, but added, which have followed 3Ic, that He 
n:iight both cast out Judas, and draw towards Him those that 
should come afterwards. For neither to them only was it 
said, nor to Judas any more, when he had become unworthy. 

Now to the disciples He promised things to come, saying. 
Ye shall sit on twelve thrones, for they were now of a higher 
stamp, and sought after none of the things of the present 
world, but to the rest He promises also what are here. 

For every one, He saith, lltat hath forsaken brethren, orv-29. 
sisters, or fother, or mother, or icifo, or children, or lands, 
or house, for My Name's sake, shall receive an hundred fold 
in this world, and shall inherit everlasting life. 

For lest any after having heard the word " ye," should sup- 
pose this a thing peculiar to the disciples, (I mean now the 
enjoying the greatest and first honours in ihe things to come,) 
He extended the word, and spread the promise over the 
whole earth, and from the things present establishes the 
things to come also. And to the disciples also at the begin- 
ning, when they were in a more imperfect state. He reasoned 
from the things present. For when He drew them from the 
sea, and took them from their trade, and conunanded them 
to forsake the ships, He made mention not of Heaven, not 
of thrones, but of the things here, saying, 1 trill make you 
Jishers of men ; but when He had wrought them to be of higher 
views, then after that He discourses of the things to come 

[2.] But what is, Judging the twelve tribes of Israel? This 
is, condemning them. For they are not surely to sit as judges, 
but hke as He said the Queen of the South should condemn 
that generation, and the Ninevites shall condenni them ; so 
now these also. Therefore He said not, the nations, and the 
world, but die tribes of Israel. For since both the Jews 
alike and the Apostles had been brought up under the same 
laws, and customs, and polity; when the Jews said, that for 
this cause they could not believe in Christ, because the Law 
forbad to receive His commandmcnls, by bringing forward 

304 Meaning of the " twelve throne.s," and " hundred fold." 

HoMiL. these men, who had received the same law, and yet hud be- 

LXlv. jjgyg(j^ jjg condemns all those ; like as even already He had 

i^Ttt^ said, ^therefore they shall be Tjour judges. 

)2, 27. ^jjj what great thing doth lie ])roniise them, il may be 
said, if what the Ninevites have and the Queen of the South, 
this these are to have also ? In the first place He had pro- 
mised them many other things before this, and after this doth 
promise them, and this alone is not their reward. 

And besides even in this He intimated by the way some- 
thing more than these things. For of those If e simply said, 

2 Matt. 77/g2 ^j^gj^ Qj- JSlineieh shall rise up aiid condemn this gene- 

ration, and, The Queen of the South shall condemn it ; but 
concerning these, not merely thus, but how ? JVhen the Son 
of 3Ian shall sit upon the throne of His glory, then shall ye 
also sit upon ticelve thrones, saith He, declaring, that they 

3 2 Tim. also shall reign with Him, and partake of that glory. ^ For 
' * if rt-e suffer, it is said, ue shall also reign iiith Him. For 

neither do the thrones signify a sitting (in judgment), for 
He alone is the one that shall sit and judge, but honour and 
glory unspeakable did He intimate by the thrones. 

To these then He spake of these things, but to all the rest 
of eternal life and an hundred fold here. But if to the rest, 
much more to these too, both these things, and the things in 
this life. 

And this surely came to pass; for when they had left a 
fishing rod and a net, they possessed with authority the sub- 
stances of all, the prices of the houses and the lands, and the 
very bodies of the believers. For often did tliey choose even 
to be slain for their sake, as Paul also bears witness to many, 

* Gal. 4, when he saith, *Ifit had been possible ye icoiild have plucked 

out your eyes, and given them to me. But when He saith, 
Every one icho hath forsaken wife, He saith not this, for 
marriages to be broken asunder for nought, but as Ho saith 

* Matt, concerning one's life, ^He that loseth his life for my sake 

' ' shall find it, not that we should destroy ourselves, neither 
that while yet here we should part it from the body, but that 
we should prefer godliness to all things; this too He saith 
also with respect to wife and brethren. 

But He seems to me here to intimate also the persecutions. 
For since there were many instances both of fathers urging 

Parable of the Labourers hired at differejit hours. 865 

their sons to ungodliness, and wives their husbands; when Matt. 

. XIX 

they command these things, saith He, let them be neither 30'. ' 

wives nor parents, even as Pciul likewise said, * But if the un- 1 1 Coj.. 

believing depart, let him depart. '^■> ^^* 

When He had then raised the spirit of all, and had per- 
suaded them to feel confidence both with respect to themselves 
and to all the world, He added, that Many that were first^'-^^- 
shall be last, and last first. But this although it be spoken 
also without distinction concerning many others likewise, 
it is spoken also concerning these men and concerning 
the Pharisees, who did not believe, even as before also 
He had said, ^ 7%a^ many shall come from east and west,^^la.t.8, 
and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob ; 
but the children of the Kingdom shall be cast out. 

Then He adds also a parable, as training those who had 
fallen short to a great forwardness. 

For the Kingdom of Heaven, He said, is like to a man Mat. 20, 
that is an householder, which went out early in the morning ~~ 
to hire labourers into his vineyard. And when he had 
agreed with them for a penny a day, he sent them into his 

And at the third hour he saio others standing idle, and to 
them too he said. Go ye also into the vineyard, and 'whatsoever 
is right I will give you. And about the sixth and ninth hours 
he did likewise. And about the eleventh hour, he saw others 
standing idle, and saith unto them. Why stand ye here all the 
day idle F But they say unto him. No man hath hired us. He 
saith unto them. Go ye also into my vineyard, and whatsoever 
is right, ye shall receive. 

So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith 
unto his steward. Call the labourers, and give them their hire, 
beginning from the last unto the first. And when they came 
that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every 
man a penny. And the first supposed that they should 
receive more, and they received likewise every man a penny. 
And when they had received it, Ihey murmured against the 
qood man of the house, saying. These last have wrought but 
one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us that have 
borne the burden and heat of the day. But he answered one 
of them, and said. Friend, I do thee no ivrong ; didst thou 

3 K 

866 Meaning of the several hours. Difficulty of the close. 

HoMiL. not agree ivith me for a penny ? Take that thine is, and go 

2. 3. * '^y *^'^y / ^ "^m gi^'^ unto this last also, even as unto thee. 

~ Is it not lawful for me to do u-hat I will with mine own ? 

Is thine eye evil, because I am good? Thus the last shall be 

first, and the first last: for many are called, but few chosen. 

[3.] What is to us the intent of this parable ? For the 
beginning doth not liarnionize with what is said at the end, 
but intimates altogether the contrary. For in the first part 
He shews all enjoying the same, and not some cast out, and 
some brought in ; yet He Himself both before the parable 
and after the parable said the opposite thing. That the first 
shall be last, and the last frst, that is, before the very first, 
those not continuing first, but having become last. For in 
proof that this is His meaning, He added, Many are called, 
hut few chosen, so as doubly both to sting the one, and to 
soothe and urge on the other. 

But the parable saith not this, but that they shall be equal 
to them that are approved, and have laboured much. For 
thou hast made them equal unto us, it is said, that have 
borne the burden and heat of the day. 

What then is the meaning of the parable ? For it is ne- 
cessary to make this first clear, and then we shall clear up 
that other point. By a vineyard He meaneth the injunctions 
of God and His commandments : by the time of labouring, 
the present life : by labourers, them that in different ways are 
called to the fulfilment of the injunctions: by early in the 
morning, and about the third and ninth and eleventh hours, 
them who at different ages have drawn near to God, and 
approved themselves. 

But the question is this, whether the first having gloriously 
approved themselves, and having pleased God, and having 
throughout the whole day shone by their labours, are 
possessed by the basest feeling of vice, jealousy and envy. 
For when they had seen them enjoying the same rewards, 
they say, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou 
hast made than equal unto lis, that have borne the burden 
iunl heat of the day. And in these words, when they are to 
receive no hurt, neither to suffer diminution as to their own 
hire, they were indignant, and much displeased at the good 
of others, which was proof of envy and jealousy. And what 

None whom God reioards will really he envious. 867 

is yet more, the good man of the house in justifying himself Matt. 
with respect to them, and in making his defence to him that \—\q, 
had said these things, con victs him of wickedness and the basest ' ' 

jealousy, saying, Didst thou not agree icith me for a penny ? 
Take that thine is, and go thy uay ; I tvill give unto the 
last even as unto thee. Is thine eye evil, because lam good? 

What then is it which is to be established by these things ? 
For in other parables also this selfsame thing may be seen. 
For the son who was approved is brought in, as having 
felt this selfsame thing, when he saw his prodigal brother 
enjoying much honour, even more than himself For like 
as these enjoyed more, by receiving first, so he in a greater 
degree was honoured by the abundance of the things given 
him ; and to these things he that was approved bears witness. 

What then may we say ? There is no one who is thus 
justifying himself, or blaming others in the Kingdom of 
Heaven ; away with the thought ! for that place is pure 
from envy and jealousy. For if when they are here the 
saints give their very lives for sinners, much more when they 
see them there in the enjoyment of these things, do they 
rejoice and account these to be blessings of their own. 

Wherefore then did He so frame His discourse.? The 
saying is a parable, wherefore neither is it right to enquire 
curiously into all things in parables word by word', but when ' ko-t^ 
we have learnt the object for which it was composed, to reap 
this, and not to busy one's self about any thing further. 

Wherefore then was this parable thus composed ? what is 
its object to effect? To render more earnest them that are 
converted and become better men in extreme old age, and 
not to allow them to suppose they have a less portion. So 
it is for this cause He introduces also others displeased at 
their blessings, not to represent those men as pining or 
vexed, away with the thought ! but to teach us that these have 
enjoyed such honour, as could even have begotten envy 
in others. Which we also often do, saying, 'Such a one 
blamed me, because I counted thee worthy of much honour,' 
neither having been blamed, nor wishing to slander that 
other, but hereby to shew the greatness of the gift which this 
one enjoyed. 

But wherefore can it have been that ITc did not hire all at 

3 k2 

868 God calls when man is ready. The late colled mmj do well. 

HoMiL. once? As far as concerned Him, He did hire all; but if all 

3 J ' did not hearken at once, the diflbrence was made by the 

""" disposition of them that were called. For this cause, some 

are called early in the morning, some at the third hour, some 

at the sixth, some at the ninth, some at the eleventh, when 

they would obey. 

iGal. 1, This Paul also declared when he said, ' When it pleased 

^"'' Him., Who sc2Mrated me from my mother'' s loomh. When did 

it please Him.? When he was ready to obey. For He willed 

it even from the beginning, but because he would not have 

yielded, then it pleased Him, when Paul also was ready to 

obey. Thus also did He call the thief, although He was 

able to have called him even before, but he would not have 

obeyed. For if Paul at the beginning would not have obeyed, 

much more the thief. 

And if they say, No man hath hired us, in the first place 
as I said we must not be curious about all the points in the 
parables ; but here neither is the good man of the house 
repi'esented to say this, but they ; but he doth not convict 
them, that he might drive them to perplexity, but might 
win them over. For that He called all, as far as lay in Him, 
from the first even the Parable shews, saying, that He went 
out early in the mornimj to hire. 

[4.] From every thing then it is manifest to us, that the para- 
ble is spoken with reference to them who from earliest youth, 
and those who in old age and more tardily, lay hold on virtue ; 
to the former, that they may not be proud, neither reproach 
those called at the eleventh hour ; to the latter, that they may 
learn, that it is possible even in a short time to recover all. 

For since He had been speaking about earnestness, and 
the casting away of riches, and contempt of all one's posses- 
sions, but this needed much vigour of mind and youthful 
ardour; in order to kindle in them a fire of love, and to give 
vigour to their will, He shews that it is possible even for 
men coming later to receive the hire of the whole day. 

But He doth not say it thus, lest again He should make 
them proud, but he shews that the whole is of His Love to 
man, ami because of this they shall not fail, but shall them- 
selves enjoy the unspeakable blessings. 

And this chiefly is what it is His will to establish by this 

Danger of falling hack from what is good, 869 

parable. And if He adds, that, So the last shall hejirst and Matt. 
the first Inst; for many are called^ hut few chosen, marvel i_Ji'g. 

not. For not as inferring it from the parable doth He 
say this, but His meaning is this, that like as this came to 
pass, so shall that come to pass. For here indeed the first 
did not become last, but all received the same contrary to 
hope and expectation. But as this result took place contrary 
to hope and contrary to expectation, and they that came 
before were equalled by them that followed, so shall that also 
come to pass which is more than this, and more strange, I 
mean, that the last should come to be even before the first, 
and that the first should be after these. So that that is one 
thing, and this another. 

But He seems to me to say these things, darkly hinting at 
the Jews, and amongst the believers at those who at first 
shone forth, but afterwards neglected virtue, and fell back; 
and those others again that have risen from vice, and have 
shot beyond many. For we .see such changes taking place 
both with respect to faith and practice. 

Wherefore T entreat you let us use much diligence both 
to stand in the right faith, aud to shew forth an excellent 
life. For unless we add also a life suitable to our faith, we 
shall suffer the extremest punishment. 

And this the blessed Paul shewed even from times of old, 
when he said, that ' They did all eat the same spiritual meat, ' l Cor. 
and did all drink the same spiritual drink: and added, thatg ' ' ' 
they were not saved ; for they were overthrown in the wilder- 
ness. And Christ declared it even in the Evangelists, when 
He brought in some that had cast out devils and prophesied, 
and are led away to punishment. And all His parables also, 
as that of the virgins, that of the net, that of the thorns, that 
of the tree not bringing forth fruit, demand virtue in our 
works. For concerning doctrines He discourses seldom, for 
neither doth the subject need labour, but of life often or 
rather every where, for the war about this is continual, where- 
fore also so is the labour. 

And why I do speak of the whole code. For even a part 
of it overlooked brings upon one great evils ; as, for instance, 
almsgiving overlooked casts into hell them that have come 
short in itj and yet this is not the whole of virtue, but a part 

870 Full measure of almsgiving 8fc. required. 

HoMiL. thereof. But neveitlicless both tlie vimins were punished for 
LXIV. . . . . 

'4^ * not having this, and the rich man was for tliis cause tormented, 

and they that have not fed the hungry, are for this condemned 

with the devil. Again, not to revile is a very small part 

of it, nevertheless this too casts out them that have not 

' Matt, attained to it. ^ For he that saith to his brother, Thou fool. 
5 22 . • • ' 

' * shall be in danger of hell fire. Again, even continence 

itself is a part, but nevertheless, without this no one shall 

'iieb. see the Lord. For, ^Follow peace, h is ssHd, and holiness^, 

3*t' ■ without n-hich no man shall see the Lord. And humility 

/xhv, cf. too in like manner is a part of virtue ; but nevertheless 

4,3. "though any one should fulfil other good works, but have 

not attained to this, he is unclean with God. And this is 

manifest from the Pharisee, who though abounding with 

numberless good works, by this lost all. 

But I have also something more than these things to say 

again. I mean, that not only one of them overlooked shuts 

Heaven against us, but though it be done, yet not in due 

perfection and abundance, it produces the self-same eflfect 

■» Mutt, again. * For except gour righteousness shall exceed the righ- 

^' ^^" teousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter 

into the Kingdom of Heaven. So that though thou give 

alms, but not more than they, thou shalt not enter in. 

And how much did they bestow in alms ? one may ask. 

For this very thing, I am minded to say now, that they who 

do not give, may be roused to give, and they that give, may 

not pride themselves, but may make increase of their gifts. 

What then did they give ? A tenth of all their possessions, 

and again another tenth, and after this a third, so that they 

almost gave away the third part, for three tenths put together 

make up this. And together with these, first fruits, and first 

born, and other things besides, as, for instance, the ofTerings 

for sins, those for purification, those at feasts, those in the 

*'iai)37j- Jubilee^, those by the cancelling of debts, and the dismissals 

^*'*' of servants, and the lendings that were clear of usury. But if 

he who gave the third part of his goods, or rather the half, 

(for those being ])ul together with these are the half,) if then 

he who is giving the half, achieves no great thing, he who 

doth not bestow so much as the tenth, ol" what shall he be 

worthy? With reason He said, There are few that be saved. 

Loip practice of others no excuse for us. 871 

[5.] Let us not, then, despise the care of our hfe. For if one Matt. 
portion of it despised brings so great a destruction, when on "jg " 
every hand we are subject to the sentence of condemnation, 
how shall we escape the punishment ? and what manner of 
penalty shall we not suffer ? and what manner of hope of 
salvation have we, one may ask, if each of the things we have 
numbered, threatens us with hell ? I too say this ; never- 
theless, if we give heed we may be saved, preparing the 
medicines of almsgiving, and attending to our wounds. 

For oil does not so strengthen a body, as benevolence at 
once strengthens a soul, and makes it invincible to all and 
impregnable to the devil. For wheresoever he may seize us, 
his hold then slips, this oil not suffering his grasp to fix on 
our back. 

With this oil therefore let us anoint ourselves continually. 
For it is the cause of health, and a supply of light, and a 
source of cheerfulness. " But such a one," thou wilt say, 
" hath talents of gold so many and so many, and gives away 
nothing." And what is that to thee .'* For thus shalt thou 
appear more worthy of admiration, when in poverty thou art 
more munificent than he. It was on this ground Paul marvelled 
at the Macedonians, not because they gave, but because even 
though they were in poverty they gave '. '2 Cor. 

Look not then at these, but at the common Teacher of all, '^•^^'^■ 
Who had not where to lay His Jiead^. And why, you say, 'Mat.s, 
doth not this and that person do so ? Do not judge another, * 
but deliver thyself from the charge against thee. Since the 
punishment is greater when thou at the same time blamest 
others, and thyself doest not, when judging other men, thou 
artagain thyself also subject to thesamejudgment. For if even 
them who do right He permits not to judge others, much 
more will He not permit offenders. Let us not therefore 
judge others, neither let us look to others who arc taking their 
ease, but unto Jesus, and from thence let us draw our examples. 

Why! have I been thy Benefactor? Why! did I redeem 
thee, that thou lookest to me } It is Another Who hath be- 
stowed these things on thee. Why dost thou let go thy 
Master, and look unto thy fellow-servant? Heardest thou not 
Him saying, ^ Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly inzMMt. 
heart? And again, He that ivould he first amoncjst you, let^^>^^- 

872 The exanqyles to look to are those of Saints. 

HoMiL. ;,//// fje sertaut (fall: and again, ^ Even as the Son of Man 

"^6. came not to he ministered unto, hnl to minister. And after 

"Matt, these things a^ain, lest taliinp: offence at them who are remiss 

28.' " amongst tliy fellow-servants, thou continue in conttmptuous- 

2 John ness; to draw thee off from that, He saith, '/ //are made 

13, lo. i\Tijself an example to yoUy that as I have done, ye should do 

also. But hast thou no teacher of virtue amongst those persons 

that are with thee, neither such a one as to lead thee on to 

these things ? More abundant then will be the praise, the 

commendation greater, when not even being supplied with 

teachers thou hast become one to be marvelled at. 

For this is possible, nay very easy, if we be willing; aiid 
this they shew, who first duly performed these things, as, for 
instance, Noah, Abraham, Melchizedeck, Job, and all the 
men like them. To them it is needful to look every da}', and 
not unto these, whom ye never cease emulating, and passing 
about their names in your assemblies. For nothing else do 
I hear you saying every where, but such words as these; 
" Such a one has bought so many acres of land, such a one 
is rich, he is building." Why dost thou stare, O man, at 
what is without ? Wh}^ dost thou look to others ? If thou 
art minded to look to others, look to them that do their 
duty, to them that approve themselves, to them that carefully 
fulfil the law, not to those that have become offenders, and 
are in dishonour. For if thou look to these, thou wilt 
gather hence many evil things, falling into remissness, into 
pride, into condemnation of others ; but if thou reckon 
over them that do right, thou wilt lead thyself on unto 
humility, unto diligence, unto compunction, unto the blessings 
that are beyond number. 

Hear what the Pharisee suffered, because he let pass them 
that do right, and looked to him that had offended ; hear 
and fear. 

See how David became one to be marvelled at, because 

»P8.39, he looked to his ancestors that vrere noted for virtue. ^For 

^^' I am a stranger, said he, and a sojourner, as all my fathers 

toere. For this man, and all that arc like him, let pass them 

that had sinned, and thought of those who had approved 


This do thou also. For thou art not set to judge of the 

Our safety is in judging ourselves strictly. 873 

negligences of which others have been guilty, nor to enquire Matt. 
into the sins which others are coramittmg; thou art required "jg ' 
to do judgment on thyself, not on others. ^ For if ue judged \Yc^. 
ourselces, it is said, tve should not be judged, but wlien we^^^^^' 
are judged, we are chastened of the Lord. But thou hast 
reversed the order, of thyself requiring no account of offences 
great or small, but being strict and curious about the offences 
of others. 

Let us no more do this, but leaving off this disorderly 
way, let us set uj) a tribunal in ourselves for the sins com- 
mitted by ourselves, becoming ourselves accusers, and judges, 
and executioners for our offences. 

But if it be thy will to be busy about the things of other 
men also, busy thyself about their good works, not their sins, 
that both by the memory of our negligences and by our emu- 
lation for the good works they have done, [and by setting 
before ourselves the judgment-seat from which no prayers can 
deliver, wounded each day by our conscience as by a kind of 
goad'',] we may lead ourselves on to humility, and a greater 
dihgence, and attain unto the good things to come, by the 
grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ; with 
Whom be to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, 
glory, might, honour, now and always, and world without 
end. Amen. 

'' The part within brackets is omitted in two Manuscripts. 


Matt. xx. 17 — 19. 

And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples 
apart i?i the way, and said unto thern^ Behold, we go up to 
Jerusalem^ and the Son of Man shall be betrayed unto the 
chief priests and unto the Scribes, and they shall condemn 
Him to death, and shall deliver Him to the Gentiles to mock, 
and to scourge, and to crucify Htm, and the third day He 
shall be raised. 

He goetli not up at once to Jerusalem when He is come 

out of Galilee, but having first wrought miracles, and having 

stopped the mouths of Pharisees, and having discoursed with 

' Matt. His disciples of renouncing possessions: for, '?/ thoii tcilt 

« ib. 12. he perfect, saith He, sell that thou hast: and of virginity, -jfiTe 

that is able to receive, let him receive it: and of humility, 

3 Matt. For^ except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye 

' ' shall not e)iter into the Kingdom of Heaven : and of a re- 

* Matt, compense of the things \\Qxe,* For whoso hathforsaken houses, 

19. 29. ^^. j;.^.//,;.^;,^ Qy slstcvs, sliall reccioe an hundred fold in this 

world: and of rewards there. For he shall also iiiJierit, it is 

said, everlasting life : then he assails the city next, and 

being on the point of going up, discourses again of His 

Passion. For since it was likely that they, because they 

were not willing this should come to pass, would forget it, 

He is continually putting them in remembrance, exercising 

their mind by the frequency with which He reminded them, 

and diminishing their pain. 

Seasonable warnings of the approaching trouble. 875 

But He speaks with them apart, necessarily ; for it was not Matt. 
meet that His discourse about these things should be pub- jy ^9^ 

lished to the many ; neither that it should be spoken plainly, ' 
for no advantage arose from this. For if the disciples were 
confounded at healing these things, much more the multitude 
of the people. 

What then ? was it not told to the people ? you may say. 
It was indeed told to the people also, but not so plainly. 
For, ^Destroij, saith He, litis Temple, and in three days I will^ "^^^^ 
raise It up ; and, ^This generation seeketh after a sign, and 2 Matt. 
there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas ; and "' ' 
again, ^Yet a little while am I ivith you, a}id ye shall seek^^°^'°^'^j 
Me, and shall not find Me. 

But to the disciples not so, but as the other things He spake 
unto them more plainly, so also spake He this too. And for 
what purpose, if the multitude understood not the force of 
His sayings, were they spoken at all.'' That they might learn 
after these things, that foreknowing it. He came to His 
Passion, and willing it ; not in ignorance, nor by constraint. 
But to the disciples not for this cause only did He foretel it; 
but, as I have said, in order that having been exercised by 
the expectation, they might more easily endure the Passion, 
and that it might not confound them by coming upon them 
without preparation. So for this cause, while at the begin- 
ning He spake of His death only, when they were practised 
and trained to hear of it. He adds the other circumstances 
also ; as, for instance, that they should deliver Him to the 
Gentiles, that they should mock and scourge Him; as well 
on this account, as in order that when they saw the mourn- 
ful events come to pass, they might expect from this the 
Resurrection also. For He who had not cloked from them 
what would give pain, and what seemed to be matter of re- 
proach, would reasonably be believed about good things too. 
But mark, I pray thee, how with regard to the time also 
He orders the thing wisely. For neither at the beginning 
did He tell them, lest He should disquiet them, neither at 
the time itself, lest by this again He should confound them ; 
but when they had received sufficient proof of His power, 
when He had given them promises that were very great con- 
cerning life everlasting, then He introduces also what He had 

876 Warnings of the Passion imperfectly understood. say concerning these things, once and twice and often 
LXV . . 

2 2. * interweaving it with His miracles and His instructions. 

But another Evangelist saith, that He brought in the 

» Luke Prophets also as witnesses' ; and another again saith, that even 

' * they themselves understood not His words, but the sa} ing 

was hid from them, and that they were amazed as they fol- 

» Mark lowed Him". 

cotnp. Surely then, one may say, the benefit of the prediction is 
Mark 9, taken away. For if they knew not what they were hearing, 
Lukei8, neither could they look for the event, and not looking for it, 
^^* neither could they be exercised by their expectations. 

But I say another thing also more perplexing than this ; 
If they did not know, how were they sorry. For another 
saith, they were sorry. If therefore they knew it not, how 
^Matt. ^-pi-e they sorry? How did Peter say^, Be it far from Thee, 
this shall not be unto Thee ? 

What then may we say ? That He should die indeed they 
knew, albeit they knew not clearly the mystery of the In- 
■* lit- carnation'*. Neither did they know clearly about the Resur- 
rection, neither what He was to achieve; and this was hid 
from them. 

For this cause also they felt pain. For some they had 
known to have been raised again by other persons, but for 
any one to have raised up himself again, and in such wise 
to have raised himself as not to die any more, they had 
never known. 

This then they understood not, though often said ; nay nor 
of this self-same death did they clearly know what it was, 
and how it should come on Him. Wherefore also they were 
amazed as they followed Him, but not for this cause only; but 
to me at least He seems even to amaze them by discoursing 
of His Passion. 

[2.] Yet none of these things made them take courage, and 
this when they were continually hearing about His Resuri-cc- 
tion. For together with His death this also especially troubled 
them, to hear that men should }nock and scourge Him, and 
the like. For when they considered His miracles, the pos- 
sessed persons whom He had delivered, the dead whom He 
had raised, all the other marvellous works which He was 
doing, and then heard these things, they were amazed, if He 

16, 22. 


Request of the sons of Zehedee. Apostles still carnal. 877 

Who doeth these works is thus to suffer. Therefore they fell Matt. 

^ XX 


even into perplexity, and now believed, now disbelieved, and 

coidd not understand His sayings. So fur at least were they 
from understanding clearly what He said, that the sons of 
Zebedee at the same time came to Him, and spake to Him of 
precedence. We desire^ it is said, that one should sit on Thy^- 21. 
Right Hand, and one on Thy Left. How then doth this Evan- M^rk 
gelist say, that their mother came to Him? It is probable "^' ^'^* 
both things were done. I mean, that they took tlieir mother 
with them, with the purpose of making their entreaty stronger, 
and in this way to prevail with Christ. 

For in proof that this is true, as I say, and the request 
was rather theirs, and that being ashamed they put forward 
their mother, mark how Christ directs His words to them. 

But rather let us learn, first, what do they ask, and with 
what disposition, and whence they were moved to this .? 
Whence then were they moved to this ? They saw them- 
selves honoured above the rest, and expected from that they 
should obtain this request also. But what can it be they 
ask? Hear another Evangelist plainly declaring this. For, 
Because He ivas nigh, it is said*, to Jenisale7n, and because^ Luke 
they thought the kingdom of God shoidd immediately appear, *^' ^' 
they asked these things. For they supposed, that this was 
at the doors, and visible, and that having obtained wdiat they 
asked, they would undergo none of the painful things. For 
neither for its own sake only did they seek it, but as though 
they woidd also escape the hardships. 

Wherefore also Christ in the first place leads them off 
from these thoughts, commanding them to await slaughters, 
and dangers, and the utmost terrors. For, Are ye able, saith v. 22. 
He, to drink of the cup that I drink of? 

But let no man be troubled at the Apostles being in such 
an imperfect state. For not yet was the Cross accomplished, 
not yet the grace of the Spirit given. But if thou wouldest 
learn their virtue, notice them after these things, and thou 
wilt see them superior to every passion. For with this 
object He reveals their deficiencies, that after these things 
thou mightest know, what manner of men they became by 

That then they were asking, in fact, for nothing spiiitual. 

878 Our Lord's ansiver to James and John. 

HoMiL. neither had a thought of the Kingdom above, is manifest from 
2 * hence. But let us see also, how they come unto Him, and 

1 Mark what thcy say. IVe tcould, it is said', thai whatsoever we 
10,35. g/i(iii desire of Thee, Thou shoiddest do it for us. 

2 ib. 36. And Christ saith to them, JVhat would ye^ ? not being igno- 

rant, but that He may compel them to answer, and lay open 
the wound, and so apply the medicine. But they out of 
shame and confusion of face, because under the influence 
of a human passion they were come to do this, took Him 
privately apart from the Disciples, and asked Him. For they 
went before, it is said, so that it might not be observable to 
them, and so said what they wished. For it was their desire, 
as I suppose, because they heard. Ye shall sit on twelve 
thrones^ to have the first place of these seats. And that they 
had an advantage over the others, they knew, but they were 
afraid of Peter, and say. Command, that one sit on Thy Right 
Hand, one on Thy left; and they urge Him, saying. Command. 

What then saith He? Shewing, that they asked nothing 
spiritual, neither, if they had known again what they were 
asking, would tliey have ventured to ask for so much, He 
saith. Ye know not what ye ask, how great, how marvellous, 
how surpassing even the Powers above. After that He adds, 
Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to 
be baptized with the Baptism that I am baptized with ? Seest 
thou, how He straightway drew them off from their suspicion, 
by framing His discourse from the contrary topics ? For ye. 
He saith, talk to me of honour and crowns, but I to you of 
conflicts and labours. For this is not the season for rewards, 
neither shall that glory of mine appear now, but the present 
time is one of slaughter, and wars, and dangers. 

And see how by the form of His question, He both urges 
and attracts them. For He said not, "Are ye able to be 
slain ?" " Are ye able to ]50ur forth your blood ?" but how ? 
" Are ye able to drink of the cup ?" Then to attract them to 
it. He saith, " Which I shall drink of, ^'' that by their fellowship 
with Him in it they might be made more ready. 

And a Baptism again calls He it ; shewing that great was 
the cleansing the \\orld was to have from the things that 
were being done. 
V. 22. They say unto Him, We are able. Out of their forward- 

None actually to sit on His right and left. 879 

ness they straightway undertook it, not knowing even this Matt. 
which they were saying, but looking to hear what they had 23." 

What then saith He ? Ye shall drink indeed of My Cup, y. 13. 
and be baptized with the Baptism that I am baptized with. 
Great blessings did He foretel to them. His meaning is, 
ye shall be counted worthy of martyrdom, and shall suffer 
these things which I suffer; ye shall close your life by a 
violent death, and in these things ye shall be partakers with 
Me ; But to sit on My Right Hand and on My Left is not 
Mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is 
prepared of My Father. 

[3.] Having first elevated their souls, and made them of a 
higher character, and having rendered them such as sorrow 
could not subdue, then He reproves their request. 

But what can be this present saying ? For indeed there 
are two points that are subjects of enquiry to many : one, if 
it be ])vepared for any to sit on His Right Hand; and then, if 
the Lord of all hath not power to bestow it on them for whom 
it is prepared. 

What then is the saying? If we solve the former point, 
then the second also will be clear to the enquirers. What 
then is this } No one shall sit on His Right Hand nor on 
His Left. For that throne is inaccessible to all, 1 do not 
say to men only, and saints, and apostles, but even to angels, 
and archangels, and to all the powers that are on high. 

At least Paul puts it as a peculiar privilege of the Only- 
Begotten, saying, To which of the angels said He at any 
time, Sit thou on My Right Hand^? And of the angels He^UehA, 
saith, Who maketh His angels spnrits ; but unto tlie Son, ' 
Thy Throne, Qod^. ^ih.7.9. 

How then saith He, To sit on My Right Hand and on 
My Left is not 3Iine to give, as though there are some that 
should sit there? Not as though there are; far from it; but 
He makes answer to the thoughts of them who ask the favour, 
condescending to their understanding. For neither did they 
know that lofty throne, and His sitting at the Right Hand of 
the P'ather ; how should they, when even the things that 
were much lower than these, and were daily instilled into 
them, they understood not ? but they sought one thing only, 

880 Our Lord disclaimed only partial giiivg. 

HoMiL. to enjoy the first honours, and to stand before the rest, and 

3. "that no one should stand before them willi Him; even as 

I have ah-eady said before, that, since they heard of twelve 

thrones, in ignorance wliat the saying could mean, they asked 

for the first place. 

What therefore Christ saith is this; " Ye shall die indeed 
for Me, and shall be slain for the sake of the Gospel, and 
shall be partakers with Me, as far as regards the Passion ; 
but this is not sufficient to secure you the enjoyment of the 
first seat, and to cause that ye should occupy the first place. 
For if any one else should come, together with the martyr- 
dom, possessed of all the other parts of virtue far more fully 
than you, not because I love you now, and prefer you to the 
rest, therefore shall I set aside him that is distinguished by 
his good works, and give the first honours to you." 

But thus indeed He did not say it, so as not to pain them, 
but darkly He intimates the self-same thing, saying, Ye 
shall drink indeed of My Cup^ and ye shall he baptized 
ivith the Baptism that I am baptized icith ; hut to sit on 
My Might Hand and on My Left, this is not Mine to give, 
hut it shall he given to those for whom it is prepared. 

But for whom is it prepared ? For them who could be- 
come distinguished by their works. Therefore He said not. 
It is not Mine to give, but My Father's, lest any should say 
that He was too weak, or wanting in vigour for their recom- 
pense; but how? It is not Mine, but of those for whom it is 

And in order that what I say may be more plain, let us 
work it on an illustration, and let us suppose there was some 
master of the games, then that many excellent combatants 
went down to this contest, and that some two of the com- 
batants that were most nearly connected with the master of 
the games were to come to him and say, " Cause us to be 
crowned and proclaimed," confiding in their good-will and 
friendship with him ; and that he were to say lo them, 
" This is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for 
whom it is prepared, by their labours, and their toils;" 
should we indeed condemn him as ])owcrless? By no means, 
but we should approve him for liis justice, and for liaving 
no respect of persons. Like then as we should not say that 

Christ gives heavenly places, hut not arbitrarily. 881 

he did not give the crown from want of vigour, but as not Matt. 
wishing to corrupt the law of the games, nor to disturb the ^^' 
order of justice; in like manner now should I say Christ 
said this, from every motive to compel them, after the grace 
of God, to set their hopes of salvation and approval on the 
proof of their own good works. 

Therefore He saiih, For idiom it is prepared. For what, 
saith He, if others should appear better than you? What, 
if they should do greater things ? For shall ye, because ye 
have become My disciples, therefore enjoy the first honours, 
if ye yourselves should not appear worthy of the choice? 

For that He Himself hath power over the whole, is 
manifest from His having the entire judgment. For to 
Peter too He speaks thus, / will give thee the keys of the 
Heavens *. And Paul also makes this clear where he saith, ' Matt. 
Henceforth is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, ' * 
which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will give me in that 
day ; and not to me only, hut unto all them also which have 
loved His appearing-. But the appearing was of Christ. ^^'^'™- 
But that no one will stand before Paul, is surely clear to 
every one. 

And if He hath expressed these things somewhat ob- 
scurely, marvel not. For to lead them on by hidden in- 
struction', not to be rudely pressing Him without object or 
cause for the first honours, (for from a human passion they felt '^ 
this,) and not wishing to give them pain, by the obscurity 
He effects both these objects. 

Then were the ten moved iciih indignation u-illi respect 
to the two. Then. When? When He had reproved them. 
So long^ as the judgment was Christ's, they were not moved 
with indignation; but seeing them preferred, they were con- 
tented, and held their peace, out of reverence and honour to 
their Master. And if they were vexed in mind, yet they 
dared not utter this. And when they had some feeling of 
human weakness towards Peter, at the time that He gave the 
didrachmas, they did not give way to auger, but asked only, 
Who then is greatest? But since here the request was the 
disciples', they are moved with indignation. And not even 
here are they straightway moved with indignation, when they 
asked, but when Christ had reproved them, and had said 

3 L 

882 The Apostles 7iot jealous when fully gifted. 

HoMiL.thcy should not cnioy iho first honours, unless they shewed 

T XV •' -' •' 

3 4 ■ themselves wortliy of these. 

4. Seest thou how they were all in an imperfect state, when 
both these were lifting themselves up above the ten, and 
those envying the two? But, as I said, shew me them after 
these things, and thou wilt see them delivered from all these 
passions. Hear at least how this same John, he who now 
came to Him for these things, every where gives up the 
first place to Peter, both in addressing the people, and in 
working miracles, in the Acts of the Apostles. 

And he conceals not Peter's good deeds, but relates both 

iJohn6, the confession, which he openly made when all were silent', 

2 John ^"*^^ ^^^^ entering into the tomb^, and puts tlie Apostle 

20, 6. before himself. For, because both continued with Him at 
His crucifixion, taking away the ground of his own com- 

^ John mendation, he saith, ^That disciple was known unlo the high 

'^' ^^- priest. 

But James survived not a long time, but from the begin- 
ning he was so greatly filled with warmth, and so forsook all 
the things of men, and mounted up to an height unutterable, 
as straightway to be slain. Thus, in all respects, they after 

^ &Kpoi. these things became excellent *. 

But then, ihey ivere moved with indignation. What then 

V. 25. saith Christ? He called them unto Him, and said, The 
princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them. For, 
as they were disturbed and troubled, He soothes thera by 
His call before His word, and by drawing them near 
Him. For the two having separated themselves from the 
company of the ten, had stood nearer Him, pleading their 
own interests. Therefore He brings near Him these also, 
by this very act, and by exposing and revealing it before 
the rest, soothing the passion both of the one and of the 

And not as before, so now also doth He check them. For 
whereas before He brings little children into the midst, and 
commands to imitate their simplicity and lowliness; here He 
reproves tlunn in a shar])er way from the contrary side, say- 

v.25-2". ing. The princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion, over them, 
and their great ones exercise authority upon them, but it shall 
not be so among you ; hut he that will be great among you. 

Our Lord's care to soften their indignation. 883 

let this man he minister to all; and he that will be first, let Matt. 

• . XX 

him be last of all; shewing that such a feeling as this is that 28.' 

of heathens, I mean, to love the first place. For the passion 
is tyrannical, and is continually hindering even great men ; 
therefore also it needs a severer stripe. Whence He too 
strikes deeper into them, by comparison with the Gentiles 
shaming their inflaiued soul, and removes the envy of the 
one and the arrogance of the othei', all but saying, " Be not 
moved with indignation, as insulted. For they harm and 
disgrace themselves most, who on this wise seek the first 
places, for they are amongst the last. For matters with 
us are not like matters without. For the princes of the 
Gentiles exercise dominion over them, but with Me the last, 
even he is first." 

" And in proof that I say not these things without cause, by 
the things which I do and suffer, receive the proof of My 
sayings. For I have Myself done something even more. 
For being King of the Powers above, I was willing to become 
Man, and I submitted to be despised, and despitefully 
entreated. And not even with these things was I satisfied, 
but even unto death did I come. Therefore," He saith, 

" Even as the Son of Man came not to be tJiinisiered unto, v. 2S. 
hut to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many. 
For not even at this did 1 stop," saith He, " but even My 
life did I give a ransom; and for whom? For enemies. But 
thou if thou art abased, it is for thyself, but I for thee." 

Be not then afraid, as though thine honour were plucked 
down. For how much soever thou humblest thyself, thou 
canst not descend so much as thy Lord. And yet His 
descent hath become the ascent of all, and hath made His 
own glory shine forth. For before He was made Man, He 
was known amongst Angels only ; but after He was made 
Man and was crucified, so far from lessening that glory. He 
acquired other besides, even that from the knowledge of the 

Fear not then, as though thine honour were put down, if 
thou shouldest abase thyself, for in this way is thy glory 
more exalted, in this way it becomes greater. This is the 
door of the Kingdom. Let us not then go the opposite way, 
neither let us war against ourselves. For if we desire to 

3 l2 

884 Earthly men seek the shadows of what Christ frnly gives, 

HoMiL. appear great, we shall not be great, but even the most dis- 
4.5/ honoured of all. 

Scest thou how every where Tie urges them by the oppo- 
site things, giving them what they desire ? For in the pre- 
ceding parts also we have shewn this in many instances, and 
in the cases of the covetous, and of the vainglorious, He did 
thus. For wherefore, He sailh, dost thou give alms before 
men ? That thou maycst enjoy glory ? Thou must then 
not do so, and thou shall surely enjoy it. Wherefore dost 
thou lay up treasures? That thou mayestbe rich? Thou must 
then not lay up treasures, and thou shalt be rich. Even so 
here too, wherefore dost thou set thy heart on the first places? 
That thou maycst be before others ? Choose then the last 
place, and then thou wilt enjoy the first. So that if it be 
thy will to become great, seek not to become great, and then 
thou wilt be great. For the other is to be little. 

[5.] Seest thou how He drew them off from the disease, by 
shewing them both from thence failing of their object, and 
from hence gaining, that they might flee the one, and follow 
after the other. 

And of the Gentiles, too. He for this cause reminded them, 
that in this way again He might shew the thing to be dis- 
graceful and to be abhorred. 

For the arrogant is of necessity base, and, on the contrary, 
the lowly-minded is high. For this is the height that is true 
and genuine, and exists not in name only, nor in manner of 
address. And that which is from without is of necessity and 
fear, but this is like to God's. Such a one, though he be 
admired by no one, continues high ; even as again the other, 
though he be courted by all, is of all men the basest. And 
the <me is an honour rendered of necessity, whence also it 
easily passes away; but the other is of principle, whence 
also it continues stedfast. Since for this we admire the 
Saints also, that being greater than all, they humbled them- 
selves more tlmn all. Wherefore even to this day they con- 
tinue to be high, and not even death hath brought down 
that height. 

And if ye be minded, let us by reasonings also enquire 
into this very thing. Any one is said to be high, either 
when he is so by greatness of stature, or when he hath 

What is the truly elevated mind. 885 

chanced to be set on a high place, and low, in like manner, Matt. 
from the opposite things. "23.* 

Let us see then who is like this, the boaster, or he that 
keeps within measure, that thou mayest perceive that nothing 
is higher than lowliness of mind, and nothing lower than 

The boaster then desires to be greater than all, and affirms 
no one to be equal in worth with him; and how much soever 
honour he may obtain, he sets his heart on more and claims 
it, and accounts himself to have obtained none, and treats 
men with utter contempt, and yet seeks after the honour that 
comes from them ; than which what can be more unreason- 
able ? For this surely is like an enigma. By those, whom 
he holds in no esteem, he desires to be glorified. 

Seest thou how he who desires to be exalted falls down 
and is set on the ground ? For that he accounts all men to 
be nothing compared with himself, he himself declares, for 
this is boasting. Why then dost cast thyself upon him who 
is nothing } why dost thou seek honour of him ? Why dost 
thou lead about with thee such great multitudes ? 

Seest thou one low, and set on a low place. Come then, 
let us enquire about the high man. This one knows what 
man is, and that man is a great thing, and that he himself is 
last of all, and therefore whatever honour he inay enjoy, he 
reckons this great, so that this one is consistent with himself 
and is high, and shifts not his judgment; for whom he 
accounts great, the honours that come from them he esteems 
great also, though they should chance to be small, because 
he accounts those who bestow them to be great. But the 
boastful man accounts them that give the honours to be 
nothing, yet the honours bestowed by them he reckons to 
be great. 

Again, the lowly man is seized by no passion, no anger 
can much trouble this man, no love of glory, no envy, no 
jealousy; and what can be higher than the soul that is 
delivered from these things ? But the boastful man is held 
in subjection by all these things, like any worm crawling in 
the mire, for jealousy and envy and anger are for ever 
troubling his soul. 

Which then is high ? He that is superior to his passions. 

886 Instances of pride in those really debased. 

HoMiL.or he that is their slave? He that trembles at them and is 
5* g/ afraid of them, or he that is lUDSubdued, and never taken by 

them ? Which kind of bird should we say flies higher ? that 
which is higher than the hands and the arrows of the hunter, 
or that which does not even suffer the hunters to need an 
arrow, from his flying along the ground, and from not being 
able ever to elevate himsell? Is not then the arrogant man 
like this ? for indeed every net readily catches him as crawl- 
ing on the ground. 

[6] But if thou wilt, even from that wicked demon prove 

thou this. For what can be baser than the devil, because he 

had exalted himself; what higher than the man who is willing 

to abase himself? For the former crawls on the ground under 

' Luke our heel, {For ye tread, He saith^, upon serpents and scor- 

' ' pions,) but the latter is set with the Angels on high. 

But if thou desirest to learn this from the example of 
haughty men also, consider that barbarian king, that led so 
great an army, who knew not so much as the things that are 
manifest to all ; as, for instance, that stone was stone, and 
the images, images ; wherefore he was inferior even to these. 
But the godly and faithful are raised even above the sun ; 
than whom what can be higher, who rise above even the 
vaults of heaven, and passing beyond Angels, stand by the 
very throne of the king. 

And that thou mayest learn in another way their vileness; 
who will be abased ? He who has God for his ally, or he 
with whom God is at war ? It is quite plain that it is he 
with whom He is at war. Hear then touching either of these 

2 James what saith the Scripture. ^ God resisteth the proud, but 
■*' ^' yiveth grace unto the humble. 

Again, I will ask you another thing also. Which is 
higher? He who acts as a Priest to God and offers sacrifice? 
or he who is somewhere far removed from confidence to- 
wards Him ? And what manner of sacrifice doth the lowly 

3 Ps.5i,™an offer ? one may say. Hear David saying, ^ The sacrifice 
^'^^ of God is a contrite spirit; a contrite and humbled heart 

God will not despise. 

Seest thou the purity of this man ? Behold also the un- 

4 pr„^,. cleanness of the other ; for *ecery one that is proud in heart 
l«, 5- is unclean before God. Besides, the one hath God resting 

Pharaoh and Abraham contrasted. 887 

upon him, (For unto whom will I look, saith He, hut to him Matt. 
that is meek and quiet, and Iremhleth at My ?rorfZ.s',)but the 28.' 
other crawls with the devil, for he that is lifted up with pride 'Is.G6,2'. 
shall suffer the devil's punishment. Wherefore Paul also 
said, ^Lest, being lifted up with joride, he should fall into'' ' Tim. 
the condemnalion of the devil. ' 

And the thing opposite to what he wishes, befalls him. 
For his wish is to be arrogant, that he may be honoured ; 
but the most contemned of all is this character. For these 
most of all are laughing stocks, foes and enemies to all men, 
the most easy to be subdued by their enemies, the men that 
easily fall into anger, the unclean before God. 

What then can be worse than this, for this is the extremity of 
evils? And what is sweeter than the lowly, what more blessed, 
since they are longed after, and beloved of God ? And the 
glory too that cometh of men, these do most of all enjoy, 
and all honour them as fathers, embrace them as brothers, 
receive them as their own members. 

Let us then become lowly, that we may be high. For 
most utterly doth arrogance abase. This abased Pharaoh. 
For, I know not, he saith, tlie Lord^, and he became inferior ''Exod. 

5 2 

to flies and frogs, and the locusts, and after that with his ' 
very arms and horses was he drowned in the sea. In direct 
opposition to him, Abraham saith, / am dust and ashes'*,* Gen. 
and prevailed over countless barbarians, and having fallen ' ' * 
into the midst of Egyptians, returned, bearing a trophy 
more glorious than the former, and, cleaving to this virtue, 
grew ever more high. Therefore he is celebrated every 
where, therefore he is crowned and proclaimed; but Pharaoh 
is both earth and ashes, and if there is any thing else more 
vile than these. For nothing doth God so abhor as arro- 
gance. For this object hath He done all things from the 
beginning, in order that He might root out this passion. 
Because of this are we become mortal, and are in sorrows, 
and wailings. Because of this are we in toil, and sweat, and 
in labour continual, and mingled with affliction. For indeed 
out of arrogance did the first man sin, looking for an equality 
with God. Therefore, not even what things he had, did he 
continue to possess, but lost even these. 

For arrogance is like this, so far from adding to us any 

888 IJumilitrj the. icay to Glory. 

HoMii- improvement of our life, it substracls even what we have; as, 
"^^^ ■ on the contrary, humility, so far from substracting from what 
we have, a(kls to us also what we have not. 

This virtue then let us emulate, this lot us pursue, that we 
may both enjoy present honour, and attain unto the glory to 
come, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with Whom be unto the Father glory and might, 
together with the Holy Ghost, now and always, and world 
without end. Amen. 


Matt. xx. 29, 30. 

And as they departed from Jericho, great multitudes followed 
Him. And, behold, two blind men sitting by the tvayside, 
when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried outy saying, 
Have mercy on us, O Lord, Thou Son of David. 

See whence He passed unto Jerusalem, and where He abode 
before this, with regard to which it seems to me especially 
worthy of enquiry, wherefore He went not away even long- 
before this from theuce unto Galilee, but through Samaria. 
But this we will leave to them that are fond of learning. For 
if any one were disposed to search the matters out carefully, 
he will find that John intimates it well, and hath expressed 

the cause '. ' J"'^" 

4, 1. 

But let us keep to the things set before us, and let us audio, 
listen to these blind men, who were better than many that^*^~^^* 
see. For neither having a guide, nor being able to see Him 
when come near to them, nevertheless they strove to come 
unto Him, and began to cry with a loud voice, and when 
rebuked for speaking, they cried the more. For such is the 
nature of an enduring soul, by the very things that hinder, it 
is borne up. 

But Christ suffered them to be rebuked, that their earnest- 
ness might the more appear, and that thou mightest learn 
that worthily they enjoy tlie benefits of their cure. Therefore 
He doth not so much as ask, " Do ye believe ?" as He doth 
with many; for their cry, and their coming unto Him, sufficed 
to make their faith manifest. 

890 Our Lord's care to slieio the faith of those He healed. 

HoMiL. Hence learn, O beloved, that though we be very vile and 
\^ 'outcast, but yet approach God with earnestness, even by 
ourselves we shall be able to effect whatsoever we ask. See, 
for instance, these men, how having none of the Apostles to 
plead with them, but rather many to stop their mouths, they 
were able to pass over the hindrances, and to come unto 
Jesus Himself. And yet the Evangelist bears witness to no 
confidence of life^ in them, but earnestness sufiiced them 
instead of all. 

These then let us also emulate. Though God defer the 
gift, though there be many withdrawing us, let us not desist 
from asking. For in this way most of all shall we win God 
to us. See at least even here, how not poverty, not blindness, 
not their being unheard, not their being rebuked by the 
multitude, not any thing else, impeded their exceeding 
earnestness. Such is the nature of a fervent and toiling soul. 
v.32.33. What then saith Christ? He called them, and said, JVhai 
tvill ye that I should do unto you? They say unto Him, 
Lord, that our eyes maij be opened. Wherefore doth He 
ask them ? Lest any one should think that when they wish 
to receive one thing, He givelh them another thing. For 
indeed it is usual with Him on every occasion, first to make 
manifest and discover to all the virtue of those He is healing, 
and then to apply the cure ; for one reason, that He might 
lead on the others likewise to emulation ; and for another, 
that He might shew that they were enjo\ ing the gift worthily. 
This, for instance, He did with respect to the Cauaanitish 
woman also, this too in the case of the centurion, this again 
as to her that had the issue of blood, or rather that marvel- 
lous woman even anticipated the Lord's enquiry ; but not so 
did He pass her by, but even after the cure makes her 
manifest. Such earnest care had He on every occasion to 
proclaim the good deeds of them that come to Him, and to 
shew them to be much greater than tliey are '', which He 
doth here also. 

» ira^^rialav ^iov. Claim of access Field. It seems to be true that our 

on account of good life. Lord sometimes encouraged faith, and 

'' The wcrds, ' and to shew them to brought out good example, bj' putting 

be n-.uch greater than they are,' are on an action a higher meaning and 

rejected by Rlontfaucon on the autho- intention than was at all lully formed 

rity of two Mss. but defended by Mr, in the mind of the doer. 

Our Lord's riding into Jerusalem well timed. 891 

Then, when they said what they wished, He had com- Matt. 

v V T 

passion on them, and touched them. For this alone is the i_5,* 

cause of their cure, for which also He came into the world. 
But nevertheless, although it be Mercy and Grace, it seeks 
for the worthy. 

But that they were wortiiy is manifest, both from what they 
cried out, and from the fact that, when they had received, 
they did not hasten away, as many do, being ungrateful after 
the benefits. Nay, they were not like this, but were both 
persevering before the gift, and after the gift grateful, for 
iliey followed Him. 

And when He drew nigh unto Jerusalem^ and was cxxi. 
come to Bethphage^ unto the mount of Olives; He sent ~^' 
two of His disciples, saying. Go into the village over 
against you, and ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with 
Iter : loose them, and bring them unto Me. And if any 
man say ought unto you, ye shall say. The Lord hath need 
of them; and straigliticay he sendeth them. And this teas 
done, thai it might he fulfilled which was spoken by 
Zechariah the prophet. Tell ye the daughter of S ion. Behold, 
thy King cometh to thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and 
a colt the foal of an ass. 

And yet He had often entered Jerusalem before, but never 
with so much circumstance. What then is the cause ? It 
was the beginning then of the dispensation ; and neither 
was He very well known, nor the time of His Passion near; 
wherefore He mixed with them with less distinction, and 
more disguising Himself. For He would not have been 
held in admiration, had He so appeared, and He would have 
excited them to greater anger. But when He had both 
given them sufficient proof of His power, and the Cross was 
at the doors, He makes Himself then more conspicuous, and 
doeth with greater circumstance all the things that were 
likely to inflame them. For it was indeed possible for this 
to have been done at the beginning also ; but it was not 
profitable nor expedient it should be so. 

But do thou observe, I pray thee, how many miracles are 
done, and how many prophecies are fulfilled. He said, Ye 
shall find an ass; He foretold that no man should hinder 
them, but that all, when they heard, should hold their peace. 

892 Our Lord's power in the consent of the owners of the Ass. 

HowiL. But this is no small condemnation of the Jews, if them 
1,2. that were never known to Ilim, neither had appeared before 

Him, He persuades to give up their own property, and to 

say nothing against it, and that by His disciples, while these, 

being present with Him at the working of His miracles, were 

not i)ersuaded. 

[2.] And do not account what was done to be a small thing. 
For who persuaded them, when their own property was taken 
from them, and that, when they were perhaps ])oor men and 
husbandmen, not to forbid it .'' Why say I not to forbid it ? 
not to ask, or even if they asked, to hold their peace, and give 
it up. For indeed both things were alike marvellous, as well, 
if ihey said nothing, when their beasts were dragged away, 
or if having spoken, and heard, 77/^? Lord liath need of them, 
they yielded and withstood not, and this when ihey see not 
Him, but His disciples. 

By these things He teaches them, that it was in His 
power to have entirely hindered the Jews also, even against 
their will, when they were proceeding to attack Him, and to 
have made them speechless, but He would not. 

And another thing again together with these doth He 
teach the disciples, to give whatever He should ask ; and, 
though he should require them to yield up their very life, to 
give even this, and not to gainsay. For if even strangers 
gave up to Him, much more ought they to strip themselves of 
all things. 

And besides what we have said, He was fulfilling also 
another prophecy, one which was twofold, one part in words, 
and another in deeds. And that in deeds was, by the sitting 
on the ass ; and that by words, the predielion of Zacharias ; 
because he had said, that the King should sit on an ass. 
And He, having sat and having fulfilled it, gave to the 
prophecy another beginning again, by what He was doing 
typifying beforehand the things to come. 

How and in what manner? He proclaimed beforehand the 
calling of the imclean Gentiles, and that He should rest 
upon them, and that they should yield to Him and follow 
Him, and prophecy succeeded to prophecy. 

Bui to me He seemelh not for this object only to sit on the 
ass, but also as affording us a standard of self-denial. For 

His small requirements for Himself, 893 

not only did He fulfil prophecies, nor did He only plant the Matt. 
doctrines of the truth, but by these very things He was iJ_^l 
correcting our practice for us, every where setting us rules 
of necessary use, and by all means amending our life. 

For this cause, I say, even when He was to be born He 
sought not a splendid house, nor a mother rich and dis- 
tinguished, but a poor woman, and one that had a carpenter 
as her betrothed husband; and is born in a shed, and laid in 
a manger : and choosing His disciples. He chose not orators 
and wise men, not rich men and nobly born, but poor men, 
and of poor families, and in every way undistinguished ; and 
providing His table, at one time He sets before Himself 
barley loaves, and at another at the very moment commands 
the disciples to buy at the market. And making His couch. 
He makes it of grass, and putting on raiment. He clothes 
Himself in what is cheap, and in no respect diiferent from 
the common sort; and a house He did not so much as possess. 
And if He had to go from place to place. He did this 
travelling on foot, and so travelling, as even to grow weary. 
And sitting, He requires no throne nor pillow, but sits on 
the ground, sometimes in the mountain, and sometimes by 
the well, and not merely by the well, but also alone, and 
talks with a Samaritan woman. 

Again, setting measures of sorrow, when He had need to 
mourn. He weeps moderately, every where setting us rules, as 
I have said, and limits how far one ought to proceed, and 
not any farther. So for this intent now also, since it 
happens that some are weak and have need of beasts to 
carry them, in this too He fixes a measure, shewing that one 
ought not to yoke horses or mules to be borne by them, but 
to use an ass, and not to proceed further, and every where to 
be limited by the want. 

But let us look also at the prophecy, that by words, that 
by acts. What then is the prophecy? ^ Behold, thy King ^ z^ch. 
Cometh to thee, meek, 07id riding on an ass, and a young ''^' 
colt; not driving chariots, like the rest of the kings, not 
demanding tributes, not thrusting men off, and leading about 
guards, but displaying His great meekness even hereby. 

Ask then the Jew, What King came to Jerusalem borne 
on an ass.? Nay, he could not mention, but This alone. 

894 Typical meaning of the Asses colt, Sfc. 

HoMiL. But He did these tilings, as I said, signifying beforehand 
2'. 3. "the things to come. For licrc the Churcli is signified by 
the colt, and the new people, which was once unclean, but 
which, after Jesus sat on them, became clean. And see the 
image preserved throughout. I mean that the disciples 
loose the asses. For by the Apostles, both they and we 
were called ; by the Apostles were we brought near. But 
because our acceptance provoked thein also to emulation, 
therefore the ass appears following the colt. For after 
Christ hath sat on the Gentiles, then shall they also come 

1 "•"' moving us to emulation '. And Paul declaring this, said, 
\a.tir\g us' T7iat blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the 
^o^T^^\ fulness of the Gentiles he come in, and so all Israel shall be 

2 Rom. saved'. For that it was a prophecy is evident from what 
26.' * is said. For neither would the Prophet have cared to 

express with such great exactness the age of the ass, unless 
this had been so. 

But not these things only are signified by what is said, 
but also that the Apostles should bring them with ease. 
For as here, no man gainsaid them so as to keep the asses, 
so neither with regard to the Gentiles was any one able to 
prevent them, of those who were before masters of them. 

But He doth not sit on the bare colt, but on the Apostles' 
garments. For after they had taken the colt, they then gave 
up all, even as Paul also said, / 7rill very gladly spend and 

^ 2 Cor. be spent for your souls^. 
' ' But mark how tractable the colt, how being unbroken, 
and having never known the rein, he was not restive, but 
went on orderly; which thing itself was a prophecy of the 
future, signifying the submissivcness of the Gentiles, and 
their sudden conversion to good order. For all things did 
that word work, which said, Loose him, and briny him to Me. 
so that the unmanageable became orderly, and the unclean 
thenceforth clean. 

[.3.] But see the baseness of the Jews. He had wrought so 
many miracles, and never were they thus amazed at Him ; 
but when they saw a multitude running together, then they 

V. 10.11. marvel. For all the city was moved, saying. Who is this? 
But the multitudes said, This is Jesus the Prophet of 
Nazareth of Oalilce. And when they thought they were 

Obstinate Jews coinpared loilh obstinate sinners. 895 

saying something great, even then were their thoughts earthly, Matt. 
and low, and dragging on the ground'. jp ^{ 

But these things He did, not as displaying any pomp, but i <ri(Tvp- 
at once, as I have said, both fulfilling a prophecy, and teach- '"*'"'• 
ing self-denial, and at the same time also comforting His 
disciples, who were grieving for His death, and shewing them 
that He suffers all these things willingly. 

And mark thou, I pray thee, the accuracy of the Prophet, 
how he foretold all things. And some things David, some 
things Zechariah, had proclaimed beforehand. Let us also 
do likewise, and let us sing hymns, and give up our garments 
to them that hear Him. For what should we deserve, when 
some clothe the ass on which He was set, and others strew 
the garments even under her feet ; but we, seeing him naked, 
and not being even commanded to strip ourselves, but to 
spend of what is laid by, not even so are liberal ? And when 
they indeed attend upon Him before and behind, but we, 
when He cometh unto us, send Him away, and thrust Him 
off and insult Him. 

How sore a punishment do these things deserve, how 
great vengeance ! Thy Lord cometh unto thee in need, and 
thou art not willing so much as to listen to His intreaty, but 
thou blamest and rebukest Him, and this, when thou hast 
heard such words as these. But if in giving one loaf, and a 
little money, thou art so mean, and haughty, and backward ; 
if thou hadst to em]:)ty out all, what wouldest thou become ? 

Seest thou not those that shew their magnificence in the 
theatre, how much they give away to the harlots } but thou 
givest not so much as the half, nay often not the smallest 
part. But the devil is exhorting to give to whom it may 
chance, procuring us hell, and thou givest; but Christ to 
the needy, promising a kingdom, and thou, far from giving, 
dost rather insult them, and thou choosest rather to obey the 
devil, that thou mightest be punished, than to submit to 
Christ, and be saved. 

And what could be worse than this frenzy ? One procures 
hell, the Other a kingdom, and ye leave The Latter, and 
run unto the former. And This ye send away, when He 
cometh unto you, that, when he is far off, ye call unto you. 
And what you do is the same as if a king bearing a royal 

896 Calculation of what the rich niicjht do. 

HoMtL.robe, and offering a diadem, did not win your choice, but a 
3^ robber brandishing a sword at you, and threatening death, 
were to win it. 

Considering these things then, beloved, let us discern the 
truth at length though late, and let us grow sober. For I am 
now ashamed of speaking of almsgiving, because that having 
often spoken on this subject, I have effected nothing worth 
the exhortation. For some increase indeed hath there been, 
but not so much as I wished. For I see you sowing, but 
not with a liberal hand. Wherefore I fear too lest ye also 

' 2 Cor. reap sparingly '. 
' ^' For in proof that we do sow sparingly, let us enquire, if it 

seem good, which are more numerous in the city, poor or 
rich ; and which they, who are neither poor nor rich, but 
have a middle place. As, for instance, a tenth part is of rich, 
and a tenth of the poor that have nothing at all, and the 
rest of the middle sort. 

Let us distribute then amongst the poor the whole multi- 
tude of the city, and ye will see the disgrace how great it is. 
For the very rich indeed ai"e but few, but those that come 
next to them are many; again, the poor are much fewer than 
these. Nevertheless, although there are so many that are 
able to feed the hungry, many go to sleep in their hunger, 
not because those that have are not able with ease to succour 
them, but because of their great barbarity and inhumanity. 
For if both the wealthy, and those next to them, were to 
distribute amongst themselves those who arc in need of 
bread and raiment, scarcely would one poor person fall to 
the share of fifty men or even a hundred. Yet nevertheless, 
though in such great abuudance of persons to assist them, 
they are wailing every day. And that thou mayest leai'n the 
inhumanity of the others, when the Church is possessed of a 
revenue of one of the lowest among the wealthy, and not of 
the very rich, consider how many widows it succours every 
day, how many virgins ; for indeed the list of them hath 
already reached unto the number of three thousand. To- 
gether with these, she succours them that dwell in the prison, 
the sick in the caravansera, the healthy, those that are absent 
from their home, those that are maimed in their bodies, 
those that wait upon the altar; and with i-espect to food and 

Grudging to upend on Charity inexcusable. 897 

raiment, them that casually come every dav; and her sub- Matt. 

'. XXI 

stance is in no respect diminished. So that if ten men only i_q 

were thus willing to spend, there would be no poor. 

And what, it will be said, are our children to inherit? L^-J 
The principal remains, and the income again is become 
more abundant, the goods being stored up for them in 

But are ye not willing to do this ? At least do it by the 
half, at least by the third part, at least by the fourth part, at 
least by the tenth. For owing to God's favour, it were 
possible for our city to nourish the poor often cities. 

And if ye will, let us make some calculation ' in proof of (rvwo- 
this ; or rather there is no need so much as of reckoning ; 
for of itself the easiness of the thing is discernible. See at 
least, upon public occasions, how much one house hath 
often not been backward to spend, and hath not had so much 
as a little feeling of the expense, which service if each of 
the rich were willing to perform for the poor, in a brief 
moment of time he would have seized on Heaven. 

What plea then will there be ? what shadow of defence, 
when not even of the things from which we must assuredly 
be separated, when taken away from hence, not even of 
these do we impart to the needy with as much liberality as 
others to those on the stage, and this when we are to reap 
so many benefits therefrom ? For we ought indeed, even 
though we were always to be here, not even so to be sparing 
of this good expenditure ; but when after a little time, we 
are to be removed from hence, and dragged away naked 
from all, what kind of defence shall we have for not even 
out of our income giving to the hungry and distressed- ? ^ a7xo- 

For neither do I constrain thee to lessen thy possessions, '^^""'^ 
not because I do not wish it, but because I see thee very 
backward. It is not then this I say, but spend of your 
fruits, and treasure up nothing from these. It is enough for 
thee to have the money of thine income pouring in on thee 
as from a fountain; make the poor sharers with thee, and 
become a good steward of the things given thee of God. 

But I pay tribute, one may say. For this cause then dost 
thou despise, because in this case no one demands it of thee? 
And the other, who, should the earth bear, or should it not 

3 M 

898 Alms better and more needful to pay tliart tribute. 

HoMiL.bear, takes by force, and extorts, thou darcst not gainsay; 
4_ 5 ■ but Iliin that is so mild, and then only demands, wlien tlie 
earth bears, thou answerest not even to a word? And who 
will deliver thee from those intolerable punishments ? There 
is no one. For if, because in the other case a very sore 
punishment will ensue to thee for not giving, therefore thou 
becomest diligent about the payment, consider here too is 
one more sore; not to be bound, neither to be cast into 
prison, but to depart into the eternal fire. 

For all reasons then let us pay these tributes first : for 
great is the facility, and greater the reward ; and more 
abundant the gain, and worse the punishments to us if we 
are obstinate. For a punishment cometh upon us, which 
hath no end. 

But if thou tell me of the soldier's fighting for thee with 
the barbarians, there is here too a camp, that of the poor, 
and a war, which the poor are waging for thee. For when 
they receive, by praying they make God propitious; and 
making Him propitious, they repulse, instead of barbarians, 
the assaults of the devils; they suffer not the evil one to be 
violent, neither to attack us continually, but they relax his 
[.5.] Seeing therefore these soldiers every day fighting in thy 
behalf with the devil by their supplications and prayers, 
demand of thyself this good contribution, their nourishment. 
For this King being mild hath not assigned thee any to 
demand it of thee, but desires thou shoiddest give it 
willingly ; though thou pay by little and little. He receives 
it; though being in difficulty, thou shouldest pay after a 
long time, lie doth not press him that hath not. 

Let us not tiieu despise His long-suffering; let us treasure 
up for ourselves, not wrath, but salvation ; not death, but 
life; not punishment and vengeance, but honours and 
crowns. There is no need in this case to pay a hire for 
the conveyance of tlie things contributed ; there is no need 
in this case to labour in turning them into money. If thou 
givcst them up, the J^ord Himself removes them into heaven; 
He Himself makes the traffic the more gainful for thee. 

Ihere is no need here to find one to carry in what thou 
hast contributed ; contribute only, and straightway it goeth 

God has given His bond for principal and interest, 899 

up, not that others may be maintained as soldiers, bnt that Matt. 


it may remain for thee with great profit. For there what- ' ^ ' 

soever thou mayest have given, it is not possible to recover ; 
but here thou wilt receive them again with much honour, 
and shalt gain greater, and more spiritual gains. There the 
gifts are a demand ; here a loan, and money at interest, and a 

Yea farther, God hath given thee bonds. For he tliat Prov. 
sheiretli mercy to a poor man, it is said, lendelh to the Lord. ' "' 
He gave thee also an earnest, and bail, and this being God ! 
What sort of earnest? The things in the present life, the 
visible, the spiritual things, the foretaste of the things to 

Why then dost thou delay, and why art thou backward, 
having received so many things already, looking for so many 

For what thou hast received are these; He Himself made 
thee a body, He Himself put in thee a soul. He honoured 
with speech thee alone of the things on the earth. He gave 
thee the use of all the things that are seen. He bestowed on 
thee the knowledge of Himself, He gave up His Son for 
thee, He gave thee a Baptism full of so many good things, 
He gave thee a holy Table, He promised a kingdom, and the 
good things that cannot be told. 

Having then received so many good things, having to 
receive so many, again I say the same thing, art thou making 
petty reckoning about perishing riches, and what excuse wilt 
thou have? 

But art thou looking altogether at thy children ? and dost 
draw back for the sake of these ? Nay, rather teach them 
also to gain such gains. For if thou hadst money lent out 
and bearing interest, and thou hadst a grateful debtor, thou 
wouldest ten thousand times rather choose instead of the 
gold to leave the bond to thy child, so that he should have 
the large income from it, and not be constrained to go about, 
and seek for others to borrow it. 

And now give this bond to thy children, and leave God a 
debtor to them. Thou dost not sell thy lands, and give to 
thy children, but leavest them, that the income may remain, 
and that they may have a greater increase of riches from 

3 M 2 

f)00 God's bond the best security for our dnldren. 

J^f""'!* thence ; but this bond, wliich is more i)roductive tlian any 
LTs V I. . . 

5. land or reveinie, and bears so many fruits, this art tliou 

afraid lo have to them ? What great folly must tliis be, and 

frenzy. And this Avhen thou knowest, that though thou 

shouldest leave it to tliem, thou thyself also shalt again take 

it away with thee. 

Of this nature are the things spiritual ; they have great 

munificence. Let ns not then be beggarly ; neither be 

inhuman and savage towards ourselves, but let us traffic 

in that good merchandise; that we may both ourselves take 

it away with us when we depart, and leave it to our own 

children, and attain to the good things to come, by^ the 

grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, with 

Whom be uulo the Father, together with llie Holy Ghost, 

glory, might, honour, now and ever, and world without end. 



Matt. xxi. 12, 13. 

jdnd Jesus went into the J'emple, and cast out all them that 
sold and bought in the Temple, and overthrew the tables of 
the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves, and 
saith unto them, It is written. My house shall be called 
a house of prayer^ but ye have mads it a den of thieves. 

This John likewise saith, but he in the beginning of his 
Gospel, this at the end. Whence it is probable this was 
done twice, and at different seasons. 

And it is evident both from the times, and from their replj. 
For there He came at the very Passover, but here much 
before. And there the Jews say*, What sign sheuest Thou^Jo^'^'2, 
ns? but here they hold their peace, although reproved, 
because He was now marvelled at amongst all men. 

And this is a heavier charge against the Jews, that wlien 
He had done this not once only, but a second time, they 
continued in their trafficking, and said that He was an 
adversary of God, when they ought even from hence to have 
learnt His honour for His Father and His own might. For 
indeed He also wrought miracles, and they saw His words 
agreeing with His works. 

But not even so were they persuaded, but tvere sore dis- 
pleased, and this while they heard the Prophet crying aloud, 
and the children in a manner beyond their age proclaiming 
Him. Wherefore also He Himself sets up Isaiah against 
them as an accuser, saying^, My house sJiall be called a house n>iM,7. 
of prayer. 

902 Miracle of infants praising ^ a type of the Oeniiles. 

But not in this way only doth He shew His authority, but 
also by His healing divers infirmities. For the blind and 
the lame came unto Him, and He healed them, and His 
power and authority He indicates. 

But they not even so vvoidd be persuaded, but together 
with the rest of the miracles hearing even the children pro- 
V. 16. elaiming, were ready to choke, and say, Hearest T/iou not 
what these say P And yet it was Christ's part to have said 
this to them, " Hear ye not what these say ?" for the children 
were singing to Him as to God. 

What then saith He ? Since they were speaking against 
things manifest, He applies His correction more in the way 
of reproof, saying, Have ye nerer read, Out of the mouths of 
babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise? And well 
did He say. Out of the mouth. For what was said was not 
of their understanding, but of His power giving articulation 
to their tongue y^et immature. 

And this was also a type of the Gentiles lisping, and 
sounding forth at once great things with understanding and 

And for the Apostles also there was from hence no small 
consolation. For that they might not be perplexed, how 
being unlearned they should be able to publish the Gospel, 
the children anticipate them, and remove all their anxiety, 
teaching them, that He would grant them utterance, Who 
made even these to sing praises. 

And not so only, but the miracle shewed that He is Creator 
even of nature. The children then, although of age immature, 
uttered things that had a clear meaning, and were in accord- 
ance with those above, but the men things teeming with 
frenzy and madness. For such is the nature of wickedness. 

Forasmuch then as there were many things to provoke 
them, from the multitude, from the casting out of the sellers, 
from the miracles, from the children, He again leaves them, 
giving room to the swelling passion, and not willing to begin 
His teaching, lest boiling with envy they should be the more 
displeased at His sayings. 

Now in the morning as He relumed into the city, He was 

an hungred. How is He an hungred in the morning? When 

V. Id. He permits the ilesh, then it shews its feeling. And when 

The Jig tree freely used for a means of insirucf ion. 903 

He saiv a fig tree in the tvity. He came to it, and fonnd Matt. 
notliing thereon, hut leaves only. Another Evangelist saith, jg^ * 
TJte time of figs teas not yei^ ; but if it was not time, how doth ' Mark 
the other Evangelist say, He came, if haply He might find ' ^^' 
fruit thereon. Whence it is manifest that this belongs to 
the suspicion of His disciples, who were yet in a somewhat 
imperfect state. For indeed the Evangelists in many places 
record the suspicions of the disciples. 

Like as this then was their suspicion, so also was it too 
to sup])ose it was cursed for this cause, because of having no 
fruit. Wherefore then was it cursed ? For the disciples' 
sakes, that they might have confidence. For because every 
where He conferred benefits, but punished no man ; and it 
was needful that He should afford them a demonstrative 
proof of His power to take vengeance also, that both the 
disciples might learn, and the Jews, that being able to 
blast them that crucify Him, of His own will He submits, 
and does not blast them; and it was not His will to shew 
forth this upon men ; upon the plant did He furnish the 
proof of His might in taking vengeance. But when unto 
places, or unto plants, or unto brutes, any such thing as this 
is done, be not curious, neither say, how was the fig-tree 
justly dried up, if it was not the time [of figs] ; for this it is 
the utmost trifling to say; but behold the miracle, and admire 
and glorify the Worker thereof. 

Since in the case also of the swine that were drowned, 
many have said this, working out the argument of justice; 
but neither there should one give heed, for these again are 
brutes, even as that was a plant without life. 

Wherefore then was the act invested with such an appear- 
ance, and with this plea for a curse .? As I said, this was the 
disciples' suspicion. 

But, if it was not yet time, vainly do some say the Law is 
here meant. For the fruit of this was faith, and then was the 
time of this fruit, and it had indeed borne h;^For already - John 

4 35 

are the fields white to harvest, saith He ; and, ^I sent you /Oa'jb. v. 
reap that whereon ye hestoived no labour. Not any therefore 3B. 
of these things doth He here intimate, but it is what I said, ^"^ 
He displays His power to punish, and this is shewn by 
saying, The time teas not yet, making it clear tliat of this 

904 The Disciples conjirmed. The Jews question His authority. 

HoMiL. special puqjose He went, and not for hunger, but for His 
* 2 ' divsciples' sake, who indeed marvelled exceedingly, although 
many miracles had been done greater; but, as I said, this 
was strange, for now first He shewed forth His power to take 
vengeance. Wherefore not in any other, but in llie moistest 
of all planted things did He work the miracle, so that hence 
also the miracle appeared greater. 

And that thou niightcst learn, that for their sakes this was 
done, that He might train them to feel confidence, hear what 
He saith afterwards. But what saith He ? " Ye also shall do 
greater things, if ye are willing to believe and to be confident 
in prayer." Seest thou that all is done for their sake, so 
that they might not be afraid and tremble at plots against 
them ? Wherefore He saith this a second time also, to make 

v.21.22. them cleave to prayer and laith. " For not this only shall 
ye do, but also shall remove mountains; and many more 
things shall ye do, being confident in faith and prayer," 
But the boastful and arrogant Jews, wishing to interrupt 

V, 23. His teaching, came unto Him, and asked. By wlial authority 
doest Thou these thincfs? For since they could not object 
against the miracles, they bring forward against llim the cor- 
rection of the traffickers in the temple. And this in John 
also they appear to ask, although not in these words, but 

•John2, with the same intent. For there too they say, ^fi'hat sign 
■ ■ shewesi Thou unto us? seeing that Thou doest these thinys. 
But there He answers them, saying, Destroy This Temple, 
and J in three days icill raise It up, whereas here He drives 
them into a difficulty. Whence it is manifest, that then indeed 
was the beginning and prelude of the miracles, but here the 

But what they say is this, Hast Thou received the teacher's 
chair? Hast Thou been ordained a priest, that Tliou didst 
display such authority ? it is said. And yet He had done 
nothing implying arrogance, but had been careful lor the 
good order of the Temple, yet nevertheless having nothing to 
say, they object against this. And indeed when He cast 
them out, they did not dare to say any thing, because of the 
miracles, but when He shewed Himself, then they find fault 
with Him. 

What then saith He? He doth not answer them directly, 

The witness of John. Fear of man hinders faith. 905 

to shew that, if tliey had been willing to see His authority, they Matt. 

could; but He asks them again, saying, The Baptism ofJohn,<^^^{ 

whence is it ? From Heaven, or of men ? y725. 

And what sort of inference is this ? The greatest surely. 

For if they had said, From Heaven, He would have said 

unto them, Why then did ye not believe him ? For if they 

had believed, they would not have asked these things. For 

of Him John had said, I am not icorthij to loose the latchet 

of His shoe^ ; and, Behold lite Lamb of God, Which ta/neth^^o^"^^, 

aaai/ the sins of the world^ ; and, This is the Son of God^; 2 ii,. v, 

and, He that cometh from above is above all* ; and, His fan?^: 

lb. V. 

is in His Hand, and He will throuyhlij punje His floor ^.3i. 

So that if they had believed him, there was nothing to hinder 3^' 

them from knowing by what authority Christ doeth these ^Mat.3, 
, . ° -^ ^ 12. 


After this, because they, dealing craftily, said. We knoia'V'^7. 
not. He said not. Neither know I, but what? Neither tell 
I you. For if indeed they had been ignorant, it would have 
been requisite for them to be instructed ; but since they 
were dealing craftily, with good reason He answers them 

And how was it they did not say, that the baptism was of 
men? They feared the people, it is said. Seest thou a v. 26. 
perverse heart? Jn every case they despise God, and do all 
things for the sake of men. For this man too they feared 
for their sakes, not reverencing the Saint*^, but on account oi^ rhu 
nien^, and they were not willing to believe in Christ, because t'^^"' 
of men, and all their evils were engendered to them from (great) 

1 man. 

After this, He saith. What think ye? A certain man had'^ovs 

V 28— SI 

tico sons; and he sailh to the first, Go, work to-day in the 
vineyard. But he answered and said, I uill not : hut 
afterward he repented, and went. And he came to the 
second, and said likewise. And he ansivered and said, 
I yo, sir: and icenl not. Whether then of them twain did 
the will of his father ? They say, the first. 

Again He convicts them by a parable, intimating both 
their unreasonable obstinacy, and the submissivcncss of 
those who wore utterly condemned by them. For these two 
children declare what came to j)ass with respect to both the 

906 Publicans and harlols proved to be comparatively obedient. 

HoMiL. Gentiles, and the Jews. For the former not having undcr- 

^'2 3 taken to obey, neither having become hearers of the Law, 

shewed forth their obedience in their works; and the latter 

having said, All that the Lord shall speak, we if ill do, and 

I Exod. tvill hearken ', in their works were disobedient. And for 

^^' ^' this reason, let me add, that they might not think the Law 

would benefit them, He shews that this self-same thing 

condemns them, like as Paul also saith. Not the hearers of 

the Law are just before God, but the doers of the Law shall 

8Rom.2 be justijied-. For this intent, that He might make them 

^^' even self-condemned, He causes the judgment to be delivered 

by themselves, like as He does also in the ensuing parable of 

["3 -\ the vineyard. And that this might be done, He makes trial 

of the accusation in the person of another. For since they 

were not willing to confess directly. He by a parable drives 

them on to what He desired. 

But when, not understanding His sayings, they had de- 
livered the judgment. He unfolds His concealed meaning 
V. 31.32. after this, and saith, Publicans and harlots go into the king- 
dom of heaven before you. For John came unto you in the 
way of righteousness, and ye believed him not; but the 
Publicans believed him ; and ye, when ye had seen it^ 
repented not afterwards, that ye might believe him. 

For if He had said simply. Harlots go before you, the 
word would have seemed to them to be offensive ; but now, 
being uttered after their own judgment, it appears to be not 
too hard. 

Therefore He adds also the accusation. What then is 
this? John came, He saith, unto you, not unto them, and 
not this only, but also in the way of righteousness. " For 
neither with this can ye find fault, that he was some 
careless one, and of no profit ; but both his life was irre- 
prehensible, and his care for you great, and ye gave no l;eed 
to him." 

And with this there is another charge also, that publicans 
gave heed; and with this, again another, that "not even after 
them did yc. For ye should have done so even before 
them, but not to do it even after them was to be deprived of 
all excuse ;" and unsjx'ukable was both the praise of the one, 
and the charge against the other. " To you he came, and ye 

Scribes and Pharisees would not even follow them. 907 

accepted him not ; he came not to them, and they receive Matt, 
him, and not even them did ye take for instructors." 31^2* 

See by how many things is shewn the commendation of 
those, and the charge against these. To you he came, not 
to them. Ye believed not, this offended not them. They 
believed, this profited not you. 

But the word, ' go before you,' is not as though these were 
following, but as having a hope, if they were willing. For 
nothing, so much as jealousy, rouses the grosser sort. 
Therefore He is ever saying, Tlie first shall he last, and the 
last first. Therefore He brought in both harlots and pub- 
licans, that they might provoke them to jealousy. 

For these two indeed are chief sins, engendered of violent 
lust, the one of sexual desire, the other of the desire of 
money. And He indicates that this esjiecially was hearing 
the Law of God, to believe John. For it was not of grace 
only, that harlots entered in, but also of righteousness. 
For not, as continuing harlots, did they enter in, but having 
obeyed and believed, and having been purified and converted, 
so did they enter in. 

Seest thou how He rendered His discourse less offensive, 
and more penetrating, by the parable, by His bringing in 
the harlots ? For neither did He say at once, Wherefore 
believed ye not John ? but what was much more pricking, 
when He had put forward the publicans and the harlots, then 
He added this, by the order of their actions convicting their 
unpardonable conduct, and shewing that for fear of men 
they do all things, and for vain-glory. For they did not 
confess Christ for fear, lest they should be put out of the 
synagogue ; and again, of John they dared not speak evil, 
and not even this from reverence, but for fear. All which 
things He convicted by His sayings, and with more severity 
afterwards did He go on to inffict the blow, saying. But ye, 
when ye knew it, repented not afterwards, that ye might 
believe him. 

For an evil thing it is not at the first to choose the good, 
but it is a heavier charge not even to be brought round. 
For this above all maketh many wicked, which I see to be 
the case with some now from extreme insensibility. 

But let no one be like this ; but though he be sunk down 

908 Example of repentance hi a Courtezan al Aniioch. the extremity of wickedness, let liim not despair of the 
LXVII . . . 

' 3 ' change for the better. For it is an easy thing to rise up out 

of the very abysses of wickedness. 

Heard ye not how that harlot, that went beyond all in 
lasciviousness, outshone all in godly reverence ? Not the 
harlot in the Gospels do I mean, but the one in our genera- 
tion, who came from Pliajnice, that most lawless city. For 
she was once a harlot among us, having the first honours on 
the stage, and great was her name every where, not in our 
city only, but even as far as the Cilicians and Cappadocians. 
And many estates did she ruin, and many orphans did she 
overthrow ; and many accused her of sorcery also, as weaving 
such toils not by her beauty of person only, but also by her 
drugs. This harlot once won even the brother of the 
empress, for mighty indeed was her tyranny. 

But all at once, I know not how, or rather I do know well, 
for it was being so minded, and converting, and bringing 
down upon herself God's grace, she despised all those things, 
and having cast away the arts of the devil, mounted up to 

And indeed nothing was more vile than she was, when she 
was on the stage; nevertheless, afterwards she outwent many 
in exceeding continence, and having clad herself with sack- 
cloth, all her time she thus disciplined herself On the 
account of this woman both the governor was stirred up, 
and soldiers armed, yet they had not strength to carry her off 
to the stage, nor to lead her away from the virgins that had 
received her. 

This woman having been counted worthy of the unutter- 
able mysteries, and having exhibited a diligence proportionate 
to the grace (given her), so ended her life, having washed off 
all through grace, and after her Baptism having shewn forth 
much self-restraint. For not even a mere sight of herself did 
she allow to those who were once her lovers, when they had 
come for this, having shut herself up, and having passed 
many years, as it were, in a prison. Thus sJiall ihe last be 
Jirst, and the Jirsl last ; thus do we in every case need a 
fervent soul, and there is nothing to hinder one from becoming 
great and admirable. 
[4.] Let no man then of them that live in vice despair ; let no 

Divers instances of change. Call to earnestness. 909 

man who lives in virtue slumber. Let neither this last be Matt. 
confident, for often the harlot will pass him by ; nor let the 32. ' 

other despair, for it is possible for him to pass by even the 

Hear what God saith unto Jerusalem, ' / said, after she had ' J^i"- 3, 
committed all these talioredonts, Turn thou unto Me, and she 
returned not. When we have come back unto the earnest 
love of God, He remembers not the former things. God is 
not as man, for He reproaches us not with the past, neither 
doth He say, Why wast thou absent so long a time ? when 
we repent ; only let us approach Him as we ought. Let us 
cleave to Him earnestly, and rivet our hearts to His fear. 

Such things have been done not under the New Covenant 
only, but even under the Old. For what was worse than 
Manasseh ? but he was able to appease God. What more 
blessed than Solomon ? but when he slumbered, he fell. Or 
rather I can shew even both things to have taken place in 
one, in the father of tliis man, for he the same person became 
at different times both good and bad. What more blessed 
than Judas ? but he beca,me a traitor. What more wretched 
than Matthew r but he became an Evangelist. What worse 
than Paul ? but he became an Apostle. What more to be 
envied than Simon ? but he became even himself the most 
wretched of all. 

How many other such changes wouldest thou see, both to 
have taken place of old, and now taking place every day ? 
For this reason then I say, Neither let him on the stage 
despair, nor let him in the Church be confident. For to this 
last it is said, Let him that tJiinketh he standeth, take heed 
lest he fall- ; and to the other, Shall not he that falleth- 1 Cor. 
arise ^ ? and, Lift up the hands which hang down, and thel^jj^^'g 
feeble knees'^. Again, to these He saith. Watch ; but to those, 4. 
Awake, thou that steepest, and arise from tlie dead^. For 12 12. 
these need to preserve what they have, and those to become ^^P^'^» 
what they are not; these to preserve their health, those to be 
delivered from their infirmity, for they ai'e sick ; but many 
even of the sick become healthy, and of the healthy many by 
remissness grow infirm. 

To the one then He saith, ^Behold, thou art made whole, ^Johno, 
sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee ; but to ^'^' 

910 The Foiinlniii of healing Grace always ready. 

HoMiL. these. Wilt thou he made uholef Arise, take np thy bed, 

LXVII ' f ^ 7 

4.5, ' and go unto thine house^. For a dreadful, dreadful palsy is 

'Johns, sId, or rather it is not palsy only, but also sonicwhat else 

g^^jj more grievous. For such a one is not only in inactivity as 

9» 6- to good works, but also in the active doing of evil works. 

But nevertheless, though thou be so disposed, and be willing 

to rouse thyself a little, all the terrors are at an end. 

Though thou hast been so thirty and eight years, and art 

earnest to become whole, there is no one to hinder thee. 

Christ is present now also, and saith, Take up thy bed, only 

be willing to rouse thyself, despair not. Hast thou no man ? 

but thou hast God. Hast thou no one to put thee into the 

pool ? but thou hast Him Who suffers thee not to need the 

pool. Hast thou had no one to cast thee in there ? but thou 

hast Him That commands thee to take up thy bed. 

Thou mayest not say, WJiile I am coming, another 

'^ 3o\\nb, sieppeth down before me^. For if it be thy will to go down 

into the Fountain, there is none to hinder thee. Grace is 

not consumed, is not spent, it is a kind of fountain springing 

up constantly ; by His fulness are we all healed both soul 

and body. Let us come unto it then even now. For Rahab 

also was a harlot, yet was she saved ; and the thief was a 

murderer, yet he became a citizen of Paradise ; and while 

Judas being with his Master perished, the thief being on a 

cross became a disciple. Such are the wonderful works of 

God. Thus the Magi approved themselves, thus the publican 

became an Evangelist, thus the blasphemer an Apostle. 

[5.] Look at these things, and never despair, but be ever 

confident, and rouse thyself Lay hold only on the Way that 

leads thither, and thou wilt advance quickly. Shut not up 

the doors, close not up the entrance. Short is the present 

life, small the labour. But though it were great, not even so 

ouslit one to decline it. For if thou toil not at this most 

glorious toil that is spent upon repentance and virtue, in the 

world thou wilt assuredly toil and weary thyself in other 

ways. But if both in the one and the other there be labour, 

why do we not choose that which hath its fruit abundant, and 

its recompense greater. 

Yet neither is this labour and that the same. For in 

worldly pursuits are continual perils, and losses one upon 

Labour of repentance small compared with the gain. 911 

another, and the hope uncertain ; great is the servility, and Matt. 


the expenditure ahke of wealth, and of bodies, and of souls ; 

and then the return of the fruits is far below our expectation, ~ 
if perchance it should grow up. 

For neither doth toil upon worldly matters every where 
bear fruit ; nay but even, when it hath not failed, but has 
brought forth its produce even abundantly, short is the time 
wherein it continues. 

For when thou art grown old, and hast no longer after that 
the feeling of enjoyment in perfection, then and not till then 
doth the labour bear thee its recompense. And whereas 
the labour was with the body in its vigour, the fruit, and the 
enjoyment is with one grown old and languid, when time has 
dulled even the feeling, although if it had not dulled it, the 
expectation of the end suffers us not to find pleasure. 

But in the other case not so, but the labour is in corrup- 
tion and a dying body, bat the crown in one incorruptible, 
and immortal, and having no end. And the labour is both 
first and short-lived ; but the reward both subsequent and 
endless, that with security thou mayest take thy rest after 
that, looking for nothing unpleasant. 

For neither mayest thou fear change any more or loss as 
here. What sort of good things, then, are these, which are 
both insecure, and short-lived, and earthy, and vanishing 
before they have appeared, and acquired with many toils ? 
And what good things are equal to those, that are immove- 
able, that grow not old, that have no toil, that even at the 
time of the conflicts bring thee crowns ? 

For he that despises money even here already receives his 
reward, being freed from anxiety, from rivalry, from false 
accusation, from plotting, from envy. He that is temperate, 
and lives orderly, even before his departure is crowned and 
lives in pleasure, being delivered from unseemliness, ridicule, 
dangers, accusation, and the other things that are to be 
feared. All the remaining parts of virtue likewise make us 
a return here already. 

In order therefore that we may attain unto both the 
present and the future blessings, let us flee from vice and 
choose virtue. For thus shall we both enjoy delight, and 

912 Reward of the hihours of u-cll doing. 

^J?"^!'- obtain the crowns to come, unto which God frrant wo may 
5. all attain, by the grace and love towards man of onr liOrd 
Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and miglit for ever and ever. 


Matt. xxi. 33—44. 

Hear another parable. There was a certain householder, 
which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and 
digged a winejjress, and built a tower, and let it out to 
husbandmen, and went into afar country. And when the 
time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to receive 
the fruits. And the husbandmen took the servants, and 
heat some, and killed some, and stoned some. Again he sent 
other servants more than the first : and they did unto them 
likewise. But last he sent unto them his son, saying. It 
may be they will reverence my son. But when the husband- 
men saio the son, they said among themselves, This is the 
heir, come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance. 
And they cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him. 
When the Lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will 
he do to those husbandmeyi ? They say unto Him, He will 
miserably destroy those wicked men, and ivill let out his 
vineyard to other husbandmen, which shall render him the 
fruits in their seasons. Jesus saith unto them. Did ye never 
read in the Scriptures, " Tlie Stone Which the builders rejected, 
the Same is become the Head of the corner; this is the 
Lord^s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes ?" Therefore 
I say unto you, The Kingdom of God shall be taken from 
you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. 
And whosoever shall fall on This Stone shall be broken, but 
on ivhomsoever It shall fall. It ivill grind him to powder. 

3 N 

{>] 4 Occasion and meaimif/ of the Parable of the Husbandmen. 

HoMii,. Many things tlotb He intimate by this parable, God's 
1. providence, which had been exercised towards them from 
the first; their murderous disposition from the beginning; 
that nothing had been omitted of whatever pertained to a 
heedful care of them ; that even when prophets had been 
slain, Tie had not turned away from them, but had sent His 
very Son ; that tlie God both of the New and of the Old 
Testament was One and the Same ; that His Death should 
effect great blessings ; that they were to endure extreme 
punishment for the Crucifixion, and their crime; the calling 
of the Gentiles, the casting out of the Jews. 

Therefore He pntteth it after the former parable, that He 
may shew even hereby tlie charge to be greater, and highly 
unpardonable. How, and in what way ? That although they 
met with so much care, they were worse than harlots and 
publicans, and by so much. 

And observe also both His great care, and the excessive 
idleness of these men. For what pertained to the husband- 
men. He Himself did, the hedging it round about, the plant- 
ing the vineyard, and all the rest, and He left little for them 
to do; to take care of what was there, and to preserve what 
was given to them. For nothing was left undone, but all 
accomplished ; and not even so did they gain, and this, when 
* tliey had enjoyed such great blessings from Him. For when 

they had come forth out of Egypt, He gave a law, and set up 
a city, and built a temple, and prepared an altar. 

And went into a far country; that is. He bore long with 
them, not always bringing the punishments close upon their 
sins; for by His going into a far country, He means His 
great long-suffering. 

And He sent His servants, that is, the prophets, to receive 
the fruit; that is, their obedience, the proof of it by their 
works. But they even hei"e shewed their wickedness, not 
only by failing to give the fruit, after having enjoyed so much 
care, which was the sign of idleness, but also by shewing 
anger towards them that came. For they that had not to 
give when they owed, should not have been indignant, nor 
angry, but should have entreated. But they not only were 
indignant, but even tilled their hands with blood, and while 
deserving ]uuiishment, themselves inflicted pimishment. 

God speaks as if doubting, to sheiv their wickedness. 9 1 5 

Therefore He sent both a second, and a third company, Matt. 
both that the wickedness of these might be shewn, and the 33JI44. 
love towards man of Him Who sent them. 

And wherefore sent He not His Son immediately ? In 
order that they might condemn themselves for the things 
done to the others, and leave off their wrath, and reverence 
Him when He came. There are also other reasons, but for 
the present let us go on to what is next. 

But what means. It may be they tvill revere/we? It is not 
the language of one ignorant, away with the thought! but of 
one desiring to shew the sin to be great ; and without any 
excuse. Since Himself knowing that they would slay Him, 
He sent Him. But He sailh, 7'hei/ will reverence, declaring 
what ought to have been done, that it was their duty to have 
reverenced Him. Since elsewhere also He saith, if perchance 
they will Itear^ ; not in this case either being ignorant, butiEzek. 
lest any of the obstinate should say, that His prediction was ' ^' 
the thing that necessitated their disobedience, therefore He 
frames His expressions in this way, saying, Whether they 
will, and, // may be. For though they had been obstinate 
towards His servants, yet ought they to have reverenced the 
dignity of the Son. 

What then do these I When they ought to have run unto 

Him, when they ought to have asked pardon for their 

offences, they even persist more strongly in their former sins, 

they proceed to add unto their pollutions, for ever throwing 

into the shade their former offences by their later ; as also He 

Himself declared when He said. Fill ye up the measure of 

your fathers'^. For from the first the prophets used to 2 Mat. 

charge them with these things, saying. Your hands are full ^ ' ^^' 

of blood^ ; and. They mingle blood with blood*; and. They ^ Is. 1, 

build up Sion with blood ^. 4 ^^g^^ 

But they did not learn self-restraint, albeit they received 4. 3. 
, . ' '' 5 Micah 

this commandment first. Thou shall not kill; and had been 3 10. 

commanded to abstain from countless other things because of 

this, and by many and various means urged to the keeping of 

this commandment. 

Yet for all that, they put not away that evil custom ; but 

what say they, when they saw Him .? Come, let us kill Him. 

With what motive, and for what reason .-* what of any kind 

3 N 2 

916 The Jews condemn themselves unawares. 

HoMii,. liad tlicy to lay to His charge, either small or great? Is it 

2. that He honoured you, and being God became Man for 

your sakes, and wrought His countless miracles r or that 

He pardoned your sins ? or that He called you unto a 

kingdom ? 

But see together with their impiety great was their folly, 
and the reason of His murder was full of much madness. 
For let us kill Him, it is said, and the inheritance shall be 

And where do they take counsel to kill Him? Out of the 

[2.] Seest thou how He prophesies even the place where 
He was to be slain. And they cast Him out, and slew Him. 

And Luke indeed saith, that He declared what these men 
should suffer; and they said, God forbid; and He added the 
testimony [of Scripture]. For He beheld them, and said, 
What is it then that is written ? The Stone Which the 
builders rejected, the Same is become the Head of the 
« Luke corner ; and every one that falleth upon It shall be broken^. 
2g' * But Matthew, that they themselves delivered the sentence. 
But this is not a contradiction. For indeed both things were 
done, both themselves passed the sentence against them- 
selves; and again, vvhen they perceived what they had said, 
they added, God forbid ; and He set up the Prophet against 
them, persuading them that certainly this would be. 

Nevertheless, not even so did He plainly reveal the 
Gentiles, that He might afford them no liandle, but signi- 
fied it darkly by saying. He trill give the vineyard to others. 
For this purpose then did He speak by a parable, that them- 
selves might pass the sentence, which was done in the case 
of David also, when He passed judgment on the parable of 
Nathan. But do thou mark, I pray thee, even hereby how 
just is the sentence, when the very persons that are to be 
punished condemn themselves. 

Then that they might learn that not only the nature of 
justice requires these things, but even from the beginning 
the grace of the Spirit had foretold them, and God had so 
decreed, He both added a prophecy, and reproves them in a 
way to put them to shame, saying, Did ye never read, Tlie 
Stone Which the builders rejected, the Same is become the 

Prophecy alleged to confirm the sentence. 917 

Head of the corner ? this is the Lord's doing, and it is Matt. 
marvellous in our eyes ; by all things shewing, that they 33JI44. 
should be cast out for unbelief, and the Gentiles brought in. 
This He darkly intimated by the Canaanilish woman also ; 
this again by the ass, and by the centurion, and by many 
otiier parables ; this also now. 

Wherefore He added too, This is the Lord's doing, and 
it is marvellous in our eyes, declaring beforehand that the 
believing Gentiles, and as many of the Jews as should also 
themselves believe, shall be one, although the difference 
between them had been so great before. 

Then, that they might learn that nothing was opposed to 
God's will of the things doing, but that the event was even 
highly acceptable, and beyond expectation, and amazing 
every one of the beholders, (for indeed the miracle was far 
beyond words,) He added and said, It is the Lord's doing. 
And by the Stone He means Himself, and by builders the 
teachers of the Jews; as Ezekiel also saith, Tliey that build 
the ivall, and daub it with untenipered mortar^. Bulhow'Ezek. 
did they reject Him ? By saying, This man is not of God"; 2 joj^^' 
This man deceivelh the people^ ; and again, Thou art a^i ^^- 
Samaritan, and hast a devil *. ^jb.s'^g. 

Then, that they might know that the penalty is not limited 
to their being cast out. He added the punishments also, 
saying. Every one that falleth on this Stone, shall be broken; 
but upon whomsoever It shall fall, It shall grind him to 
poivder. He speaks here of two ways of destruction, one 
from stumbling and being offended -, for this is. Whosoever 
falleth on this Stone: but another from their capture, and 
calamity, and utter destruction, which also He clearly fore- 
told, saying, It iiill grind him to powder. By these words 
He darkly intimated His own resurrection also. 

Now the Prophet Isaiah saith, that He blames the vineyard, 

but here He accuses in particular the rulers of the people. 

And there indeed He saith. What ought I to have done to My 

vineyard, that I did not^; and elsewhere again, What trans- ^u. 5, 4. 

gression have your fathers found in Me''? And again, O My^ Sex. 2, 

people, what have I done unto thee'? and wherein have I ' 

grieved thee'''? shewing their thankless disposition, and that^Micah 

G, 3. 

1)18 God's reproach to His Vim yard, and His Husbandmen. 

HoMiL. when in the enjoyment of all things, they requited it by the 
2. contraries ; but here He expresses it with yet greater force. 
For He doth not plead, Himself, saying. What oiajht I to 
have done that I have not done? but brings in themselves to 
judge, that nothing hath been wanting, and to condemn 
themselves. For when tlicy say, He icill miserably destroy 
those wiched men, and ivjiU let out the vineyard to other 
husbandmen, tliey say nothing else than this, publishing 
their sentence with much greater force. 

With this Stephen also upbraids them, which thing most 
of all stung them, that having enjoyed always much pro- 
vidential cave, they requited their Benefactor with the con- 
traries, which very thing itself was a very great sign, that 
not the Punishcr, but the punished, were the cause of the 
vengeance brought upon them. 

Tliis here likewise is shewn, by the parable, by the pro- 
phecy. For neither was He satisfied with a parable only, 
but added also a twofold prophecy, one David's, the others 
from Himself. 

What then ought they to have done on hearing these 
things ? ought they not to have adored, to have marvelled at 
the tender Care, that shewn before, that afterwards.^ But if 
by none of these things they were made better, by the fear of 
punishment at any rate ought they not to have been rendered 
more temperate ? 

But they did not become so, but what do they after these 
V. 45,46. things ? IVhen they had heard it, it is said, they perceived 
that He spake of tlteni, Jnd when they souyht to lay hands 
on Him, they icere afraid because oj the muUitudes,Jor they 
took Him for a Prophet. For they felt afterwards that they 
themselves were intimated. Sometimes indeed, when being 
seized. He withdraws through the midst of them, and is not 
seen ; and sometimes while appearing to them He lays a 
check upon their labouring eagerness; at which indeed men 
marvelled, and said, Is not this Jesus ? Lo, He speaketh 
boldly, and they say nothiny luito Him. But in this in- 
stance, forasmuch as they were held in restraint by the fear 
of the nniltitude, He is satisfied with this, and doth not work 
miracles, as before, withdrawing through the midst, and not 

Tkey that seek heavenly thirty s yain even here. 919 

appearing. For it was not His desire to do all things in a M/vtt. 


45, 46. 

superhuman way, in order that the Dispensation" might be -^^^• 


But they, neither by the multitude, nor by what had been 
said, were brought to a sound mind ; they regarded not the 
Prophet's testimony, nor their own sentence, nor the disposi- 
tion of the people ; so entirely had the love of power and 
the lust of vain glory blinded them, together with the pursuit 
of things temporal. 

[3.] For nothing so urges men headlong and drives them 
down precipices, nothing so makes them fail of the things to 
come, as their being riveted to these decaying things. Nothing 
so surely makes them enjoy both the one and the other, as 
their esteeming the things to come above all. For, Seek ye 
Jirst, saith Christ, the kinydom of Qod, and all these thinys 
shall be added unto you^. And indeed, even if this wereiMat.G 
not joined, not even in that case ought we to aim at them. "^^^ 
But now in obtaining the others, we may obtain these too ; 
and not even so are some persuaded, but are like senseless 
stones, and pursue shadows of pleasure. For what is 
pleasant of the things in this present life ? what is delight- 
ful } For with greater freedom do I desire to discourse with 
you to-day ; but suffer it, that ye may learn tliat this life 
which seems to you to be a galling and wearisome life, I 
mean, that of the monks and of them that are crucified, is 
far sweeter, and more to be desired than that, which seems 
to be easy, and more delicate. 

And of this ye are witnesses, who often have asked for 
death, in the reverses and despondencies that have overtaken 
you, and have accounted happy them that are in mountains, 
them that are in caves, them that have not married, them 
that live the unworldly life ; ye that are engaged in crafts, 
ye that are in military services, ye that live without object or 
rules, and pass your days at the theatres, and orchestras. 
For of these, although numberless fountains of pleasures and 
mirth seem to spring up, yet are countless darts still more 
bitter brought forth. 

For if any one be seized with a passion for one of the 
damsels that dance there, beyond ten thousand marches, 
^ Gr., (i. e.) the verity of the Incarnation. 

920 Unworldly life of Monks, like Paradise. 

HoMiL. beyond ten thousand journeys from home, will he undergo 
'3. a torture more grievous, being in a more miserable state than 
any besieged city. 

However, not to enquire into those things for the present, 
liaving left them to the conscience of those that have been 
taken captive, come let us discourse of the life of the common 
sort of men, and we shall find the difference between either of 
these kinds of life as great as between a harbour, and a sea 
continually beaten about with winds. 

And observe from their retreats at once the first signs of 
their tranquillity. For they have fled from market places, 
and cities, and the tumults amidst men, and have chosen the 
life in mountains, that which hath nothing in common with 
the things present, that which undergoes none of the ills of 
man, no worldly sorrows, no grief, no care so great, no 
dangers, no plots, no envy, no jealousy, no lawless lusts, nor 
any other thing of this kind. 

Here already they meditate upon the things of the King- 
dom, holding converse with groves, and mountains, and 
springs, and with great quietness, and solitude, and before 
all these, with God. And from all turmoil is their cell pure, 
and from every passion and disease is their soul free, refined 
and light, and far purer than the finest air. 

And their work is what was Adam's also at the beginning 
and before his sin, when he was clothed with the glory, and 
conversed freely with God, and dwelt in that place that was 
full of great blessedness. For in what respect are they in a 
worse state than he, when before his disobedience he was set 
to till the garden ? Had he no worldly care ? But neither 
have these. Did he talk to God with a pure conscience? 
this also do these ; or rather they have a greater confidence 
than he, inasmuch as they enjoy even greater Grace by the 
supply of the Spirit. 

Now ye ought indeed by the sight to take in these things; 
but forasmuch as ye are not willing, but pass your time in 
turmoils and in markets, by word at least let us teach you, 
taking one part of their way of living ; (for it is not possible 
to go over their whole life.) These that are the lights of the 
world, as soon as the sun is up, or rather even long before its 
rise, rise up from their bed, healthy, and wakeful, and sober, 

Their Devotions, Dress, and Labours. 02 1 

(for neither doth any sorrow and care, nor head ache, and Matt. 

45. 46. 

toil, and multitude of business, nor any other such thing ^^^• 

trouble them, but as Angels live they in Heaven ;) having 
risen then straightway from their bed cheerful and glad, and 
having made one choir, with their conscience bright, with one 
voice all, like as out of one mouth, they sing hymns unto 
the God of all, honouring Him and thanking Him for all His 
benefits, both particulai*, and common". 

So that if it seem good, let us leave Adam, and enquire 
what is the difference between the Angels, and this company 
of them who on earth sing, and say. Glory to God in the 
Highest, and on earth peace, good will towards men. 

And their dress is suitable to their manliness. For not 
indeed, like those with trailing garments, the enervated and 
mincing, are they dressed, but like those blessed Angels, 
Elijahj Elisha, John, like the Apostles; their garments being 
made for them, for some of goat's hair, for some of camel's, 
hair, and there are some for whom skins suffice alone, and 
these long worn. 

Then, after they have said those songs, they bow their 
knees, and entreat the God AVho was the object of their 
hymns for things, to the very thought of which some do not 
easily arrive. For they ask nothing of things present, for 
they have no regard for these, but that they may stand with 
boldness before the fearful judgment-seat, when the Only- 
Begotten Son of God is come to judge quick and dead, and 
that no one may hear the fearful Voice That saith, I know 
you not, and that with a pure conscience and many good 
deeds they may pass through this toilsome life, and sail over 
the angry sea with a favourable wind. And he leads them in 
their prayers, who is their Father, and their Ruler. 

After this, when they have risen up and finished those 
holy and continual prayers, the sun being risen, they depart 
each one to their work, gathering thence a large supply for 
the needy. 

[4.] Where now are they who give themselves to devilish 
choirs, and harlot's songs, and sit in theatres ? For I am 

a *' For all Thy goodness and loving- ing Thanksgiving ; Const. Apcst. viii. 
kindness to us, and to all men." 38. and the Eucharistic Prayer, ib. 
Thanksgiving Prayer. See the Morn- c. 12. 

922 Music of the Monks compared with that of theatres. 

HoMiL. indeed ashamed to make mention of tliem ; nevertheless, 
4. ' because of your infirmity it is needful to do even this. For 

Horn. 6, Paul too saith, LiLe as ye have yielded your members 
servants to unclean/tess, even so now yield your nieinhers 
servants to righteousness unto holiness. 

Come let us also therefore compare the company that is 
made up of harlot women, and prostituted youths on tlie 
stage, and this same that consists of these blessed ones in 
regard of pleasure, for which most of all, many of the careless 
youth ai'e taken in their snares. For we shall find the 
difference as great, as if any one heard Angels singing above 
that all-harmonious melody of theirs, and dogs and swine 
howling and grunting on the dunghill. For by the mouths 
of these Christ speaketh, by their tongues the devil. 

But is the sound of pipes joined to them with unmeaning 
noise, and unpleasing show, when cheeks are puffed out, 
and their strings stretched to breaking ? But here the grace 
of the Spirit pours forth a sound, using, instead of flute or 
lyre or pipes, the lips of the saints. 

Or rather, whatever we may say, it is not possible to set 
forth the pleasure thereof, because of them that are riveted 
to their clay, and their brick-making? Therefore I would 
even wish to take one of those who are mad about these 
matters, and to lead him off" there, and to shew him the 
choir of those saints, and I should have no more need for these 
words. Nevertheless, though we speak unto miry ones, we 
will try, though by word, still by little and little, to draw 
them out of the slime and the fens. For there the hearer 
receives straightway the fire of illicit love ; for as though 
the sight of the harlot were not enough to set the mind on 
fire, tliey add the mischief also from the voice ; but here 
even should the soul have any such thing, it lays it aside 
straightway. But not tlieir voice only, nor their countenance, 
but even their clothes do more than these confound the 
beholders. And should it be some poor man of the grosser 
and heedless sort, from the sight he will cry out ten thousand 
times in bitter despair, and will say to himself, " The harlot, 
and the prostituted boy, children of cooks and coblers, and 
often even of slaves, live in such delicacy, and I a freeman, 

Their contrary effects on the hearer. 923 

and born of freemen, choosing honest labour, am not able so Matt. 
much as to imagine these things in a dream ;" and thus he ^g ^g 
will go his way inflamed with discontent. 

But in the case of the monks there is no such result, but 
rather the contrary altogether. For when he shall see 
children of rich men and descendants of illustrious an- 
cestors clothed in such garments as not even the lowest of 
the poor, and rejoicing in this, consider how great a con- 
solation against poverty he will receive as he goes away. 
And should he be rich, he returns sobered, become a better 
man. Again in the theatre, when they see the harlot clothed 
with golden ornaments, while the poor man will lament, and 
bemoan, seeing his own wife having nothing of the kind, the 
rich will in consequence of this spectacle contemn and 
despise the partners of their home. For when the harlot 
presents to the beholders garb and look, and voice and step, 
all luxurious, they depart set on fire, and enter into their 
own houses, thenceforth captives. 

Hence the insults, and the affronts, hence the enmities, 
the wars, the daily deaths ; hence to them that are taken 
captive, life is insupportable, and the partner of their home 
thenceforth unpleasing, and their children not as much 
objects of affection, and all things in their houses turned 
upside down, and after that they seem to be thrown into 
disorder by the very sunbeam. 

But not from these choirs does any such dissatisfaction 
arise, but the wife will receive her husband quiet and meek, 
freed from all unlawful lust, and will find him more gentle 
to her than before this. Such evil things doth that choir 
bring forth, but this good things, the one making wolves of 
sheep, this lambs of wolves. But as yet we have perhaps 
said nothing hitherto touching the pleasure. 

And what could be more pleasant than not to be troubled 
or grieved in mind, neither to despond and groan ? Never- 
theless, let us carry on our discourse still further, and examine 
the enjoyment of either kind of song and spectacle ; and we 
shall see the one indeed continuing until evening, so long as 
the spectator sits in the theatre, but after this paining him more 
grievously than any sting; but in the other case for ever vigorous 
in the souls of them that have beheld it. For as well the 

9Q4 Blessings of feedimj on the Word of God. 

HoMiL.fasliion of the men, and the delitijlitfulness of the place, and 


' 6. ' the sweetness of their manner of life, and the purity of their 
rule, and the grace of that most beautiful and spiritual song 
they have for ever infixed in them. They at least who are 
in continual enjoyment of those havens, thenceforth flee as 
from a tempest, from the tumults of the multitude. 

But not when singing only, and praying, but also when 
riveted to their books, they are a pleasing spectacle to the 
beholders. For after they have ended the choir, one takes 
Isaiah and discourses with him, another converses with the 
Apostles, and another goes over the labours of other men, 
and seeks wisdom concerning God, concerning this universe, 
concerning the things that are seen, concerning the things 
that are not seen, concerning the objects of sense, and the 
objects of intellect, concerning the vileness of this present 
life, and the greatness of that to come. 

f5.] And they are fed on a food most excellent, not setting 
before themselves cooked flesh of beasts; but oracles of God, 
beyond honey and the honeycomb, a honey marvellous, and 
far superior to that whereon John fed of old in the wilderness. 
For this honey no wild bees collect, settling on the flowers, 
neither do lay it up in hives digesting the dew, but the 
grace of the Spirit forming it, layeth it up in the souls of 
the saints, in the place of honeycombs, and hives, and pipes, 
so that he that will may eat thereof continually in security. 
These bees then they also imitate, and hover around the 
honeycombs of those holy books, reaping therefrom great 

And if thou desirest to learn about their table, be near it, 
> ipivyo- and thou shalt see them bursting forth ' with such things, all 
n-ivovs. gj,j-,j]g Q^-^^ sweet, and full of a spiritual fragrance. No foul 
word can those spiritual mouths bring forth, nothing of 
foolish jesting, nothing harsh, but all worthy of Heaven. 
One would not be wrong in comparing the mouths of them 
that crawl about in the market places, and are mad after 
worldly things, to ditches of some mire; but the lips of these 
to fountains flowing with honey, and pouring forth pure 

But if any felt dis])leased that I have called the mouths of 
the nuiltitude ditches of some mire, let him know thai I have 

Exhortation to go and see the Monks. 925 

said it, sparing them very much. For Scripture hath not used Matt. 
this measure, but a comparison far stronger. For adder's 45 "45*, 
poifion, it is said, is under their lips^^ and tlieir throat is an 'Ps.i40, 
open sepulchre. But theirs are not so, but full of muchg'g" 

And their state here is like this, but that hereafter what 
speech can set before us ? what thought shall conceive ? the 
portion of Angels, the blessedness unspeakable, the good 
things untold ? 

Perchance some are warmed now, and have been moved 
to a longing after this good rule of life. But what is the 
profit, when whilst ye are here only, ye have this fire ; but 
when ye have gone forth, ye extinguish the flame, and this 
desire fades. How then, in order that this may not be ? 
Wiiile this desire is warm in you, go your way unto those 
Angels, kindle it more. For the account that we give will 
not be able to set thee on fire, like as the sight of the things. 
Say not, T will speak w4th my wife, and I will settle my affairs 
first. This delay is the beginning of remissness. Hear, 
how one desired to bid farewell to them at his house-, andsiKings 
the Prophet suffered him not. And why do I say, to bid ' ^^* 
farewell? The disciple desired to bury his father'', andsMat.s, 
Christ allowed not so much as this. And yet what thing ' * 
seems to thee to be so necessary as the funeral of a father ? 
but not even this did He permit. 

Why could this have been ? Because the devil is at hand 
fierce, desiring to find some secret approach ; and though it 
be but a little hindrance or delay he takes hold of, he works 
a great remissness. 

Therefore one adviseth. Put not off from day to day*. *Ecclns. 
For thus shalt thou be able to succeed in most things, thus ' ' • 
also shall the things in thine house be well ordered for thee. 
For seek ye, it is said, the Kingdom of God, and all these 
things shall be added unto ijou^. For if we establish in gi'eats Matt. 
security them that overlook their own interests, and prefer ' ^'^' 
the care of ours, much more doth God, Who even without 
these things hath a care for us, and provides for us. 

Be not thoughtful then about thine interests, but leave 
them to God. For if thou art thoughtful about them, thou 
art thoughtful as a man ; but if God provide, He provides as 

926 God loill provide for us if we seek things above. 

HoMiL. God. Be not so thouglitful about them as to let go the 
6, greater things, since tlicn lie will not much provide for them. 
In order therefore that He may fully provide for them, leave 
them to Him alone. For if thou also thyself takest them in 
hand, having let go the things spiritual, He will not make 
much provision for them. 

In order then that both these things may be well disposed 
for thee, and that thou mayest be freed from all anxiety, 
cleave to the things spiritual, overlook the things of the 
world ; for in this way thou shalt have earth also with 
heaven, and shalt attain unto the good things to come, by 
the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
to Whom be glory and might world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxii. 1 — 14. 

A7id Jesus answered and spake again in parables. The King- 
dom of Heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a 
marriage for his son; and sent forth his servants to call them 
which were hidden to the wedding; and they would not come. 
Again., he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which 
are hidden, I have prepared my dinner ; my oxen and my 
fatlings are killed, and all things are ready ; come unto the 
marriage. But they made light of it, and went their ways, 
one to his farm, another to his merchandise : and the remnant 
took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew 
them. But ivhen the king heard thereof, he ivas wroth; and 
he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and 
burned up their city. Tlien saith he to his servants, The 
wedding is ready, but they which were hidden were not 
worthy. Go ye into the highways, and as many as ye shall 
find, hid to the marriage. So those servants went out into 
the highways, and gathered together all as many as they 
found, both bad and good : and the wedding was furnished 
with guests. And when the king came in to see the guests, 
he saw there a man which had not on a loedding garment : 
and he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither, not 
having a wedding garment ? And he tvas speechless. And 
he said to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and cast 
him into outer darkness; there shall be tveeping and gnashing 
of teeth. For many are called, but few chosen. 

Seest thou both in the former parable and in this, the 
difference between the Son and the servants ? Seest thou 

5)28 Occasion and import of Parable of the Mar riac/e-f east. 

HoMTL. atoncc the great affinity between both parables, and the great 
1. "difference also? For this also indicates God's long-suffering, 
and His great providential care, and the Jews' ingratitude. 

But this parable hath something also more than the other. 
For it proclaims beforehand both the casting out of the Jews, 
and the calling of the Gentiles; and it indicates together 
with this also the strictness of the life required, and how great 
the punishment appointed for the careless. 

And well is this placed after the other. For since He had 
said, It shall be given to a nation bringing forth the fruits 
thereof, He declares next to what kind of nation ; and not 
this only, but He also again sets forth His providential care 
towards the Jews as past utterance. For there He appears 
before His crucifixion bidding them; but here even after He 
is slain, He still urges them, striving to win them over. And 
when they deserved to have suffered the most grievous punish- 
ment, then He both presses them to the marriage, and honours 
them with the highest honour. And see how both there He 
calls not the Gentiles first, but the Jews, and here again. 
But as there, when they would not receive Him, but even 
slew Him when He was come, then He gave away the vine- 
yard ; thus here too, when they were not willing to be 
present at the mai'riage, then He called others. 

What then could be more ungrateful than they, when being 
bidden to a marriage they rush away ? For who would not 
choose to come to a marriage, and that a King's marriage, 
and of a King making a marriage for a Son ? 

And wherefore is it called a marriage? one may say. That 
thou mightest learn God's tender care, His yearning towards 
us, the cheerfulness of the state of things, that there is nothing 
sorrowful there, nor sad, but all things are full of spiritual 
joy. Therefore also John calls Him a Bridegroom, therefore 

' 2 Cor. Paul again saith, For I have espoused you to one husband^ ; 
' * and, This is a great mystery^ but I speak concerning Christ 

^Efh. 5, a)fd the Churchy 

32 ■ . . 

Why then is not the Bride said to be espoused to Him, 
but to the Son ? Because She that is espoused to the Son, 
is espoused to the Father. For it is indifferent in Scripture 

J , that the one or the other should be said, because of the 

dwuK- identity' of the substance. 

Marriage of the Son that was slain. The Jews how bidden. 929 

Hereby He proclaimed the resurrection also. For since Matt. 

in what went before He had spoken of the death, He shews i_li4.' 

that even after the death, then is the marriage, then the 


But not even so do these become better men, nor more 
gentle, than which what can be worse ? For this again is a 
third accusation. The first that they killed the Prophets ; 
then the Sou; afterwards that even when they had slain Him, 
and were bidden unto the marriage of Him that was slain, by 
the vei-y One that was slain, they come not, but feign ex- 
cuses, yokes of oxen, and pieces of ground, and wives. And 
yet the excuses seem to be reasonable; but hence we learn, 
though the things which hinder us be necessary, to set the 
things spiritual at a higher price than all. 

And He bids not suddenly, but a long time before. For, 
Tell, He saith, them that are bidden; and again. Call them 
that were bidden ; which circumstance makes the charge 
against them heavier. And when were they bidden ? By 
all the Prophets; by John again; for unto Christ he would 
pass all on, saying, He must increase, I must decrease^; by 'Johns, 
the Son Himself again. Come unto Me, all ye that labour and 
are heavy laden^ and I will refresh you^; and again, If any ^ Matt. 
man thirst, let liim come unto Me, and drink^. 3 John 7 

But not by words only, but also by actions did He bid^^* 
them, and after His Ascension by Peter, and those with him. 
For He that ivrought effectually in Peter, it is said, to the 
Apostleship of the Circumcision, was mighty also in me 
iouards the Gentiles*. *Gal.2, 

For since on seeing the Son, they were wroth and slew^" 
Him, He bids them again by His servants. And unto what 
doth He bid them ? Unto labours, and toils, and sw^eat ? 
Nay but unto pleasure. For, My oxen. He saith, and My 
fallings are killed. See how complete His banquet*, how \ ^<io-v 
great His munificence. Saia-la. 

And not even this shamed them, but the more long-suffer- 
ing He shewed, so much the more were they hardened. For 
not for press of business, but from ' making light of it,' they 
did not come. 

" How then do some bring forward marriages, others yokes 
of oxen ? these things surely are of want of leisure." 

3 o 

930 Vanity of excuses. Fulfilment of the Prophecy. 

HoMiL. By no means, for when spiritual things call us, there is no 
1/ 'press of business that has the power of necessity. 

And to me they seem moreover to make use of these 
excuses, putting forward these things as clokes for their 
negligence. And not this only is the grievous thing, that 
they came not, but also that which is a far more violent and 
furious act, to have even beaten them that came, and to have 
used them despitefully, and to have slain them ; this is worse 
than the former. For those others came, demanding pro- 
duce and fruits, and were slain ; but these, bidding them to 
the marriage of Him That had been slain by them, and these 
again are murdered. 

What is equal to this madness? This Paul also was laying 
iiThess. to their charge, when he said', Ulto both killed the Lord, 
' ^^' and their own Prophets, and hare persecuted us. 

Moreover, that they may not say, " He is an adversary of 
God, and therefore we do not come," hear what they say 
who are bidding them ; that it is the Father Who is making 
the marriage, and that it is He Who is bidding them. 

What then did He after these things ? Since they were 
not willing to come, yea and also slew those that came unto 
them; He burns up their cities, and sent His armies and 
slew them. 

And these things He saith, declaring beforehand the 
things that took place under Vespasian and Titus, and that 
they provoked the Father also, by not believing in Him ; it 
is the Father at any rate Who was avenging. 

And for this reason let me add, not straightway after 
Christ was slain did the capture take place, but after forty 
years, that He might shew Jlis long-suffering, when they had 
slain Stephen, when they had put James to death, when 
they had spitefully entreated the Apostles. 

Scest thou the truth of the event, and its quickness ? For 
while John was yet living, and many others of them that 
were with Christ, these things came to pass, and they that 
had heard these words were witnesses of the events. 

See then care unutterable. He had planted a vineyard ; 
He had done all things, and finished; when His servants 
had been put to death, He sent other servants ; when those 
had been slain, He sent the Son ; and when He was put to 

Even after the Crucifixion the Jews were first called. 93 1 

death, He bids tliem to the marriage. They would not Matt. 
come. After this He sends other servants, and they slew l_li4.' 
these also. 

Then upon tliis He slays them, as being incurably dis- 
eased. For that they were incurably diseased, was proved 
not by their acts only, but by the fact, that even when 
harlots and publicans had believed, they did these things. 
So that, not by their own crimes alone, but also from what 
others were able to do aright, these men are condemned. 

But if any one should say, that not then were they out of 
the Gentiles called, I mean, when the Apostles had been 
beaten and had suffered ten thousand things, but straightway 
after the Resurrection, (for then He said to them, ' Go ye, i Matt. 
and make disciples of all nations.) We would say, that both^ ' ^ * 
before the Crucifixion, and after the Crucifixion, they 
addressed themselves to them first. For both before the 
Crucifixion, He saith to them, -Go to the lost sheep of the^ ^'^^^^' 
house of Israel; and after the Crucifixion, so far from for- ' 
bidding. He even commanded them to address themselves to 
the Jews. For though He said. Make disciples of all 
nations-, yet when on the point of ascending into Heaven, 
He declared that unto those first they were to address them- 
selves ; For ye shall receive poiver^, saith He, after that the^ Acts 
Holy Ghost is come upon you, and ye shall be witnesses unto ' 
Me both in Jerusalem, and in all JudcBa, and unto the 
uttermost part of the earth; and Paul again % He that'^Ga.\.2, 
wronyht effectually in Peter to the Apostleship of the 
Circumcision, teas mighty in me also toward the Gentiles. 
Therefore the Apostles also went first unto the Jews, and 
when they had tarried a long time in Jerusalem, and then 
had been driven away by them, in this way they were 
scattered abroad unto the Gentiles. 

[2.] And see thou even herein His bounty; As many as ye 
shall find, saith He, bid to the marriage. For before this, as 
I said, they addressed themselves both to Jews and Greeks, 
tarrying for the most part in Judaea; but since they con- 
tinued to lay plots against them, hear Paul interpreting this 
parable, and saying thus*. It was necessary that the ivord of^ Acts 
God should first have been spoken to you, hut since ye judge "'' * 
yourselves umvorihy, lo, we turn to the Gentiles. 

3 o 2 

932 The calling in of grace. Standing requires our will. 

HoMiL. Therefore Christ also saith, Tlie wedding is ready, hut they 

21. 'which icere hidden were not worthy. 

He knew this indeed even before, but that He might 

leave them no pretext of a shameless sort of contradiction, 

although He knew it, to them first Pie both came and sent, 

both stopping their mouths, and teaching us to fulfil all our 

parts, though no one should derive any profit. 

Since then they were not worthy, Go ye, saith He, into 

the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid ; both the 

common sort, and the outcasts. For because He had said 

'^'■'^^•in every way', The harlots and publicans shall inherit 

ly.' heaven; and. The Jirst shall he last, and the last Jirst ; 

He shews that justly do these things come to pass; which 

more than any thing stung the Jews, and goaded them far 

more grievously than their overthrow, to see those from the 

Gentiles brought into their privileges, and into far greater 

than theirs. 

Then in order that not even these should put confidence 

in their faith alone. He discourses unto them also concerning 

the judgment to be passed upon wicked actions; to them 

that have not yet believed, of coming unto Him by faith, and 

to them that have believed, of care with respect to their life. 

For the garment is life and practice. 

And yet the calling was of grace; wherefore then doth He 

take a strict account? Because although to be called and to 

be cleansed was of grace, yet, when called and clothed in 

clean garments, to continue keeping them so, this is of the 

diligence of them that are called. 

The being called was not of merit, but of grace. It was 

fit therefore to make a return for the grace, and not to shew 

forth such great wickedness after the honour. " But 1 have 

not enjoyed," one may say," so much advantage as the Jews." 

Nay, but thou hast enjoyed far greater benefits. For what 

things were being prepared for them throughout all their 

time, these thou hast i-eceived at once, not being worthy. 

2 Rom. Wherefore Paul also saith^ And that the Gentiles might 
16 9 . 

' ' glorify God for His mercy. For what things were due to 

them, these thou hast received. 

Wherefore also great is the punishment appointed for 

them that have been remiss. For as they did despite by not 

The Outer Darkness, The Wedding Garment. 933 

coining, so also thou by thus sitting down with a corrupt Matt. 
life. For to come in with filthy garments is this, namely, to i_i4/ 
depart hence having one's life impure; wherefore also he was "^ 

Seest thou how, although the fact was so manifest, He 
doth not punish at once, until he himself, who has sinned, 
has passed the sentence ? For by having nothing to reply 
he condemned himself, and so is taken away to the unutter- 
able torments. 

For do not now, on hearing of darkness, suppose he is 
punished by this, by sending inta a place where there is no 
light only, but where there is also weeping and gnashing of^' 13. 
leeih. And this He saith, indicating the intolerable pains. 

Hear ye, as many as having partaken of the Mysteries, and 
having been present at the Maniage, clothe your souls with 
filthy deeds. Hear whence ye were called. From the high- 
way. Being what ? Lame and halt in soul, which is a much 
more grievous thing than the mutilation of the body. Reve- 
rence the love of Him, Who called you, and let no one 
continue to have filthy garments, but let each of you busy 
himself about the clothing of your soul. 

Hear, ye women; hear, ye men; we need not these 
garments that are bespangled with gold, [that adorn our 
outward parts,] but those others, that adorn the inward. 
Whilst we have these former, it is difiicult to put on those 
latter. It is not possible at the same time to deck both soul 
and body. It is not possible at the same time both to serve 
mammon, and to obey Christ as we ought. 

Let us put off us therefore this grievous tyranny. For 
neither if any one were to adorn thy house by hanging it 
with golden curtains, and were to make thee sit there in rags 
naked, wouldest thou endure it with meekness. But lo, now 
thou doest this to thyself, decking the house of thy soul, 
I mean the body, with curtains beyond number, but leaving 
the soul itself to sit in rags. Knowest thou not that the 
king ought to be adorned more than the city ? so therefore 
while for the city hangings are prepared of linen, for the 
king there is a purple robe and a diadem. Even so do thou 
wrap the body with a much meaner dress, but the mind do 
thou clothe in purplci and put a crown on it, and set it on a 

934 Rick spiritual dress of Monks clothed in sackcloth. 
HoMiii. high and conspicuous chariot. For now thou art doing the 

T V T V ^ 

3, opposite, decking the city in various ways, but suffering the 
king, the mind, to be dragged bound after the brute passions. 

Rememberest thou not, that thou art bidden to a marriage, 
and to God's marriage ? Considcrest thou not how the soul 
that is bidden ought to enter into those chambers, clad, and 
decked with Cringes of gold ? 

[3.] Wilt thou that I shew thee them that arc clad thus, 
them that have on a marriage garment ? 

Call to mind those holy persons, of whom I discoursed to 
you of late, them that wear garments of hair, them that dwell 
in the deserts. These above all are the wearers of the 
garments of that wedding ; this is evident from hence, that 
how many soever purple robes thou wert to give them, they 
would not choose to receive them ; but much as a king, if 
any one were to take the beggar's rags, and exhort him to 
put them on, would abhor the clothing, so would those 
persons also his purple robe. And from no other cause 
have they this feeling, but because of knowing the beauty of 
their own raiment. Therefore even that purple robe they 
spurn like the spider's web. For these things hath their 
sackcloth taught them ; for indeed they are far more exalted 
and more glorious than the very king who reigns. 

And if thou wert able to open the doors of the mind, and 
to look upon their soul, and all their ornaments within, 
surely thou wouldest fall down upon the earth, not bearing 
the glory of their beauty, and the splendour of those 
garments, and the lightning brightness of their conscience. 

For we could tell also of men of old, great and to be 
admired ; but since visible examples lead on more those of 
grosser souls, therefore do I send you even to the tabernacles 
of those holy persons. For they have nothing sorrowful, 
but as if in heaven they had pitched their tents, even so are 
they encamped far off the wearisome things of this present 
life, in campaign against the devils ; and as in choirs, so do 
they war against him. Therefore I say, they have fixed 
their tents, and have fled from cities, and markets, and 
houses. For he that warreth cannot sit in a house, but he 
nmst make his habitation of a temporary kind, as on the 
point of removing straightway, and so dwell. Such are all 

The Christian Camp more glorious than the Emperor''s. 935 

those persons, contrary to us. For we indeed live not as in Matt. 

^ . . . XXII. 

a camp, but as in a city at peace. 1—14. 

For who in a camp ever lays foundations, and builds 
himself a house, which he is soon after to leave ? There is 
not one ; but should any one attempt it, he is put to death 
as a traitor. Who in a camp buys acres of land, and makes 
for himself trade ? There is not one, and very reasonably. 
" For thou art come here," they would say, " to fight, not to 
traffic ; why then dost thou trouble thyself about the place, 
which in a little time thou wilt leave ? When we are gone 
away to our country, do these things." 

The same do I now say to thee also. When we have 
removed to the city that is above, do these things : or rather 
thou wilt have no need of labours there ; after that the King 
will do all things for thee. But here it is enough to dig a 
ditch round only, and to fix a palisade, but of building 
houses there is no need. 

Hear what was the life of the Scythians, that lived in their 
waggons, such, as they say, are the habits of the shepherd 
tribes. So ought Christians to live ; to go about the world, 
warring against the devil, rescuing the captives held in sub- 
jection by him, and to be in freedom from all worldly things. 

Why preparest thou a house, O man, that thou mayest 
bind thyself more ? Why dost thou bury a treasure, and 
invite the enemy against thyself? Why dost thou compass 
thyself with walls, and prepare a prison for thyself? 

But if these things seem to thee to be hard, let us go 
away unto the tents of those men, that by their deeds we 
may learn the easiness thereof. For they having set up huts, 
if they must depart from these, depart like as soldiers, having 
left their camp in peace. For so likewise are they encamped, 
or rather even much more beautifully. 

For indeed it is more pleasant to behold a desert containing 
huts of monks in close succession, than soldiers stretching 
the canvass in a camp, and fixing spears, and suspending 
from the point of the spears saffi'on garments', and a multi- ^ (pdp-n 
tude of men having heads of brass, and the bosses of the '''""^'^^'* 
shields glistening much, and men armed all throughout with 
steel, and royal courts hastily made, and ground levelled 

936 Angels delight to be present at the Monks* meal. 

• far, and men dining and piping. For neith 
3. 4. ' SO delightful as that of whicli I now speak. 

HoMiL. far, and men dining and piping. For neitlier is this spectacle 

For if we were to go away into the wilderness, and look 
at the tents of Christ's soldiers, we shall see not canvass 
stretched, neither points of spears, nor golden garments 
making a royal pavilion ; but like as if any one upon an 
earth much larger than this earth, yea infinite, had stretched 
out many heavens, strange and awfnl would be the sight 
he shewed ; even so may one see here. 

For in nothing are their lodging-places in a condition 
inferior to the heavens ; for the angels lodge with them, and 
the Lord of the angels. For if they came to Abraham, a 
man having a wife, and bringing up children, because they 
saw him hospitable; when they find much more abundant 
virtue, and a man delivered from the body, and in the flesh 
disregarding the flesh, much more do they tarry there, and 
celebrate the choral feast that becomes them. For there is 
moreover a table amongst them pure from all covetousness, 
and full of self-denial. 

No streams of blood are amongst them, nor cutting up of 
flesh, nor heaviness of head, nor dainty cooking, neither are 
there unpleasing smells of meat amongst them, nor dis- 
agreeable smoke, neither runnings and tumults, and disturb- 
ances, and wearisome clamours ; but bread and water, the 
latter from a pure fountain, the former from honest labour. 
But if any time they should be minded to feast more 
sumptuously, their sumptuousness consists of fruits, and 
gi-eater is the pleasure there than at royal tables. There 
is no fear there, or trembling, no ruler accuses, no wife 
provokes, no child casts into sadness, no disorderly mirth 
dissipates, no multitude of flatterers pufl's up ; but the table 
is an angels' table free from all such turmoil. 

And for a couch they have grass onl}' beneath them, like 
as Christ did when making a dinner in the wilderness. And 
many of them do this, not being even under shelter, but for 
a roof thry have heaven, and the moon instead of the light 
of a candle, not wanting oil, nor one to attend to it; on 
them alone does it shine worthily from on high. 

[4.] Tliis table even angels from heaven beholding are 

Their cheerful and holy conversation. 937 

delighted and pleased. For if over one sinner that repenteth Matt. 
they rejoice, over so many just men imitating them, what will ^_}}' 
they not do? There are not master and slave; all are slaves, 
all free men. And do not think the saying to be a dark 
proverb, for they are indeed slaves one of another, and 
masters one of another. 

They have no occasion to be in sadness when evening 
has overtaken them, as many men feel, revolving the anxious 
thoughts that spring from the evils of the day. They have 
no occasion after their supper to be careful about robbers, 
and to shut the doors, and to put bars against them, neither 
to dread the other ills, of which many are afraid, extin- 
guishing their candles with strict care, lest a spark any where 
should set the house on fire. 

And their conversation again is full of the same calm. 
For they talk not of these things, whereof we discourse, that 
are nothing to us ; such a one is made governor, such a one 
has ceased to be governor ; such a one is dead, and another 
has succeeded to the inheritance, and all such like, but 
always about the things to come do they speak, and seek 
wisdom; and as though dwelling in another world, as though 
they had migrated unto heaven itself, as living there, even 
so all their conversation is about the things there, about 
Abraham's bosom, about the crowns of the saints, about the 
quiring with Christ; and of things present they have neither 
any memory nor thought, but like as we should not deign to 
speak at all of what the ants do in their holes and clefts ; so 
neither do they of what we do ; but about the King That 
is above, about the war in which they are engaged, about 
the devil's crafts, about the good deeds which the Saints 
have achieved. 

Wherein therefore are we different from ants, when com- 
pared with them ? For like as they care for the things of the 
body, so also do we ; and would it were for these alone ; 
but now it is even for things far worse. For not for necessary 
things only do we care like them, but also for things super- 
fluous. For those insects pursue a business free from all blame, 
but we follow after all covetousness, and not even the ways 
of ants do we imitate, but the ways of wolves, but the ways 
of leopards, or rather we are even worse than these. For to 

938 Worldly glory fades in the presence of the spiritual. 
HoMiL. them nature has assigned that they should be thus fed, but 

1 V T y" 

\ 'us God hath honoured witli speech, and a sense of equity', 
' iffovo- and we are become worse tlian the wild beasts. 
'^'°' And whereas we are worse than the brutes, those men are 

equal to the angels, being strangers and pilgrims as to the 
things here ; and all things in them are made different from 
us, clothing, and food, and house, and shoes, and speech. 
And if any one were to hear them conversing and us, then 
he would know full well, how they indeed are citizens of 
heaven, but we are not worthy so much as of the earth. 

So that therefore, when any one invested with rank is come 
unto them, then is all inflated pride found utterly vain. For 
the labourer there, and he that hath no experience of worldly 
affairs, sits near him that is a commander of troops, and 
prides himself on his authority, upon the grass, upon a mean 
cushion. For there are none to extol him, none to puff him 
up; but the same result takes place, as if any one were to go 
to a goldsmith, and a garden of roses, for he receives some 
brightness from the gold and from the roses ; so they too, 
gaining a little from the splendour of these, are delivered 
from their former arrogance. And like as if any were to go 
upon a high place, though he be exceedingly short, he 
appears high; so these too, coming unto their exalted minds, 
appear like them, so long as they abide there, but when they 
are gone down are abased again, on descending from that 

A king is nothing amongst them, a governor is nothing ; 
but like as we, when children are playing at these things, 
laugh ; so do they also utterly spurn the inflamed pride of 
them who strut without. And this is evident from hence, 
that if any one would give them a kingdom to possess in 
security, they would never take it; yet they would take it, 
unless their thoughts were upon what is greater than it, 
unless they accounted the thing to be but for a season. 

What then ? Shall we not go over unto blessedness so 
great .? Shall we not come unto these angels ; shall we 
not receive clean garments, and join in the ceremonies of 
this wedding feast; but shall we continue begging, in no 
respect in a better condition than the poor in the streets, or 
rather in a state far worse and more wretched ? For nmch 

Exhortation to renounce covetousness. 939 

worse than these are they that are rich in evil ways, and it is Matt. 
better to beg than to spoil, for the one hath excuse, but the i_li4/ 
other brings punishment ; and the beggar in no degree 
offends God, but this other both men and God ; and under- 
goes the labours of rapine, but all the enjoyment thereof 
other men often reap. 

Knowing then these things, let us lay aside all covetous- 
ness, and covet the things above, with great earnestness 
taking the kingdom by force'^. For it cannot be, it cannot 'Matt, 
be that any one who is remiss should enter therein. ' ' 

But God grant that we all having become earnest, and 
watchful, may attain thereto, by the grace and love towards 
man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and might, 
world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxii. 15. 

Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might 
entangle Him in His talk. 

Then. When ? When most of all they ought to have been 
moved to compunction, when they should have been amazed 
at His love to man, when they should have feared the things 
to come, when from the past they ought to have believed 
touching the future also. For indeed the things that had 
been said cried aloud in actual fulfilment. 1 mean, that 
publicans and harlots believed, and prophets and righteous 
men were slain, and from these things they ought not to 
have gainsaid touching their own destruction, but even to 
believe and to be sobered. 

But nevertheless not even so do their wicked acts cease, 
but travail and proceed further. And forasmuch as they 
could not lay hands on Him, (for they feared the multitude,) 
they took another way with the intention of bringing Him 
into danger, and making Him guilty of crimes against the 
■v.16.17. For they sent out unto Him their disciples with the 
Herodians, saying, Blaster, we knoiv that Thou art true, 
and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest Thou 
for any man; for Thou, regardest not the person of men. 
Tell tis therefore, what thinkest Thou ? Is it lauful to give 
tribute unto Ccesar or not ? 

For they were now tributaries, their state having passed 
under the rule of the Romans. Forasmuch then as they saw 

The Pharisees strive to ensnare our Lord as to the Tribute. 941 

that Theudas and Judas' with their companies for this cause Matt. 
were put to death, as having prepared for a revolt, they were iqi^' 
minded to bring Him too by these words into such a suspicion, i Acts 5, 
Therefore they sent both their own disciples, and Herod's ^^' ^^' 
soldiers, digging, as they thought, a precipice on either side, 
and in every direction setting the snare, so that, whatever 
He should say, they might lay hold of it ; and if He should 
answer in favour of the Herodians, themselves might find 
fault with Him, but if in their favour, the others should 
accuse Him. And yet He had given the didrachmas^, but 2 Matt. 
they knew not that. 25—27. 

And in either way indeed they expected to lay hold of 
Him; but they desired rather that He should say something 
against the Herodians. Wherefore they send their disciples 
also to urge Him thereto by their presence, that they might 
deliver Him to the governor as an usurper. For this Luke 
also intimates and shews, by saying, that they asked also in 
the presence of the multitude, so that the testimony should 
be the stronger. 

But the result was altogether opposite ; for in a larger 
body of spectators they afforded the demonstration of their 

And see their flattery, and their hidden craft. We know, 
their words are, that Thou art true. How said ye then. He 
is a deceiver i and deceive th the people^, and hath a devil, ^ John 
and is not of God? how a little while before did ye devise g'^g.' 
to slay Him ? 9^ 16.' 

But they are at every thing, whatsoever their craft against 
Him may suggest. For since, when a little before they had 
said in self will, By what authority doest Thou these things*? *^ Matt, 
they did not meet with an answer to the question, they look ' 
to pufF Him up by their flattery, and to persuade Him to 
say something against the established laws, and opposed to 
the prevailing government. 

Wherefore also they testify the truth unto Him, confessing 
what was really so, nevertheless, not with an upright mind, 
nor willingly ; and add thereto, saying, Thou carest not for 
any man. See how plainly they are desiring to urge Him to 
these sayings, that w'ould make Him both offend Herod, and 
incur the suspicion of being an usurper, as standing up 

942 Their crafty address. Our Lord's severity. 

HoMiL. against the laws, so that they might punish Him, as a mover 
''l. ■ of sedition, and an usurper. For in saying, Thou carest not 
for any man, and, Tliou regardest not the person of man, 
they were hinting at Herod and Caesar. 

Tell lis therefore, what thinkest Thou ? Now ye honour 
Him, and esteem Him a Teacher, having despised and 
insulted Him oftentimes, when He was discoursing of the 
things that concern your salvation. Whence also they are 
become confederates. 

And see their craftiness. They say not. Tell us what is 
good, what is expedient, what is lawful ? but. What thinkest 
Thou? So much did they look to this one object, to betray 
Him, and to set Him at enmity with the rulers. And Mark 
declaring this, and more ])lainly discovering their self-will, 
and their murderous disposition, affirms them to have said, 
1 Mark Shall we give Ccesar tribute, or shall we not give ' ? So that 
^^' '^' they were breathing anger, and travailing with a plot against 
Him, yet they feigned respect. 

What then saith He ? Why tempt ye Me, ye hypocrites ? 
Seest thou how He talks with them with more than usual 
severity } For since their wickedness was now complete and 
manifest, He cuts the deeper, first confounding and silencing 
them, by publishing their secret thoughts, and making it 
manifest to all with what kind of intent they are coming unto 

And these things He did, repulsing their wickedness, so 
that they might not suffer hurt in attempting the same things 
again. And yet their words were full of much respect, for 
they both called Him Master, and bore witness to His truth, 
and that He was no respecter of persons; but being God, He 
was deceived by none of these things. Wherefore they also 
ought to have conjectured, that the rebuke was not the result 
of conjecture, but a sign of His knowing their secret thoughts. 
[2.] He stopped not, however, at the rebuke, although it was 
enough merely to have convicted them of their purpose, and 
to have put them to shame for their wickedness; but He 
stoppeth not at this, but in another way closes their mouths; 
for, SJiew Me, saith He, the tribute money. And when they 
had shewn it ; as He ever doth, by their tongue He brings 
out the decision, and causes them to decide, that it is lawful ; 

Tilings of Ccesar and things of God. 943 

which was a clear and plain victory. So that, when He Matt. 
asks, not from ignorance doth He ask, but because it is His 20—23*. 
will to cause them to be bound by their own answers. For 
when, on being asked, Whose is the image? they said, v.20.2l. 
C(Bsar''s ; He saith. Render unto Ccesar ihe things that are 
C<Bsar''s. For this is not to give but to render, and this He 
shews both by the image, and by the superscription. 

Then that they might not say, Thou art subjecting us to 
men, He added. And unto God the things that are God\s. 
For it is possible both to fulfil to men their claims, and to 
give unto God the things that are due to God from us. 
Wherefore Paul also saith ', Render iinto all their dues; ' Rom. 
tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, ' 
fear to whom fear. 

But thou, when thou hearest. Render unto Ccesar the 
things which are CcBsar's, know that He is speaking only of 
those things, which are no detriment to godliness ; since if 
it be any such thing as this, such a thing is no longer Caesar's 
tribute, but the devil's. 

When they heard these things, their mouths were stopped, 
and they marvelled at His wisdom. Ought they not then 
to have believed, ought they not to have been amazed. For 
indeed, He gave them proof of His Godhead, by revealing 
the secrets of their hearts, and with gentleness did He silence 

What then ? did they believe ? By no means, but they 
left Him, and went their way; and after them, came ^v.22.23. 
Him the Sadducees. 

O folly ! When the others had been put to silence, these 
made the attack, when they ought to have been the more 
backward. But such is the nature of rashness, shameless, 
and importunate, and attempting things impossible. There- 
fore the Evangelist also, amazed at their folly, signified this 
very thing, by saying, On that day came to Him. On that v. 23. 
day. On what day ? In which He had convicted their crafti- 
ness, and put them to shame. 

But who are these .? A sect of the Jews different from the 
Pharisees, and much worse than they, who said, that there 
is no resurrection, nor angel, nor spirit". For these were ''Acts23, 
some of a grosser sort, and eager after the things of the body. 

944 The case put by the Sadducees a feigned one. 

HoMTL. For there were many sects even amongst the Jews. Where- 
as* ' fore Paul also saith, 1 am a Pharisee, of the strictest sect 

1 Acts amongst us\ 

23 6- 

and 26 And they say nothing indeed directly about a resurrection; 

*• but they feign a story, and make up a case, which, as I 

suppose, never so much as had an existence; thinking to drive 

Him to perplexity, and desiring to overthrow both things, both 

the existence of a resurrection, and of such a resurrection. 

And again, these too attack Him with a show of modera- 
V. 24-28. lion, saying, 3Iaster, 3Ioses said, If a man die, not having 
children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed 
imto his brother. Notv there were with us seven brethren : 
and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased ; and 
having no issue, left his wife unto his brother. Likeicise the 
second also, and the third, unto the seventh. And last of 
all the woman died also. Therefore, in the Resurrection, 
whose wife shall site be of the seven ? 

See Him answering these like a teacher. For though out 
of craft they came unto Him, yet was their question rather 
one of ignorance. Therefore neither doth He say unto 
them. Ye hypocrites. 

Moreover, in order that He might not blame, saying, 
" Wherefore had seven one wife ?" they add the authority of 
Moses ; although, as I have said before, it was a fiction, in 
my judgment at least. For the third would not have taken 
her, when he saw the two bridegrooms dead ; or if the third, 
yet not the fourth or the fifth ; and if even these, much more 
the sixth or the seventh would not have come unto the 
woman, but have shrunk from her. For such is the nature 
of the Jews. For if now many have this feeling, much more 
then had they ; when at least, even without this, they often 
avoided marrying in this way, and that when the Law was 
constraining them. Thus, at any rate, Ruth, that Moabitish 
woman, was thrust off to him that was further off from her 
kindred; and Tamar too was thus compelled to obtain, by 
stealth, seed from her husband's kinsman. 

And wherefore did they not feign two or three, but seven ? 
In order the more abundantly to bring derision, as they 
thought, upon the Resurrection. Wherefore they further 
say, they all had her, as driving Him into some difficulty. 

Our Lord reproves the Sadducees' unbelieving thoughts. 045 

What then saith Christ ? He replies unto both, as taliine- Matt. 

His stand not against the words, but the purpose, and on 29 30, 

every occasion revealing the secrets of their hearts ; and at 

one time exposing them, at another time leaving the refutation 

of them that question Him to their conscience. See, at any 

rate here, how He proves both points, as well that there will 

be a resurrection, as that it will not be such a resurrection as 

they suspect. 

For what saiih He ? Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, v. 29. 
nor the power ofOod. For since, as if they knew them, they 
put forward Moses and the Law, He shews that this question 
is that of men very ignorant of the Scriptures. For hence 
also arose their tempting Him, from their being ignorant of 
the Scriptures, and from their not knowing the power of God 
as they ought. 

" For what marvel then is it," He saith, " if ye tempt Me, 
Who am as yet unknown to you, when at least ye know not 
so much as the power of God, of which ye have had so much 
experience, and neither from common sense nor from the 
Scriptures have become acquainted with it ;" if indeed even 
common sense causes us to know this, that to God all things 
are possible. And in the first place He answers to the question 
asked. For since this was the cause for their not believing 
a resurrection, that they think the order of things is like this. 
He cures the cause, then the symptom also, (for thence arose 
the disease too,) and shews the manner of the Resurrection. 
For in the Resurrection, saith He, they neither marry, nor v. so. 
are given in marriage, but are as Angels of God in Heaven. 
But Luke saith, As Sons of God^. ' luke 

If then they marry not, the question is vain. But not ' 
because they do not marry, therefore are they Angels, but 
because they are as Angels, therefore they do not marry. By 
this He removed many other difficulties also, all which 
things Paul intimated by one word, saying, For the fashion 
of this world passe th away 2. \ 1 Cor. 

And by these words He declared how great a thing the ' 
Resurrection is ; and that moreover there is a resurrection. He 
proves. And indeed this too was demonstrated at the same 
time by what He had said, nevertheless over and above He 
adds again to His word by what He saith now. For neither 

3 p 

946 Continued relation to God implies Resurrection. their question only did He stop, but at their thought. 


^ ■ Thus when they are not dealing with great craft, but are 

asking in ignorance, lie teaches even over and above, but 
when it is of wickedness only, not even to their question doth 
He answer. 

And again by Moses doth He stop their mouths, since 

T, 31.32. they too had brought forward Moses; and He saith, But as 
touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read, 
I am the God of Abraliam, and the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob? He is not the God of the dead, but of the 
living. Not of them that are not. His meaning is, and that 
are utterly blotted out, and are to rise no more. For He 
said not, I was, but, I am ; of them that are, and them that 
live. For like as Adam, although he lived on the day that 
he ate of the tree, died in the sentence ; even so also these, 
although they had died, lived in the promise of the Resur- 

How then doth He say elsewhere. That He might be Lord 

' Rom. both of the dead and of the living^? But this is not contrary 
' ■ to that. For here He speaks of the dead, who are also 
themselves to live. And moreover too, / am the God of 
Abraham, is another thing from. That He might be Lord 
both of the dead and of the living. He knew of another 
death too, concerning which He saith, Let the dead bury 

« Matt, their dead^. 

^' ^^' And when the multitudes heard this, they tvere astonished 
at His doctrine. Yet not even here the Sadducees; but 
these go away defeated, while the impartial multitude reap 
the benefit. 

Since then the Resurrection is like this, come let us do 
all things, that we may obtain the first honours there. But, 
if ye will, let us shew you some even before the Resurrection 
here pursuing and reaping these blessings, again having 
made our resort to the deserts. For again will I enter upon 
the same discourse, since I see you listening with more 

Let us behold then to-day also the spiritual camps, let us 
behold their pleasure unalloyed with fear. For not with 
spears are they encamped like the soldiers, for at this point 
1 lately ended my discourse, neither with shields and breast- 

Victories of the army of Monks over the vices. 947 

plates; but bare of all these wilt thou see them, yet achieving Matt. 
such things, as not even with arms do they. " 33^ 

And if thou art able to observe, come and stretch forth 
thy hand to me, and let us go imto this war, both of us, and 
let us see their battle array. For these too fight every day, 
and slay their adversaries, and conquer all the lusts that are 
plotting against us ; and thou wilt see these cast out on the 
ground, and not able so much as to struggle, but proving by 
very deed that saying of the Aposlle, They that are ChrisVs 
have crucified thefiesh with the affections and lusts^. *Cral. 5, 

Seest thou a multitude of dead lying [there], slain by the 
Sword of the Spirit i* Therefore in that place is no drunken- 
ness nor gluttony. And their table proves it, and the trophy 
that is set thereon. For drunkenness and gluttony lie dead, 
put to the rout by the drinking of water, though this be 
multiform, and a many headed monster. For like as in the 
fabled Scylla and Hydra, so in drunkenness may one see 
many heads, on one side fornication growing up, on another 
wrath ; on one hand sloth, on another lawless lusts ; but all 
these things are taken away. And yet all those other armies, 
though they get the better in ten thousand wars, are taken 
captive by these; and neither arms, nor spears, nor whatever 
else there may be, is able to stand against these phalanxes ; 
but the very giants, the heroes, those that do countless brave 
deeds, thou wilt find without bonds bound by sleep and 
drunkenness, without slaughter or wounds, lying like the 
wounded, or rather in more grievous case. For those at 
least struggle ; but these do not even this, but straightway 
give up. 

Seest thou that this host is greater and more to be 
admired ? For the enemies that got the better of the others 
it destroys by its mere will. For they do so weaken the 
mother of all their evils, that she cannot even trouble them 
any more ; and the leader being overthrown, and the head 
removed, the rest of the body also lies still. 

And this victory one may see each of them, that abide 
there, achieving. For it is not as in these wars of ours, 
where, if any enemy hath received a blow from one, he is no 
more grievous to another, having been once overthrown ; 
but it is necessary for all to smite this monster; and he that 

3 p 2 

948 The forces arrayed by yluttony and drunkenness. 

HoMiL. hath not smitten and overthrown her, is surely troubled by 


LXX. , 


Seest thou a glorious victory ? For such a trophy as the 
hosts in all parts of the world having met together have not 
power to erect, this each one of those men erects ; and all 
things that from the army of drunkenness lie mingled 
together wounded, delirious words of frenzy, insane thoughts, 
unpleasing haughtiness. And they imitate their own Lord, 
P9. 110, at Whom the Scripture marvelling saith, He shall drink of 
^' (he brook in the way, there/ore shall He lift up the head. 

Would ye see also another multitude of dead ? Let us 
see the lusts that arise from luxurious living, those that are 
cherished by the makers of sauces, by the cooks, the fur- 
nishers of feasts, the confectioners. For I am ashamed 
indeed to speak of all ; however, I will tell of the birds from 
Phasis, the soups that are mixed from various things : the 
moist, the dry dishes, the laws made about these things. 
For like as if ordering some city and marshalling hosts, even 
so these too make laws, and ordain such a thing first, and 
such a thing second, and some bring in first birds roasted on 
the embers, filled within with fish ; and others make of 
other material the beginnings of these unlawful feasts ; and 
there is much rivalry about these things, about quality, and 
about order, and about quantity; and they take a pride in 
the things, for which they ought to bury themselves for 
shame; some saying that they have spent the half of the 
day, some all of it, some that they have added the night too. 
Behold, O wretched man, the measure of thy belly, and be 
ashamed of thy unmeasured earnestness ! 

But there is nothing like this amongst those angels; but 
all these desires also are dead. For their meals are not unto 
fidness, and unto luxurious living, but unto necessity. No 
bird hunters are there, no fishermen, but bread and water. 
But this confusion, and the disturbance, and the turmoils, 
are all removed from thence, alike from the house and from 
the body, and great is the haven, but amongst these gi'eat 
the tem])est. 

Burst open now in thought the belly of them who feed on 
such things, and thou wilt see the vast refuse, and the 
unclean channel, and the whited sepulchre. 

These conquer in the trorld, lie beaten in the desert. 949 

But what come after these I am even ashamed to tell, the Matt. 
disagreeable eructations, the vomitings, the discharges down- |i 
wards and upwards. 

But go and see even these desires dead there, and those 
more violent lusts that spring from these; I mean, those of 
impurity. For these too thou wilt see all overthrown, with 
their horses, with their beasts of burden. For the beast of 
burden, and the weapon, and the horse of a filthy deed, is a 
filthy word. But thou wilt see such like horse and rider 
together, and their weapons thrown down ; but here quite 
the contrary, and souls cast down dead. But not at their 
meal only is the victory of these holy men glorious, but in 
the other things also, in money, in glory, in envy, in all 
diseases of the soul. 

Surely does not this host seem to thee mightier than that, 
and the meal better ? Nay, who will gainsay it ? None, not 
even of those persons themselves, though he be very mad. 
For this guides us on to Heaven, that drags to hell ; this the 
devil lays out, that Christ; for this luxury gives laws, and 
intemperance, for that self-denial and sobriety, here Christ 
is present, there the devil. For where there is drunkenness, 
the devil is there ; where there are filthy words, where there 
is surfeiting, there the devils hold their choirs. Such a 
table had that rich man, therefore not even of a drop of 
water was he master. 

But these have not such a table, but they already practise 
the ways of the Angels. They marry not, they are not given 
in marriage, neither do they sleep excessively, nor live 
luxuriously, but except a few things thej' are even bodiless. 

Now who is there that so easily overcomes his enemies, 
as he that sets up a trophy while at his dinner ? Therefore 
also the Prophet saith ', Tho^i hast prepared a table before i Ps. 23, 
me, in the presence of them that trouble me. One could not ^' 
be wrong in repeating this oracle about this table. For 
nothing so troubles a soul, as disorderly concupiscence, and 
luxury, and drunkenness, and the evils that spring from 
these; and this they know full well, who have had experience 

And if thou wast to learn also, whence this table is procured, 
and whence that; then thou wouldest see well the difference 

950 The Monks' meal compared with the icorld's feast. 

HoMiL. between each. Whence then is this procured. From count- 
5, * less tears, from widows defrauded, from orphans despoiled ; 
but the other from honest labour. And this table is like to 
a fair and well-favoured woman, needing nothing external, 
but having her beauty from nature ; but that to some ugly 
and ill-favoured harlot, wearing much paint, but not able to 
disguise her deformity, but the nearer she is, the more con- 
victed. For this too, when it is nearer to him that is at it, 
then shews its ugliness more. For look not I tell thee, at 
the banqueters, as they come only, but also as they go 
away, and then thou wilt see its ugliness. For that, as 
being free, suffers them that come unto it to say nothing 
shameful; but this nothing seemly, as being a harlot, and 
dishonoured. This seeks the profit of him that is at it, that 
the hurt. And one permits not to offend God, the other 
permits not but that we must offend Him. 

Let us go away therefore unto those men. Thence we 
shall learn with how many bonds we are encompassed. 
Thence shall we learn to set before ourselves a table full of 
countless blessings, most sweet, without cost, delivered from 
care, free from envy and jealousy and every disease, and full 
of good hope, and having its many trophies. No turmoil of 
soul there, no sorrow, no wrath ; all is calm, all is peace. 

For tell me not of the silence of them that serve in the 
houses of the rich, but of the clamour of them that dine ; 
I mean, not that which they make one to another, (for this 
too is worthy of derision,) but that within, that in the soul, 
that brings on them a great captivity, the tumults of the 
thoughts, the sleet, the darkness, the tempest, by which all 
things are mingled and confused, and are like to some night 
battle. But not in the monks' tents are such things as 
these ; but great is the calm, great the quietness. And 
that table is succeeded by a sleep that is like death, but 
this by sobriety and wakefulness ; that by punishment, this 
by the kingdom of heaven, and the immortal rewards. 

This then let us follow, that we may enjoy also the fruits 
thereof ; unto which God grant we may all attain, by the 
grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
Whom be glory and might world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxii. 34 — 36. 

But when the Pharisees had heard tliat He had 'put the 
Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together; and one 
of them, which was a lawyer, asked Him a question, 
tempting Him, and saying, Master, which is the great 
commandment in the Law? 

Again doth the Evangelist express the cause, for which 
they ought to have held their peace, and marks their bold- 
ness by this also. How and in what way ? Because when 
those others were put to silence, these again assail Him. 
For when they ought even for this to hold their peace, they 
strive to urge further their former endeavours ', and put ' iirayot- 
forward the lawyer, not desiring to learn, but making a trial 1^'^^""^"' 
of Him, and ask. What is the first commandment? ripois. 

For since ihe first commandment was this. Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God, thinking that He would afford them 
some handle, as though He would amend it, for the sake of 
shewing that Himself too was God, they propose the question. 
What then saith Christ? Indicating from what they were 
led to this; from having no charity, from pining with envy, 
from being seized by jealousy. He saith. Thou shalt love thev.37-39. 
Lord thy God. This is the first and great commandment. 
And the second is like unto this, Thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bour as thyself. 

But wherefore like unto this ? Because this makes the 
way for that, and by it is again established ; For every one 
that doeth evil haieth the light, neither cometh to the lighf^; 20"'^"^' 

952 IVhy and how far the Lawyer is commended. 

HoMiL.and again, The fool halh said iii his heart, There is no Qod. 
1. ' And wliat in consequence of this ? They are corrupt, and 

> Vs. b3, become abominable in their waysK And again, The love uf 
money is the root of all evils ; which while some coveted 

» 1 T\a\. after., they have erred from the failh"^ ; and, He that loveth 

3 John ^I^> w.'!'// keep My commandments^. 

14, 15. ]3yt jjis commandments, and the sum of them, are, Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God, and thy neighbour as thyself. 
If therefore to love God is to love one's neighbour, For if 

^ John ifiou lovest 3Ie, He saith, Peter, feed My sheep*, but to 

l'j\ ' love one's neighbour worketh a keeping of the command- 

V. 40. ments, with reason doth He say. On these hang all the Law 
and the Prophets. 

So therefore what He did before, this He doth here also. 
I mean, that both there, when asked about the manner of the 
•resurrection, He also taught a resun-cction, instructing them 
beyond what they enquired ; and here, being asked the first 
commandment, He rehearses the second also, which is not 
much inferior to that,; (for though second, it is like that,) 
intimating to them, whence the question had arisen, that it 

« 1 Cor. was from hatred. For charity envieth not \ By this He 
' * shews Himself to be submissive both to the Law and to the 

But wherefore doth Matthew say that he asked, tempting 
Him, but Mark the contrary? For when Jesus, he saith, 
saw that he answered discreetly. He said unto him. Thou 

" Mark art not far from the kingdom of God^. 
' ' They are not contradicting each other, but indeed fully 
agreeing. For he asked indeed, tempting, at the beginning, 
but being Ijcnefitted by the answer, was commended. For not 
at the beginning did He commend him, but when he had 
said, That to love his neighbour is more than whole burnt 
sacrifices, then He saith, Thou art not far from the Kingdom; 
because he overlooked low things, and embraced the first 
principle of virtue. For indeed all those are for the sake of 
this, as well the Sabbath, as the rest. 

And not even so did He make His commendation perfect, 
but yet deficient. For His saying, Thou art not far off., 
indicates that he is yet falling short, that he might seek after 
what was deficient. 

Christ draios toioard tlic Truth of His own Godhead. 953 

But if, when He said, There is One God, and there is none Matt. 
other but He, He cominended him, wonder not, but by this ^ 42. 
too observe, how He answers according to the opinion of 
them that come unto Him. For although men say ten 
thousand things about Christ unworthy of His glory, yet this 
at any rate they will not dare to say, that He is not God at 
all. Wherefore then doth He praise him that said, that 
beside the Father, there is no other God ? 

Not excepting Himself from being God ; away with the 
thought; but since it was not yet time to disclose His God- 
head, He suffers him to remain in the former doctrine, and 
praises him for knowing well the ancient principles, so as to 
make him fit for the doctrine of the New Testament, which 
He is bringing in its season. 

And besides, the saying. There is One God, and there is 
none other hut He, both in the Old Testament, and every 
where, is spoken not to the rejection of the Son, but to make 
the distinction from idols. So that when praising this man 
also, who had thus spoken. He praises him in this mind. 

Then since He had answered. He asks also in turn, TF^aiv. 42. 
think ye of Christ, Whose Son is He? Theij say unto Him, 
Hie Son of David. 

See after how many miracles, after how many signs, after 
how many questions, after how great a display of His 
unanimity with the Father, as well in words, as in deeds; after 
having praised this man that said, that there is one God, 
He asks the question, that they may not be able to say, that 
He did miracles indeed, yet was an adversary to the Law, 
and a foe to God. 

Therefore, after so many things, He asks these questions, 
secretly leading them on to confess Him also to be God. 
And the disciples He asked first what the others say, and 
then themselves ; but these not so ; for surely they would 
have said a deceiver, and a wicked one, as speaking all things 
without feai". So for this cause He enquires for the opinion 
of those men themselves. 

For since He was now about to go on to His Passion, He 
sets forth the prophecy that plainly proclaims Him to be 
Lord ; and not as having come to do this without occasion, 
nor as having made this His aim, but from a reasonable cause. 

954 J^fift of the questions concerning David. 

HoMiL. For having asked them first, since they answered not the 

3 ■ truth concerning Him ; (for they said He was a mere man,) 

to overthrow their mistaken opinion, He thus introduces 

David proclaiming His Godhead. For they indeed supposed 

■^^ 42. that He was a mere man, wherefore also they said, iJie Son 
of David" ; but He to correct this brings in the Prophet 
witnessing to His being Lord, and the genuineness of His 
Sonship, and His equality in honour with His Father. 

And not even at this doth He stop, but in order to move 
them to fear, He adds what foUoweth also, saying, Till I 

X. 43. 7nake Thine enemies Thy footstool ; that at least in this way 
He might gain them over. 

And that they may not say, that it was in flattery he so 
called Him ; and that this was a human judgment, see what 
He sailh. How then doth David in Spirit call Him Lord? 
See how submissively He introduces the sentence and judg- 
ment concerning Himself. First, He had said. What think 
ye? Whose Son is He? so by a question to bring them to 
an answer. Then since they said, the Son of David, He 
said not, "And yet David saith these things," but again in 
this order of a question. How then doth David in Spirit call 
Him Lord, in order that the sayings might not give offence to 
them. Wherefore neither did He say, What think ye of Me, 
but of Christ. For this reason the Apostles also reasoned 
submissively, saying, Let us speak freely of the Patriarch 

J Acts 2, David, that he is both dead and buried^, 


And He Himself too in like manner for this cause intro- 
duces the doctrine in the way of question and inference, 

V, 44. saying. How then doth David in Spirit call Him Lord, 
saying, The Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou on My right 

T. 45. hand, until I make Thy foes Thy footstool ; and again, 7/" 
David then call Him Lord, how is He then his Son; not 
taking away the fact that He is his Son, away with the 
thought ; for He would not then have rei)roved Peter for 
this"; but to correct their secret thoughts. So that when He 
saith. How is He his Son ? He meaneth this, not so as ye 

» It may be in this view that it is of God.' Acts 9, 20. 

said of St. Paul, immediately on his •* For being unwilling to admit what 

conversion, that ' he preached Chris( belonged to His Humanity ; Matt. 16, 

iM the synagogues, that He is (he So?i 22. 23. 

Vainglorious rulers slower to learn than the people. 955 

say. For they said, that He is Son only, and not also Matt. 
Lord. And this after the testimony, and then submissively, 45 
If David then call Him Lord, how is He his Son ? ~ 

But, nevertheless, even when they had heai'd these things, 
they answered nothing, for neither did they wish to learn 
any of the things that were needful. Wherefore He Himself 
addeth and sailh, that He is his Lord. Or rather not even 
this very thing doth He say without support, but having 
taken the Prophet with Him, because of His being ex- 
ceedingly distrusted by them, and evil reported of amongst 
them. To which fact we ought to have especial regard, 
and if any thing be said by Him that is lowly and submissive, 
not to be offended, for the cause is this, with many other 
things also, that He talks with them in condescension. 

Wherefore now also He delivers His doctrine in the 
manner of question and answer ; but He darkly intimates 
even in this way His dignity. For it was not as much to 
be called Lord of the Jews, as of David. 

But mark thou also, I pray thee, how seasonable it is. For 
when He had said, Inhere is one Lord, then He spake of 
Himself that He is Lord, and shewed it by prophecy, no 
more by His works only. And He sheweth the Father 
Himself taking vengeance upon them in His behalf, for He 
saith. Until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool, and great 
unanimity even hereby on the part of Him that begat Him 
towards Himself, and honour. And upon His reasonings 
with them He doth set this end high and great, and sufficient 
to close fast their mouths. 

For they were silent from thenceforth, not willingly, but 
from their having nothing to say ; and they received so 
deadly a blow, as no longer to dare to attempt the same 
things any more. For no one, it is said, durst from that day^. 46. 
forth ask Him any more questions. 

And this was no little advantage to the multitude. There- 
fore also unto them doth He henceforth direct His word, 
having removed the wolves, and having repulsed their plots. 
For those men gained nothing, taken captive by vainglory, 
and having fallen ui)on this terrible passion. For terrible is 

» See the parallel place, Mark 12, 31. where it is added, The common pcuple 
heard Him gladly. 


956 Evils of vainglory in good works. 

HoMiL.lhis passion and many-headed, for some set their heart upon 

3" ■ power for the sake of this, some on wealth, some on strength. 

But proceeding in order it goes on unto almsgiving also, and 

fasting, and ])raycrs, and teaching, and many are the heads 

of this monster. 

But to be vainglorious indeed about those other things is 
nothing wonderful ; but to be so about fasting and jirayer, 
this is strange and lamentable. 

But that we may not again blame only, come and let us 
tell the means, by which we shall avoid this. Against whom 
shall we prepare to contend first, against those that are vain- 
glorious of money, or those of dress, or those of places of 
power, or those of sciences, or those of art, or those of their 
person, or those of beauty, or those of ornaments, or those 
of cruelty, or those of humanity and almsgiving, or those of 
wickedness, or those of death, or those after death ? For 
indeed, as I have said, this passion hath many links, and 
irXiK- goes on beyond our life. For such a one, it is said, is dead, 
and that he may be held in admiration, hath charged that 
such and such things be done; and therefore such a one is 
poor, such a one rich. 

For the grievous thing is this, that even of opposite things 
is it made up. 

Against whom then shall we stand, and set ourselves in 
array first ? For one and the same discourse suffices not 
against all. Will ye then that it be against them that are 
vainglorious about almsgiving ? 

To me at least it seems well ; for exceedingly do I love 
this thing, and am pained at seeing it marred, and vainglory 
plotting against it, like a pandering nurse against some royal 
damsel. For she feeds her indeed, but for disgrace and 
mischief, prostituting her, and commanding her to despise 
her father ; but to deck herself to please unholy and often 
despicable men ; and invests her with such a dress, as 
strangers wish, disgraceful, and dishonourable, not such as 
the father. 

Come now, then, let us take our aim against these; and 
let there be an almsgiving made in abundance for display to 
the multitude. Surely then, first vainglory leads her out of 
her Father's chamber. And whereas her Father requires not 

The sold prostituted in seeking marCs praise ^ 957 

to appear so much as to the left hand^ she displays her to Matt. 
the slaves, and to the vulgar, that have not even known her. ^q 

Seest thou a harlot, and pander, casting her into the love 'Matt, 
of foolish men, that according as they require, so she may ' ' 
order herself? Dost thou desire to see how it renders such 
a soul not a harlot only, but insane also ? 

Mark then her mind. For when she lets go heaven and 
runs after fugitives and menial slaves, pursuing through 
streets and lanes them that hate her, the ugly and deformed, 
them that are not willing so much as to look at her, them 
that, when she burns with love towards them, hate her, 
what can be more insane than this ? For no one do the 
multitude hate so much, as those that want the glory they 
have to bestow. Countless accusations at least do they 
frame against them, and the result is the same, as if any one 
were to bring down a virgin daughter of the king from the 
royal throne, and to require her to prostitute herself to 
gladiators, who abhorred her. These then, as much as thou 
pursuest them, so much do they turn away from thee ; but 
God, if thou seek the glory that cometh from Him, so much 
the more both draws thee imto Himself, and commends thee, 
and great is the reward He renders unto thee. 

But if thou art minded in another way also to discern the 
mischief thereof, when thou givest for display and ostentation, 
consider how great the sorrow that then comes upon thee, 
and how continual the desponding, while Christ's voice is 
heard in thine ears, saying^ " Thou hast lost all thy reward." 2 Matt. 
For in every matter indeed vainglory is a bad thing, yet^' ^• 
most of all in beneficence, for it is the utmost cruelty, 
making a show of the calamities of others, and all but up- 
braiding those in poverty. For if to mention one's own 
good actions is to upbraid, what dost thou think it is to 
publish them even to many others. 

How then shall we escape the danger ? If we learn how 
to give alms, if we see after whose good report we are to 
seek. For tell me, who has the skill of almsgiving ? Plainly, 
it is God, Who hath made known the thing, Who best of all 
knows it, and practises it without limit. What then ? If 
thou art learning to be a wrestler, to whom dost thou look ? 

958 Good works should be done in the presence of God our Teacher. 

HoMTL. or to whom dost thou display thy doings in the wrestling 

school, to the seller of herbs, and of fish, or to the trainer ? 

And yet they are many, and he is one. What then, if while 
he admires thee, others deride thee, wilt thou not with him 
deride them ? 

What, if thou art learning to box, wilt thou not look in 
like manner to him who knows how to teach this? 

And if thou art practising oratory, wilt thou not accept 
the praise of the teacher of rhetoric, and despise the rest. 

How then is it other than absurd, in other arts to look to 
the teacher only, but here to do the contrary ? although the 
loss be not equal. For there, if you wrestle according to 
the opinion of the multitude, and not that of the teacher, 
the loss is in the wrestling; but here it is in eternal life. 
Thou art become like to God in giving alms ; be thou then 
like Him, in not making a display. For even He said, 
when healing, that they should tell no man. 

But dost thou desire to be called merciful amongst men ? 
And what is the gain ? The gain is nothing ; but the loss 
infinite. For these very persons, whom thou callest to be 
witnesses, become robbers of thy treasures that are in the 
heavens ; or rather not these, but ourselves, who spoil our 
own possessions, and scatter what we have laid up above. 

O new calamity ! this strange passion. Where moth 
corrupteth not, nor thief breaketh through, vainglory scat- 
tereth. This is the moth of those treasures there; this 
the thief of our wealth in heaven; this steals away the riches 
that cannot be spoiled; this mars and corrupts all. For 
because the devil saw that that place is impregnable to 
thieves and to the worm, and the other plots against them, 
he by vainglory steals away the wealth. 

But dost thou desire glory ? Doth not then that suffice 
thee which is given by the receiver himself, that from our 
gracious God, but dost thou set thine heart on that from men 
also } Take heed, lest thou undergo the contrary, lest some 
condemn thee as not shewing mercy, but making a display, and 
seeking honour, as making a show of the calamities of others. 

For indeed the shewing of mercy is a mystery. Shut 
therefore the doors, that none may see what it is not pious 

Almsgiving a mystery, not to be exposed. 959 

to display. For our Mysteries too are above all things, a Matt. 
shewing of God's mercy and loving-kindness. According to ^^^' 
His great mercy, He had mercy on us being disobedient. 

And the first prayer too is full of mercy, when we entreat 
for the Energumens ; and the second again, for others under 
penance seeking for much mercy ; and the third also for 
ourselves, and this puts forward the innocent children of the 
people entreating God for mercy. For since we condemn 
ourselves for sins, for them that have sinned much and 
deserve to be blamed we ourselves cry ; but for ourselves 
the children ; for the imitators of whose simplicity the king- 
dom of heaven is reserved. For this image shews this, that 
they who are like those children, lowly and simple, these 
above all men are able to deliver the guilty by their prayers. 

But the Mystery itself, of how much mercy, of how much 
love to man it is full, the initiated know. 

Do thou then, when according to thy power thou art 
shewing mercy to a man, shut the doors, let the object of 
thy mercy see it only ; but if it be possible, not even he. 
But if thou set them open, thou art profanely exposing thy 

Consider that very person, whose praise thou seekest, 
even himself will condemn thee ; and if he be a friend, will 
accuse thee to himself; but if an enemy, he will deride thee 
unto others also. And thou wilt undergo the opposite of 
what thou desirest. For thou indeed desirest, that he should 
call thee, the merciful man ; but he will not call thee this, 
but the vainglorious, the man-pleaser, and other names far 
more grievous than these. 

But if ihou shouldest hide it, he will call thee all that 
is opposite to this; the merciful, the kind. For God suffers 
it not to be hidden ; but if thou conceal it, the other will 
make it known, and greater will be the admiration, and more 
abundant the gain. So that even for this very object of 
being glorified, to make a display is against us ; for with 
respect to the thing unto which we most hasten and press, 
as to this most especially is this thing against us. For so 
far from obtaining the credit of being merciful, we obtain 
even the contrary, and besides this, great is the loss we 

960 Praise of God alone to be sought. 

HoMiL. For every motive then let us abstain from this, and set 
"5, ' our love on God's praise alone, For thus shall we both 

attain to honour here, and enjoy the eternal blessings, by 

the grace and love towards man of oar Lord Jesus Christ, 

to Whom be glory and n)ight world without end. Amen. 


Matt, xxiii. 1 — 3. 

Then spake Jesus to the multitudes arid to His disciples, 
saying, The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: 
all therefore whatsoever they hid you do, that do; hut do 
not after their works. 

Then. When ? When He had said these things, when 
He had stopped their mouths; when He had brought them 
that they should no more dare to tempt Him ; when He had 
shewn their state incurable. 

And since He had made mention of ' the Lord' and ' my 
Lord,' He recurs again to the Law. And yet the Law said 
nothing of this kind, but. The Lord thy God is one LordK^Deute, 
But Scripture calls the whole Old Testament the Law. ^' 

But these things He saith, shewing by all things His full 
agreement with Him that begat Him. For if He were 
opposed, He would have said the opposite about the Law; 
but now He commands so great reverence to be shewn towards 
it, that, even when they that teach it are depraved. He charges 
them to hold to it. 

But here He is discoursing about their life and morals, since 
this was chiefly the cause of their unbelief, their depraved 
life, and the love of glory. To amend therefore His hearers ; 
that which in the first place most contributes to salvation, 
not to despise our teachers, neither to rise up against our 
priests, this doth He command with superabundant earnest- 
ness. But He does not only command it, but also Himself doth 

3 Q 

0()2 Our Lord sanctioned authority even in bad men. 

HoMiL. it. For though they were depraved, He doth not depose them 

I Trom their dignity; to llicm rendering their condemnation 

heavier, and to His disciples leaving no cloke for disobedience. 

1 mean, that lest any one should say, that because my 
teacher is bad, therefore am I become more remiss. He 
takes away even this pretext. So much at any rate did He 
establish their authority, although they were wicked men, as 
even after so heavy an accusation to say, Alt trhafsoever they 
command you to do, do. For they speak not their own 
words, but God's, what He appointed for laws by Moses. 
And mark how much honour He shewed towards Moses, 
again shewing His agreement with the Old Testament, since 
indeed even by this doth He make them objects of reverence. 
For they sit, He saith, on Hoses' seat. For because He was 
not able to make them out worthy of credit by their life, Ho 
doth it from the grounds that were open to Him, from their 
seat, and their succession from him. But when thou hearest 
all, do not understand all the Law, as, for instance, the ordi- 
nances about meats, those about sacrifices, and the like ; for 
how was He to say so of these things, which He had taken 
away beforehand ? but He meant all things that correct the 
moral principle, and amend the disposition, and agree with 
the laws of the New Testament, and suffer them not afly 
more to be under the yoke of the Law. 

Wherefore then doth He give things divine authority, 
not from the Law of Grace, but from Moses ? Because it 
was not yet time, before the Crucifixion, for these things to be 
j)lainly declared. 

But to me He seems, in addition to what has been said, to 
be providing for another object, in saying these things. For 
since He was on the point of accusing them, that He might 
not seem in the sight of the foolish to set His heart on 
this authority of theirs, or for enmity to be doing these 
things, first He removed this thought, and having set him- 
self clear from suspicion, then begins His accusation. And 
for what intent doth He convict them, and run out into 
a long discourse against them } To set the multitude on 
their guard, so that they might not fall into the same sins. 
For neither is dissuading like pointing out those that have 
oilended ; much as recommending what is right, is not like 

Yet he rebukes their sins and their hardness. 96S 

brinffinpf forward those that have done well. For this cause Matt. 

• • • XXIII 

also He is beforehand in saying, Do not after their works. \^ ' 

For, lest they should suppose, because of their listening to 
them, they ought also to imitate them. He uses this means of 
correction, and makes what seems to be their dignity a 
charge against them. For what can be more wretched than 
a teacher, when the preservation of his disciples is, not to 
give heed to his life ? So that what seemcth to be their 
dignity, is a most heavy charge against them, when they are 
shewn to live such a life, as they that imitate are ruined. 

For this cause He also falls upon His accusations against 
them, but not for this only, but that He might shew, that 
both their former unbelief wherewith they had not believed, 
and the crucifixion after this, which they dared to perpetrate, 
were not a charge against Him Who was crucified and dis- 
believed, but against their perverseness. 

But see whence He begins, and whence He aggravates 
His blame of them. For they say, He sailh, and do not. For 
every one is worthy of blame in transgressing the Law, but 
especially he that bears the authority of teaching, for doubly 
and triply doth he deserve to be condemned. For one cause, 
because he transgresses ; for another, that as he ought to 
amend others, and then halteth, he is worthy of a double 
punishment, because of his dignity ; and in the third place, 
that he even corrupts the more, as committing such trans- 
gression in a teacher's place. 

And together with these He mentions also another charge 
against them, that they are harsh to those accountable to them. 

For they hind heavy burdens, and grievous io be borne, y.^. 
and lay them on mens shoulders, but they will not move 
them with their Jiugers. He mentions here a twofold 
wickedness, their requiring great and extreme strictness of 
life, without any indulgence, from those over whom they rule, 
and their allowing to themselves great security; the opposite 
to which the truly good ruler ought to hold ; in what concerns 
himself, to be an unpardoning and severe .judge, but in the 
matters of those whom he rules, to be gentle and ready to 
make allowances ; the contrary to which was the conduct of 
these men. For such are all they who practise self restraint [2.] 
in mere words, unpardoning, and grievous to bear, as having no 

3 q2 

964 Men Jit themselves to those icliose praise they seek. 

HoMiL. experience of the difficulty in actions. And this itself too is 
LXXII • • 

2_ ' no small fault, and in no ordinary way increases the former 


But do thou mark, I pray thee, how He aggravates this 
accusation also. For He did not say, " they cannot," but, 
they will not. And He did not say, " to bear," but, io move 
with a Jinger, that is, not even to come near them, nor to 
touch them. 

But wherein are they earnest, and vigorous ? In the things 
^- s* forbidden. For all their works they do, He saith, to he seen 
of men. These things He saith, accusing them in respect 
of vainglory, which kind of thing was their ruin. For the 
things before wei'e signs of harshness and remissness, but 
these of the mad desire of glory. This drew them off from 
God, this caused them to strive before other spectators, and 
ruined them. For whatever kind of spectators any one may 
have, since it hath become his study to please these, such also 
are the contests he exhibits. And he that wrestles among 
the noble, such also are the conflicts he takes in hand, but 
he among the cold and supine, himself also becomes more 
remiss. For instance, hath any one a beholder that delights 
in ridicule? he himself too becomes a mover of ridicule, that 
he may delight the spectator : hath another one who is 
earnest minded, and practises self-government ? he endea- 
vours himself to be such as he is, since such is the disposi- 
tion of him who praises him. 

But see again that here too the charge is with aggravation. 
For neither is it that they do some things in this way, some 
in another way, but all things absolutely this way. 

Then, having blamed them for vainglory, He shews that 
it is not even about great and necessary things they are vain- 
glorious, (for neither had they these, but were destitute of 
good works,) but for things without warmth or worth, and 
such as wei'e certain proofsof their baseness, the phylacteries, 
V. 5. the borders of their garments. For they make broad their 
phylacteries, He saith, a7}d enlarge the borders of their 

And what are these phylacteries, and these borders ? 
Since they were continually forgetting God's benefits, He 
commanded His marvellous works to be inscribed on little 

Vainglory in good woi'hs, and in matter & of precedence. 9Go 
tablets, and that these should be suspended from their Matt. 


hands, (wherefore also He said, ' They shall he immoveable in^ %. 7, ' 
thine eyes,) which they called phylacteries ; as many of our ' Ueut. 
women now wear Gospels hung from their necks. 2 go' 

And in order that by another thing again they may be LXX. 
reminded, like as many often do, binding round their fingery:/o„^*/e^, 
with -a piece of linen or a thread, as being likely to forget, *'^'"'^^' 
this God enjoined them as children to do, to sew a ribband 
of blue on their garments, upon the fringe that hung round 
their feet, that they might look at it, and remember the 
commandments^ ; and they were called "borders." 3 Numb. 

In these things then they were diligent, making wide the ' 
strips of the tablets, and enlarging the borders of their 
garments ; which was a sign of the most extreme vanity. 
For wherefore art thou vainglorious, and dost make these 
wide ? what, is this thy good work ? what doth it profit thee 
at all, if thou gain not the good results from them. For 
God seeks not the enlarging of these and making them wide, 
but our remembering His benefits. But if for almsgiving 
and prayer, although they be attended with labour, and be 
good deeds on our parts, we must not seek vainglory, how 
dost thou, O Jew, pride thyself in these things, which most 
of all convict thy remissness. 

But they not in these only, but in other little things, 
suffered from this disease. 

For they love. He saith, the uppermost rooms at feasts, v. 6. 7. 
and the chief seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the 
markets, and to be called of men. Rabbi. For these things, 
although one may think them small, yet are they a cause of 
great evils. These things have overthrown both cities and 

And it comes upon nie now even to weep, when I hear of 
the first seats, and the greetings, and consider how many ills 
were hence engendered to the Churches of God, which it 
is not necessary to publish to you now ; nay rather as many 
as are aged men do not even need to learn these things 
from us \ 

* This passage has afiforded grounds general to proi e any thing ; see Mont- 
for a conjecture as to the date of the faucon's Preface. 
Homily, but the language is too 

OtJU Desire of a Teacher'' s honour forbidden. 

HoMiL. But mark thou, I jiray thee, how vainglory prevailed; 
' 3 ■ when ihey were conimaiided not to be vainglorious, even in 
the synagogues, where they had entered to discipline others. 
For to have this feeling at feasts, to howsoever great a 
degree, doth not seem to be so dreadful a thing ; although 
even there the teachers ought to be held in reverence, and 
not in the Church only, but every where. And like as a 
man, wherever he may appear, is manifestly distinguished 
from the brutes ; so also ought the teacher, both speaking and 
holding his peace, and dining,and doing whatever it may be, to 
be distinguished as well by his gait, as by his look, and by his 
garb, and by all things generally. But they were on every 
account objects of ridicule, and in every respect disgraced 
themselves, making it their study to follow what they ought 
to flee. For they love them, it is said ; but if the loving 
them be a matter of blame, what a thing must the doing 
them be ; and to hunt and strive after them, how great an 

[3.] The other things then He carried no further than to 
accuse them, as being small and trifling, and as though His 
disci])les needed not at all to be corrected about these 
matters; but what was a cause of all the evils, even am- 
bition, and the violent seizing of the teacher's chair, this He 
brings forward, and corrects with diligence, touching this 
vehemently and earnestly charging them. 

V. 8. For what saith He ? But be not ye called Balbi. Then 

follows the cause also ; For One is your Blaster, and all ye 
are brethren; and one hath nothing more than another, in 
respect of his knowing nothing from himself. Wherefore 
Paul also saith, For who is Paul, and who is Apollos, but 

^ \ Cor. ministers^ ? He said not masters. And again, Call noty 

^' q' father, not that they should not call, but they may know. 
Whom they ought to call Father, in the highest sense. For 
like as the master is not a master principally ; so neither is 
the father. For He is cause of all, both of the masters, 
and of the fathers. 

y^ 10. And again He adds. Neither be ye called guides, for One 
is your Guide, even Christ; and He said not, 1. For like 

'Matt as above He said, What think ye of Chr i sf^ ? and He said 

22 42 ' 

' ' not, of Me, so here too. 

Humility truly exalts. Example of it in Monks. 967 

But I should be glad to ask here, what they would say, Matt. 
who are repeatedly applying the term One, One, to the Father ^^}}' 
alone, to the rejection of the Only-begotten. Is the Father 
Guide ? All would declare it, and none would gainsay it. 
And yet One, He saith, is your Guide, even Christ. For 
like as Christ, being called the One Guide, casts not out the 
Father from being Guide; even so the Father, being called 
Master, doth not cast out the Son from being Master. For 
the expression, One, One, is spoken in contradistinction to 
men, and the rest of the creation. 

Having warned them therefore against this grievous pest, 
and amended them, He instructs also how they may escape 
it; by humility. Wherefore He adds also, He that is greatest y. 11.12. 
among you shall be your servant. For whosoever shall exalt 
himself shall be abased, and whosoever shall abase himself 
shall be exalted. 

For nothing is equal to the practice of modesty, wherefore 
He is continually reminding them of this virtue, both when 
He brought the children into the midst, and now. And, when 
on the Mount, beginning the beatitudes. He began from 
hence. And in this place. He plucks it up by the roots 
hereby, saying, He that abaseth himself shall be exalted. 

Seest thou how He draws off the hearer right over to the 
contrary thing. For not only doth He forbid him to set his 
heart upon the first place, but requii'es him to follow after 
the last. For so shalt thou obtain thy desire, He saith. 
Wherefore he that pursues his desire for the first, must 
follow after the last place. For he that abaseth himself shall 
be exalted. 

And where shall we find this humility ? Will ye that we 
go again to the city of virtue, the tents of the holy men, the 
mountains, I mean, and the groves? For there too shall we 
see this height of humility. 

For men, some illustrious from their rank in the world, 
some from their wealth, in every way put themselves down, 
by their vesture, by their dwelling, by those to whom they 
minister ; and, as in written characters, they throughout all 
things inscribe humility. 

And the things that are incentives of arrogance, as to dress 
well, and to build houses splendidly, and to have many servants, 

968 Equality, and eagerness to serve, amongst Monks. 

HoMiL. things which often drive men even against their will to 
4 'arrogance; these are all taken away. For they themselves 

light their fire, they themselves cleave the logs, themselves 

cook, themselves minister to those that come there. 

No one can be heard insulting there, nor seen insulted, 
nor commanded, nor giving commands; but all are devoted 
to those that are waited on, and every one washes the 
strangers' feet, and there is much contention about this. 
And he doeth it, not enquiring who it is, neither if he be a 
slave, nor if he be free; but in the case of every one fulfils 
this service. No man there is great nor mean. What then? 
Is there confusion ? Far from it, but the highest order. 
For if any one be mean, he that is great seeth not this, but 
hath accounted himself again to be inferior even to him, and 
so becomes great. 

There is one table for all, both for them that are served, 
and for them that serve ; the same food, the same clothes, 
the same dwellings, the same manner of life. He is great 
there, who eagerly seizes the mean task. There is not mine 
and thine, but this expression is exterminated, that is a 
cause of countless wars. 

[4.] And why dost thou marvel, if there be one manner of 
life and table and dress for all, since indeed there is even one 
soul to all, not in substance only, (for this is with all men 
also,) but in love ? how then should it ever be lifted up 
itself against itself? There is no wealth and poverty there, 
honour and dishonour; how then should haughtiness and 
arrogance find an entrance ? For they are indeed liltle and 
great in respect of their virtue ; but, as I have said, no one 
seeth this. He that is little, feels not pain, as despised ; 
for neither is there any one to despise him ; and should any 
one spurn him, this above all are they taught, to be despised, 
to be spurned, to be set at nought, in word and in deed. 
And with the poor and maimed do they associate, and their 
tables are full of these guests ; so that for this are they 
worthy of the heavens. And one tends the wounds of the 
mutilated, another leads the blind by the hand, a third bears 
him that is lamed of his leg. 

There is no multitude of flatterers or parasites there ; or 
rather they know not even what flattery is; whence then 

Scripture examples of hmnilify in secular life. 969 

could they be lifted up at any time ? For there is great Matt. 
equality amongst them, wherefore also there is much facility fr tJ ' 
for virtue. 

For by these are they of an inferior sort better instructed, 
than if they were compelled to give up the first place to 

For like as the impetuous man derives instruction from 
him that is smitten, and submits to it; so the ambitious 
from him that claims not glory, but despises it. This they 
do there abundantly, and as the strife is great with us to 
obtain the first place, so great is it with them not to obtain 
it, but utterly to refuse it ; and great is their earnest desire 
who shall have the advantage in honouring, not in being 

And besides, even their very employments persuade them 
to practise moderation, and not to be high-swollen. For 
who, I pray thee, digging in the earth, and watering, and 
planting, or inaking baskets, or weaving sackcloth, or prac- 
tising any other handy works, will ever be proud } Who 
dwelling in poverty and wrestling with hunger, will ever be 
sick of this disease ? There is not one. Therefore humility 
is easy to them. And like as here, it is a hard thing to be 
lowly-minded, for the multitude of them who applaud and 
admire us, so there it is exceedingly easy. 

And tliat man gives heed only to the wilderness, and sees 
birds flying, and trees waving, and a breeze blowing, and 
streams rushing through glens. Whence then should he be 
lifted up who dwells in solitude so great? 

Not however that therefore we have from this an excuse, 
in that we are proud when living in the midst of men. For 
surely Abraham, vvhen amidst Canaanites, said, / am hut 
dust and ashcs^; and Da^-id, when in the midst of camps, i Gg^ 
I am a worm, and no man,"; and the Apostle, in the midst ;!^' 27. 

" or, 

of the world, I am not meet to he called an Apostle^. What 'courts.' 
comfort shall we have then ; what pica, when even, having \^- ^"-^j 
such great examples, we do not practise moderation .'' For even 3 1 Cor. 
as they are worthy of countless crowns, having been the first '^' ^' 
that went the way of virtue, even so are we deserving of 
countless punishments, who not even after those that are 
departed, and are set before us in books, no nor even after 

970 Invitation to hear and to see fwhj examples. 

HoMiL. these that are living, ami held in udniiialion through their 
' 4 ■ deeds, are drawn on to the like emulation. 

' For what couldest thou say, for not being amended? Art 
thou ignorant of letters, and hast not looked into the Scrip- 
tures that thou mightest learn the virtues of them of old ? 
To say the truth, this is itself blameworthy, when the church 
is constantly standing open, not to enter in, and ])artake of 
those sacred streams. 

However, although thou know not the departed by the 
Scriptures, these living men thou oughtest to see. But is 
there no one to lead thee? Come to me, and I will shew 
thee the places of refuge of these holy men ; come and learn 
thou of them something useful. Shining lamps are these in 
every part of the earth ; as walls are they set about the 
cities. For this cause have they occupied the deserts, that 

■ they may instruct thee to despise the tumults in the midst 
of the world. 

For they, as being strong, are able even in the midst of 
the raging of the waters to enjoy a calm; but thou, who art 
leaky on every side, hast need of tranquillity, and to take 
breath a little, after the successive waves. Go then there 
continually, that, having purged away the abiding stain by 
their prayers and admonitions, thou raayest both pass in the 
best manner the present life, and attain unto the good things 
to come, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, by Whom, and with Whom, be unto the 
Father, together with the Holy Ghost, glory, might, honour, 
now and ever, and world without end. Amen. 


Matt, xxiii. 14. 

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye 
devour widows' ho/uses, and for a pretence make long 
prayers : therefore ye shall receive greater damnation.. 

After this, next He derides them for gluttony: and the 
grievous thing was. that not from rich men's goods, but from 
the poor they indulged their own belly, and aggravated their 
poverty, which they should have relieved. For neither did 
they merely eat, but devoured. 

Moreover also the manner of their over-reaching was yet 
more grievous, /or a pretence making long prayers. 

For every one is worthy of vengeance who doeth any evil 
thing; but he that is deriving even the reason for so doing from 
godliness, and is using this cloke for his wickedness, is justly 
liable to a far more grievous punishment. And wherefore 
did He not depose them ? Because the time suffered it not 
as yet. So therefore He lets them alone for a time, but by 
His sayings, He secures that the people be not deceived, 
lest, through the dignity of those men, they be drawn on to 
the same emulation. 

For as He had said, Whatsoever they hid you do, that do; 
He shews how many things they do amiss, lest from thence 
He should be supposed amongst the unwise to commit all 
to them. 

Woe unto you, for ye shut up the kingdom against men ; \. 13. 
for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that 
are entering to go in. TJut if to profit no one be a charge 

972 llic Scribes blamed fur corrupting their proselytes, 

HoMiL. against a man, even to hurt and hinder, what plea hath that? 
^ 'But what means, tliein tJial are entering in ? Them that are 
fit for it. For when tliey were to lay inj unctions on others, they 
used to make the burdens intolerable, but when they them- 
selves were to do any of the things required, on the contrary, 
so far from doing any thing, they went much beyond this in 
wickedness, they even used to corrupt others. These are they 

' xoiixoi that are called pests', who make their employment the ruin of 
others, standing right contrary to teachers. For if it be the 
part of a teacher to save that which is perishing, to destroy 
that which is on the point of being saved is that of a de- 

V. 15. After this, again another charge; Ye compass sea and land 
to make one proselyte^ and ichen he is made, ye make him 
itvofold more the child of hell than yourselves ; that is, not 
even the fact that hardly ye have taken him, and with endless 
toils, induces you to be sparing towards him, although of the 
things we have hardly acquired, we are more sparing, but 
you not even this renders more gentle. 

Here He lays to their charge two things; one, that they are 
unprofitable for the salvation of the many, and need much 
toil in order to win over even one ; another, that they were 
remiss in the preservation of him whom they had gained, or 
rather that they^ were not only careless, but even traitors, by 
their wickedness in their life corrupting him, and making him 
worse. For when the disciple sees his teachers to be such as 
these, he becomes worse than they. For he stops not at his 
teacher's wickedness; but as when his teacher is virtuous, he 
imitates him, so when he is bad, he even goes beyond him, 
by reason of our proneness to what is evil. 

And He calls him a child of hell, that is, a very hell. 
And He said twofold more than you, that He might both 
alarm those, and make these feel the more severely, because 
they are teachers of wickedness. And not this only, but 
because they labour to instil into their disciples a greater 
wickedness, hardening them to a much greater depravity 
than they have, and this is above all a mark of a depraved 

Then He derides them for folly also, because they bade 
tliem disregard the greater commandments. And yet before 

and omitting weightier matters, as inward cleanness. 973 

He liad said the opposite, that they hind heavy burdens, and Matt. 
grievous to he home. But these tlungs too they did again, 23—26! 
and were doing every thing for the corruption of those who 
were subject to them, in httle things requiring strictness, and 
despising the great. 

For ye pay tithe, He sailh, of mint and anise, and have"-^^- 
omitted the weightier matters of the Laiv, judgment, and 
mercy, and faith. These ought ye to have done, and not to 
leave the others undone. 

Here then He naturally saith it, wJiere it is tithe and 
almsgiving, for what doth it hurt to give alms ? But not 
to keep the law ; for neither doth it say thus. Therefore 
here indeed He sailh. These ought ye to have done; but 
where He is speaking about clean and unclean, He no 
longer adds this, but makes a distinction, and shews that the 
inward purity is necessarily followed by the outward, but 
the converse is no longer so. 

For where there is a plea of love to man. He passes it over 
lightly, for this very reason, and because it was not yet time 
expressly and plainly to revoke the things of the Law. But 
where it is an observance of bodily purification. He over- 
throws it more plainly. 

So, therefore, while with respect to alms He saith, These 
ought ye to have done, and not to leave the others imdone, 
touching purifications He speaks not on this wise, but what ? 
Ye make clean. He saith, the outside of the cup and </<ev.25.26. 
platter, but within they are full of extortion, and injustice. 
Cleanse that which is within the cup, that the outside may 
be clean also. And He took it from a thing confessed and 
manifest, from a cup and platter. 

[2.] Then, to shew that there is no harm arising from 
despising bodily cleansings, but very great vengeance from 
not regarding the purifications of the soul, which is virtue. 
He called these a gnat, for they are small and nothing, but 
those other a camel, for they were beyond what men could 
bear. Wherefore also He saith. Straining at the gnat, and 
swallowing the camel. For indeed the one were enacted for 
the sake of the other, I mean of mercy, and judgment; so 
that not even then did they profit being done alone. For 
whereas the little things were mentioned for the sake of the 

074 Vainglory a hindrance to seeing things in true light. 

HoMiL. great, and after that tliese last were neglected, and labour 
' 2. "was spent on those alone, nothing was gained even then by 
this. For the greater followed not tlie lesser, but the lesser 
were sure to follow these greater. 

But these things He saith to shew, that even before grace 
was come, these were not among the principal things, or 
amongst those upon which men should spend their labour, 
but the matters required were different. But if before the 
grace they were so, much more when high commandments 
had come, were thege things unprofitable, and it was not 
meet to practise them at all. 

In every case then is vice a grievous thing, but especially 
when it does not so much as think it needs amendment ; and 
it is yet more grievous, when it thinks itself sufficient even 
to amend others; to express which Christ calls them b/intl 
guides. For if for a blind man not to think he needs a 
guide be extreme misery and wretchedness ; when he wishes 
himself to guide others, see to what a gulf it leads. 

But these things He said, by all intimating their mad 
desire of glory, and their exceeding frenzy concerning this 
pest. P'or this became a cause to them of all their evils, 
namely, that they did all things for display. This both led 
them away from the faith, and caused them to neglect what 
really is virtue, and induced them to busy themselves about 
bodily purifyings only, neglecting the purifications of the 
soul. So therefore to lead them into what really is virtue, 
and to the purifyings of the soul, He makes mention of 
mercy, and judgment, and faith. For these are the things 
that comprise our life, these are what purify the soul, justice, 
love to man, truth; the one inclining us to candour, and 
not suffering us to be excessively severe and unforgiving 
to them that sin, (for then shall we gain doubly, both becoming 
kind to man, and hence meeting also ourselves with nmch 
kindness from the God of all,) and causing us both to 
sympathise with them that are despitefully entreated, and 
to assist them ; the other not suffering them to be deceitful, 
and crafty. 

But neither when He saith, Tliese ought ye to have done, 
and not to leave the others undone, doth He say it as in- 
troducing a legal observance; away with the thought; neither 

Inward purity i by various examples, preferred to outioard. !)75 

with regard to the platter and the cup, when He said, Matt. 
Cleanse thai which is uitliin the cup and platter, that the " 27. 

outside of them map be clean also, doth He bring us unto 
the old regard for little things, but on the contrary indeed, 
He doth all things to shew it to be superfluous. For He 
said not, Cleanse the outside of them also, but that which is 
within, and the outside is sure to follow. 

And besides, neither is it concerning a cup and platter he 
is speaking, but of soul and body, by the outside meaning 
the body, by the inside the soul. But if with regard to the 
platter there be need of that which is within, much more 
with regard to thee. 

But ye do the contrary, saith He, observing things trifling 
and external, ye neglect what are great and inward; whence 
very great mischief arises, for that thinking ye have duly 
performed all, ye despise the other things; and despising 
them, ye do not so much as strive or attempt to perform 

After this. He again derides them for vainglory, calling 
them whited sepulchres, and unto all adding, ye hypocrites; v. 27. 
which thing is the cause of all their evils, and the origin of 
their ruin. And He did not merely call them whited 
sepulchres, but said, that they were full of uncleanness and 
hypocrisy. And these things He spake, indicating the cause 
wherefore tliey did not believe, because they were full of 
hypocrisy and iniquity. 

But these things not Christ only, but the Prophets also 
constantly lay to their charge, that they spoil, that their 
rulers judge not according to the rule of justice, and every 
where you may find the sacrifices indeed refused, but these 
things required. So that there is nothing strange, nothing 
new, neither in the lawgiving, nor in the accusation, nay not 
even in the comparison of the sepulchre. For the Prophet 
makes mention thereof, neither did he call them merely a 
sepulchre, but their throat an open sepulchre^. ' Ps.5,9. 

Such are many men now also, decking themselves indeed 
outwardly, but full of iniquity within. For now loo there is 
many a mode, and many a care for outward purifications, 
but of those in the soul not so much as one. But il' indeed 
any one should tear open each man's conscience, many 

1)70 Sin under the Gospel irorse tlian under the Law. 

HoMu. worms and much corruption would he find, and an ill savour 
3, beyond utterance; unreasonable and wicked lusts I mean, 
which are more unclean than worms. 

[3.] But that they should be such persons is not so dread- 
ful a thing, (although it be dreadful,) but that yoii^ that have 
been counted worthy to become temples of God, should of 
a sudden have become sepulchres, having as much ill savour, 
this is extreme wretchedness. He in whom Christ dwells, 
and the H0I3' Spirit hath worked, and such great mysterie?, 
that this man should be a sepulchre, what wretchedness is 
this ? What mournings and lamentations doth this call for, 
when the members of Christ have become a tomb of un- 
cleanness? Consider how thou wast born, of what things 
thou has been counted worthy, what manner of garment thou 
hast received, how thou wast built a temple without a 
breach! how fair! not adorned with gold, neither with pearls, 
but with the Spirit That is more precious than these. 

Consider that no sepulchre is made in a city, so then 
neither shalt thou be able to appear in the City above. For 
if here this is forbidden, much more there. Or rather even 
here thou art an object of scorn to all, bearing about a dead 
soul, and not to be scorned only, but also to be shunned. 
For tell me, if any one were to go round, bearing about a 
dead body, would not all have rushed away? would not all 
have fled.'' Think this now likewise. For thou goest about, 
bearing a spectacle far more grievous than this, a soul 
deadened by sins, a soul paralyzed. 

Who now will pity such a one ? For when thou dost not 
pity thine own soul, how shall another pity him that is so 
cruel, such an enemy to himself? If any one, where thou 
didst sleep and eat, had buried a dead body, what wouldest 
thou not have done ? but thou art burying a dead soul, not 
where thou dinest, nor where thou sleepest, but in the 
members of Christ : and art thou not afraid lest a thousand 
lightnings and thunderbolts be hurled from above upon 
thine head? 

And how dost thou even dare to set foot in the churches 
of God, and in holy temples, having within thee the savour 
of so much abomination ? For if one bearing a dead body 
into the king's courts and burying it would have suffered the 

Stench offoulains brought into God's presence. 9TJ 

utmost punishment, thou setting thy foot in the sacred Matt. 
courts, and filling the house with so much ill savour, con- ^J^^' 
sider what a punishment thou wilt undergo. 

Imitate that harlot who anointed with ointment the feet of 
Christ, and filled the whole house with the odour, the opposite 
to which thou doest to His house! For what though thou be 
uot sensible of the ill savour? For this most of all is the 
grievous part of the disease ; wherefore also thou art in- 
curably diseased, and more grievously than they that are 
maimed in their bodies, and become fetid. For that disease 
indeed is both felt by the sick and is without any blame, 
nay even is deserving of pity ; but this of hatred and 

Since then both in this respect it is more grievous, and 
from the sick not being sensible of it as he ought to be ; 
come, give thyself to my words, that I may teach thee 
plainly the mischief of it. 

But first listen to what thou sayest in the Psalm, Let my 
prayer he set forth in Thy sight as incetise^. When then'Ps.ui, 
not incense, but a stinking smoke arises from thee, and frora^" 
thy deeds, what punishment dost thou not deserve to undergo ? 

What then is the slinking smoke? Many come in gazing 
about at the beauty of women ; others curious about the 
blooming youth of boys. After this, dost thou not marvel, 
how bolts are not launched, and ail things are not plucked 
up from their foundations? For worthy both of thunderbolts 
and hell are the things that are done; but God, Who is long- 
suffering, and of great mercy, forbears awhile His wrath, 
calling thee to repentance and amendment. 

What doest thou, O man ? Art thou curiously looking 
after women's beauty, and dost thou not shudder at thus 
doing despite unto the temple of God ? Doth the church 
seem to thee a brothel, and less honourable than the market- 
place. For in a market-place indeed thou art afraid and 
ashamed to appear to be looking after any woman, but in 
God's temple, when God Himself is discoursing unto thee, 
and threatening about these things, thou art committing 
whoredom and adultery at the very time, in which thou art 
being told not to do this. And dost thou not shudder, nor 
stand amazed ? 


978 Christian ivomen of old fenced with modesty. 

HoMiL. These things do the spectacles of wantonness teach you, 
4^ " the pest that is so hard to put down, the deleterious sor- 
ccries, the grievous snares of the thoughtless, the pleasurable 
destruction of the unchaste. 

Therefore the Prophet also blaming thee, said, Thitie eyes 
^Jcr. 22, are twt good, neither is thine heart '. 

Lxx. It were better for such men to be blind ; it were belter to 
be diseased, than to abuse thine eyes for these purposes. 

It were meet indeed that ye had within you the wall to 
part you from the women ; but since ye are not so minded, 

2 o-aj/jtrt. our fathers thought it necessary by these boards^ to wall you 

off; since I hear from the elder ones, that of old there were 
not so much as these partitions ; For in Christ Jesus there 

3 Ga.\. 3, is neither male nor female^. And in the Apostle's time also 

both men and women were together. Because the men were 
men, and the women women, but now altogether the con- 
trary ; the women have urged themselves into the manners of 
courtezans, but the men are in no better state than frantic 

Heard ye not, that the men and women were gathered 
together in the upper room, and that congregation was 
worthy of the heavens .'' And very reasonably. For even 
women then practised much self-denial, and the men gravity 
and chastity. Hear, for instance, the seller of purple saying, 
If ye have judged me to he faithful to the Lord, come in, 
* Acts fij^d dlicle with me*. Hear the women, who went about with 
the Apostles, having taken unto themselves manly courage, 
Priscilla, Persis, and the rest; from whom our present women 
are as far removed, as our men from their men. 

[4.] For then indeed even travelling into far countries 
women brought not on themselves evil report; but now even 
though brought up in a chamber, they hardly escape this 
suspicion. But these things arise from their decking of 
themselves, and their luxury. Then the business of those 
women was to spread the word ; but now to appear beau- 
teous, and fair, and comely in countenance. This is glory 
to them, this salvation ; but of lofty and great works they 
do not even dream. 

What woman exerts herself to make her husband better ? 
what man hath taken to himself this care to amend his wife? 

Meanness of worldly aims in Marriage. 979 

There is not one; but the woman's whole study is upon Matt. 
the care of ornaments of gold, and raiment, and the other ' 28. 
adornments of the person, and how to increase their sub- 
stance ; but the man's both this, and others more than this, 
all however worldly. 

Who, when about to marry, enquires about the disposition 
and nurture of the damsel ? No one ; but straightway about 
money, and possessions, and measures of property of various 
and different kinds ; like as if he were about to buy some- 
thing, or to settle some common contract. 

Therefore they do even so call mamage. For I have 
heard many say, such a man has contracted with such a 
woman, that is, has married. And they offer insult to the 
gifts of God, and as though buying and selling, so do they 
marry, and are given in marriage. 

And writings there are, requii'ing greater security than 
those about buying and selling. Learn how those of old 
married, and imitate them. How then did they marry ? 
They inquired about ways of life, and morals, and virtue of 
the soul. Therefore they had no need of writings, nor 
of security by parchment and ink; for the bride's disposition 
sufficed them in the place of all. 

I therefore intreat you likewise not to seek after wealth 
and affluence, but a good disposition, and gentleness. Seek 
for a pious and self-denying damsel, and these will be to 
thee better than countless treasures. If thou seek the things 
of God, these others will come also ; but if thou pass by 
those, and hasten unto these, neither will these follow. 

But such a man, one will say, became rich by his wife ! 
Art thou not ashamed of bringing forward such examples ? 
I had ten thousand times sooner become a poor man, as 
I have heard many say, than gain wealth from a wife. For 
what can be more unpleasing than that wealth ? What 
more painful than the abundance ? What more shameful 
than to be notorious from thence, and for it to be said by 
all, such a man became rich by a wife? For the domestic 
discomforts I pass by, all that must needs result from hence, 
the wife's pride, the servility, the strifes, the reproaches of 
the servants. " The beggar," " the ragged one," " the base 
one, and sprung of base." " Why, what had he when he 

3 R 2 

i)80 The world's proverbs in favour of pleamre. 

HoMii.canie in?" " Do not all things belong to our mistress?" 
4, 'But lliou dost not care at all about these sayings, for neither 
art thou a freeman. Since the parasites likewise hear worse 
things than these, and are not pained, wherefore neither are 
these, but rather pride themselves in their disgrace; and 
when we tell them of these things, " Let me have," sailh one 
of them, " something pleasant and sweet, and let it choke 
me." Alas ! the devil, what proverbs hath he brought 
into the world, of power to overturn the whole life of such 
persons. See at least this self-same devilish and pernicious 
saying; of how much min it is full. For it means nothing 
else than these words, Have thou no regard to what is 
honourable; have thou no regard to what is just; let all 
those things be cast aside, seek one thing alone, pleasure. 
Though the thing stifle thee, let it bo thy choice; though all 
that meet thee spurn thee, though they smear thy face with 
mire, though they drive thee away as a dog, bear all. And 
what else would swine say, if they had a voice? What else 
would filthy dogs ? But perhaps not even they would have 
said such things, as the devil hath persuaded men to rave. 

Wherefore I entreat you, being conscious of the senseless- 
ness of such words as these, to flee such proverbs, and to 
choose out those in the Scripture that are contrary to them. 
But what are these ? Go not, it is said, after thy lusts, 

• Eccius.a^t/ refrain thyself from thine appetites^. And, touching 

' ' an harlot again, it is said in opposition to this proverb, Give 

not heed to a bad woman, for honey drop)pet]i from the lips 

of a woman that is an harlot, which, for a season, is luscious 

unto thy throat, hut afterwards thou shalt find it more bitter 

2Prov.5, than (jail, and sharper than a two-edged sword "^ Unto these 

LX^X ^^^^ ^^^^" ^^^ "'^ listen, not unto those. For hence indeed spring 
our mean, hence our slavish thoughts, hence men become 
brutes, because in every thing they will follow after pleasure 
according to this proverb, which, even without arguments of 
ours, is of itself ridiculous. For after one is choked, what is 
the gain of sweetness? 

Cease, therefore, to set up such great absurdity, and to 
kindle hell and unquenchable fire; and let us look stcdfastly 
(at length though late) as we ought, unto the things to come, 
having put away the film on our eyes, that we may both pass 

Exhortation to live according to the Truth. 981 

the present life honestly, and with much reverence and godly "^^^^^ 
fear, and attain unto the- good things to come, by the grace 28. 
and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be 
glory world without end. Amen. 


Matt, xxiii. 29, 30. 

Woe unto you, because ye build the iambs of the Prophets, 
and garnish their sepulchres, and say. If we had been in 
the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers 
with them in the blood of the Prophets. 

Not because they build, nor because they blame the 
others, dolh He say. Woe, but because, while both thus, and 
by what they say, they are pretending to condemn their 
fathers, they do worse. For in proof that the condemnation 
was a pretence, Luke saith, ye do allow because ye build; 
for. Woe unto you, saith He, for ye build the sepulchres of 
the Prophets, and your fathers killed them. Truly ye bear 
witness, and ye allow the deeds of your fathers, for they 
» Luke indeed killed them, and ye build their sepidchres'^. For here 
48' He reproves their purpose, wherewith they built, that it was 
not for the honouring of them that were slain, but as making 
a show of the murders, and afraid, lest, when the tombs had 
perished by time, the proof and memory of such daring 
should fade away, setting up these glorious buildings, as a 
kind of trophy, and priding themselves in the daring deeds 
of those men, and displaying them. 

For the things that ye now dare to do, shew that ye do 
these things also in this spirit. For, though ye speak the 
contrary, saith He, as condemning them, as, for instance. 
We should not, if we had been in their days^ have been par- 
takers with them; yet the disposition is evident wherewith 

How the Jeivs consented to the murders of the Propliets. 1)83 

ye say these things. Wherefore also unfolding it, though Matt. 
darkly, still He hath expressed it. For when He had said, 33. 34,' 
ye say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should 
7iot have been partakers with them in the blood of the Pro- 
phets; He added, Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, 
that ye are the children of them that slew the Prophets. And 
what blame is it to be a murderer's son, if one partake not in 
the mind of one's father? None. Whence it is evident, that 
for this same thing He brings it forward against them, hinting 
at their affinity in wickedness. 

And this is manifest too by what comes after; He adds at 
least, Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers. For as those v. 33. 
beasts are like their parents, in the destructiveness of their 
venom, so also are ye like your fathers in murderousness. 

Then, because He was searching their temper of mind, 
which is to the more part obscure. He doth, from those 
things also which they were about to perpetrate, which would 
be manifest to all, establish His words. For, because He 
had said. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves that ye 
are the children of them which killed the Prophets, making 
it evident, that of their affinity in wickedness He is speaking, 
and that it was a pretence to say, We should not have been 
partakers with them. He added. Fill ye up therefore the \. 32. 
measure of your fathers, not commanding, but declaring 
beforehand, what was to be, that is. His own murder. 

Therefore, having brought in their refutation, and having 
shewn that they were pretences which they said in their own 
defence, as, for instance. We would not have been partakers 
with them, (for they who refrain not from the Lord, how 
should they have refrained from the servants,) He makes 
after this His language more condemnatory', calling them'/coTa- 
serpents, and generation of vipers, and saying, How shall ye'^l^"''^' 
escape the damnation of hell, at once perpetrating such v. 33. 
things, and denying them, and dissembling your purpose ? 

Then rebuking them more exceedingly from another cause 
also, He saith, / ivill send unto you Prophets, and wise men, v. 34. 
and scribes, and some of them shall ye kill and crucify, and 
some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues. For that 
they should not say, " I'hough we crucified the Lord, yet 
from the servants we should have refrained, if we had been 

984 The persecutors of Christ would have slain any Prophet. 

HoMiL.thcn;" "Behold," He saitb, " I send servants also to you, 
i^ ' prophets likewise themselves, and neither will ye spare them." 
But these things He saith, shewing that it was nothing 
strange, that He should be murdered by those sons, being 
both murderous and deceitful, and having much guile, and 
surpassing their fathers in their outrages. 

And besides what hath been said, He shews them to 
be also exceedingly vain-glorious. For when they say, If 
we had been in the days of our fathers, ue should not have 
heeti jiartakers uith them, they spake out of vain-glory, and 
were practising virtue in words only, but in their works doing 
the contrary. 

Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, that is, wicked sons 
of wicked men, and more wicked than those who begat them. 
For He shevveth that they are committing greater crimes, 
both by their committing them after those others, and by 
their doing much more grievous things than they, and this, 
while positively affirming that they never would have fallen 
into the same. For they add that which is both the end 
and the crown of their evil deeds. For the others slew them 
that came to the vineyard, but these, both the son, and them 
that were bidding them to the N^edding. 

But these things He saith, to separate them off from the 
affinity to Abraham, and to shew that they had no advantage 
from thence, unless they follovved his works; wherefore also 
He adds. How can ye flee from the damnation of hell, when 
following them that have committed such acts ? 

And here He recalls to their remembrance John's accu- 
sation, for he too called them by this name, and reminded them 
of the judgment to come. Then, because they are nothing 
alarmed by judgment and hell, by reason of their not believing 
them, and because the thing is future. He awes them by the 
v.34-36. things present, and saith, Wherefore, behold, I send unto you 
prophets and scribes, and some of them shall ye kill and 
crucify, and scourge; that upon you may come all the righ- 
teous blood slied upon the earth, from the blood of righteous 
Abel, unto the blood of Zacliarias the son of BaracJtias, ichom 
ye sleio betueen the temple and the altar. Verily 1 say 
iinto you, that all these things shall come npon this genera- 

Former examples should have amended them. 985 

[2.] See by bow many tbiiigs He bas warned tbem. He Matt. 
said, Ye condemn your fatbers, in tbat ye say, We would not 26. ' 

hare been partakers with them; and tbis is no little tbing to 
sbame tbem. He said, Wbile ye condemn tbem, ye do worse 
tbings, even ye yourselves ; and tbis is sufficient to cover tbem 
witb disgrace. He said, Tbese tbings sball not be witbout 
punisbment; and bence lie implants in tbem fear beyond 
words. He batb reminded tbem at least of bell. Tben 
because tbat was to come. He brougbt bome to tbem ibe terrors 
as even present. Fo7' all these things shall come, He saitb, 
upon this generation. 

He added also unspeakable severity to tbe vengeance, 
saying, tbat tbey sball suffer more grievous tbings tbau all; 
yet by none of tbese tbings did tbey become better. But if 
any one say. And wby do tbey suffer more grievously tban 
all ? we would say, Because tbey bave first committed more 
grievous tbings tban all, and by none of tbe tbings tbat bave 
been done to tbem bave tbey been brougbt to a sound mind. 

Heardest tbou not Lamecb saying, ^ Of Lantech vengeance^ Gen. 4, 
shall be taken seventy titnes sevenfold; tbat is, "I am de- * 
serving of more punisbment tban Cain," Wby could tbis 
be ? Yet be did not slay bis brotber ; but because not even 
by bis example was be brougbt to a better mind. And tbis 
is wbat'God saitb elsewhere, ^Reg nit in g the sins of fat hers ^ ExoA. 
tipon children for the third and fourth generation for theni'^^- 
that hate Me. Not as tbougb one were to suffer punisb- 
ment for tbe crimes committed by otbers, but inasmucb as 
tbey wbo, after many sin and bave been punisbed, yet bave 
not grown better, but bave committed tbe same offences, are 
justly wortb}^ to suffer tbeir pnnisbments also. 

But see bow seasonably be also mentioned Abel, indi- 
cating tbat ibis murder likewise is of envy. Wbat tben 
bave ye to say? Know ye not wbat Cain suffered? Did 
God bold His peace at bis deeds ? Did He not exact tbe 
severest penalty ? Heai'd ye not wbat tbings your fatbers suf- 
fered, wben tbey slew tbe Propbets ; were tbey not delivered 
over to punisbments, and iuiliclions of vengeance witbout 
number ? How tben did ye not become better ? And wby do 
I s])eak of tbe jiunisbuients of your fatbers, and wbat tbey 
suffered ? Tbou wbo tbyself condcnincst iby fatbers, bow is it 

986" God's care to forbid bloodshed. 

HoMiL.thou doest worse? For moreover even ye yourselves have 
2. declared that He will miserably destroy those wicked rnenK 
' Matt. What favour then will yc have after this, committing such 
' ' things after such a sentence ? 

But who is this Zacharias ? Some say, the father of John ; 
some, the Prophet ; some, a priest with two different names, 
whom the Scripture also calls, the son of Jehoiada*. 

But do thou mark this, that the outrage was twofold. For 
not only did they slay holy men, but also in a holy place. 
And saying these things, He did not only alarm them, but 
also comfort His disciples, shewing that the righteous men 
also who were before them suffered these things. But these 
He alarmed, foretelling that like as they paid their penalty, 
even so should these too suffer the utmost extremities. There- 
fore He calls [His disciples] prophets, and wise men, and 
scribes, even hereby again taking away every plea of theirs. 
" For ye cannot say," He saith, " Thou didst send from 
among the Gentiles, and therefore we were offended ;" but 
they were led on unto this by being murderous, and thirsting 
for blood. Wherefore He also said beforehand, " For this 
cause do I send prophets and scribes." This did the Pro- 
phets also lay to their charge, saying, They minyle blood with 
"Hosea blood^, and that they ai'e men of blood. Therefore also did 
LXX. He command the blood to be offered to Him, shewing that 
if in a brute it be thus precious, much more in a man. 
Which He saith to Noah likewise, / will require all blood 
^Gen.9, that is shed^. And ten thousand other such things might 
one find Him enjoining with regard to their not committing 
murder; wherefore He commanded them not even to eat 
that which was strangled. 

Oh the love of God towards man ! that though He foreknew 
they would profit nothing, He still doeth His part. For 
I will send. He saith, and this knowing they would be slain. 
So that even hereby they were convicted of saying vainly, 
We should not hace been partakers with our fathers. For 
these too slew prophets even in their synagogues, and reve- 
renced neither the place, nor the dignity of the persons. 
For not merely ordinary persons did they slay, but prophets 

• Or, "calls Jehoiada." 2 Chron. may be read in the nominative or 
24,21. The name being indeclinable genitive. 

Our Lord's merciful grief for Jerusalem. 987 

and wise men, such that they had nothing to lay to their charge. Matt. 
And by these He meaneth the Apostles, and those after them, 37 
for, indeed, many prophesied. Then, willing to aggravate 
their fears, He saith, Verily, verily I say unto you. All these 
things shall come upon this generation ; that is, I will bring 
all upon your heads, and will make the vengeance sore. 
For he that knew many to have sinned, and was not sobered, 
but himself hath committed the same sins again, and not the 
same only, but also far more grievous, would justly deserve 
to suffer a far more grievous punishment than they. For 
like as, if he had been minded, he would have gained greatly, 
had he grown better by their examples, even so, since he 
continued without amendment, he is liable to a heavier 
vengeance, as having had the benefit of more warning 
by them who had sinned before and been punished, and 
having reaped no advantage. 

[3.] Then He directs His speech unto the city, in this 
way too being minded to correct His hearers, and saith, O v- 37. 
Jerusalem, Jerusalem ! What meaneth the repetition? this is 
the manner of one pitying her, and bemoaning her, and greatly 
loving her. For, like as unto a woman beloved, herself 
indeed ever loved, but who had despised Him that loved her, 
and therefore on the point of being punished. He pleads, 
being now about to inflict the punishment. Which He doth 
in the Prophets also, using these words, / said, Turn thou 
unto Me, and she returned not '. ' J^""' 3) 

Then having called her, He tells also her blood-stained 
deeds. Thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them that 
are sent unto thee, how often would 1 have gathered thy 
children together, and ye would not, in this way also pleading 
for His own dealings ; not even with these things hast thou 
turned Me aside, nor withdrawn Me from my great affection 
toward thee, but it was My desire even so, not once or twice, 
but often to draw thee unto Me. For how often would I have 
gathered your children together, even as a hen gathereth her 
chickens, and ye would not. And this He saith, to shew 
that they were ever scattering themselves by their sins. 
And His affection He indicates by the similitude ; for 
indeed the creature is warm in its love towards its brood. 
And every where in the Prophets is this same image of the 

988 Our Lord's learning icasfor correction. 

HoMiL. wings, and in the song of Moses and in the Psalms, iudi- 

3. eating His great protection and care. 
V. 38. But ye icould not, lie saith. Behold your house is left 
desolate, stripped of the succour which cometh from Me. 
Surely it was the Same, Who also was before protecting them, 
and holding them together, and preserving them ; surely it 
was He Who was ever chastening them. And lie appoints 
a punishment, which they had ever dreaded exceedingly; for 
V.39. it declared the entire overthrow of their polity. For I say 
unto you, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, 
Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. And 
this is the language of One That loves earnestly, earnestly 
drawing them unto Him by the things to come, not merely 
warning them by the past; for of the future day of His 
second Coming doth He here speak. 

What tlien ? Did they not see Him from that time } But 
it is not that hour which He meaneth in saying, Henceforth, 
but the time up to His cmcifixion. 

For since they were for ever accusing Him of this, that He 
was a kind of rival God, and a foe to God, He moves 
them to love Him by this, namely, by shewing Himself to be 
of one accord with His Father; and He indicates Himself 
to be the Same that was in the Prophets. Wherefore also He 
uses the same words as did the Prophets. 

And by these He intimated both His Resurrection, and 
His second Coming, and made it plain even to the utterly 
unbelieving, that then most surely they should worship Him. 
And how did He make this plain ? By speaking of many 
things that were first to be, that He should send prophets, 
that they should kill them ; that it should be in the 
synagogues; that they should sutler the utmost extremities; 
that their house should be left desolate ; that they should 
undergo things more grievous than any, and such as never 
were undergone belbre. For all these things are enough to 
furnish even to the most senseless and contentious a clear 
proof of that which should come to pass at His Coming. 

For I will ask them, Did He send the prophets and wise 
men ? Did they slay them in their synagogues ? Was their 
house left desolate .? Did all the vengeance come upon 
that generation ? It is quite plain that it was so, and no 

Timely care for the soul enforced hij examples* 989 

man ffainsavs it. As then all these things came to pass, so Matt. 
shall those also come to pass, and most surely they shall ^ 39^ ' 
submit then. 

But they shall derive thence no advantage in the way of 
defence, as neither will they who repent of their course of 
life then. 

Wherefore let us, while it is time, practise what is good. 
For like as tliey henceforth derived no advantage from their 
knowledge, even so neither shall we ourselves from our 
repentance for our wickedness. For neither to the pilot, 
when the bark is sunk in the sea from his remissness, will 
there remain any thing more; nor to the physician, when 
the sick man is gone ; but each of these nuist before the end 
devise, and execute all things, so as to be involved in no 
danger, nor shame; but after this, all is unprofitable. 

Let us also then, while in sickness, send for physicians, 
and lay out money, and exert unceasing diligence, that 
having risen up from our affliction, we may depart hence in 

And as much care as we exert about our servants, when 
their bodies are sick, so much let us shew forth upon 
ourselves, when our soul is diseased. And indeed we are 
nearer to ourselves than our servants, and our souls ai'e 
more necessary than those bodies, but nevertheless it were 
well if we exert at least an equal diligence. For if we do 
not this now, when gone, thenceforth we may obtain nothing 
more in the way of plea. 

[4.] Who is so wretched, one may say, as not to shew 
even as much thought as this ? Why this is the mar- 
vellous thing, that we are held in so little esteem with our own 
selves, that we despise ourselves more than our servants. For 
when our servants are sick of a fever, we send for physicians, 
and make a separation in the house, and compel them to 
obey the laws of that art; and if these are neglected, we are 
displeased with them, and set persons to watch them, who 
will not, even should they wish them, suffer tliem to satiate 
their desire; and if they who have the care of these persons 
should say, that medicines must be procured at great cost, 
we yield; and whatsoever they may enjoin, we obey, and we 
pay them hire for these injunctions. 

990 The Apostles and Prophets our best Physicians. 

HoMiL. But when we are sick, (or rather there is no time when we 
^^4/^ are not sick,) we do not so much as call in the j)h}sician, 
I lit. we do not lay out money, but as though some ruffian^, and 
'.^'^^''V'enemy, and foe, were concerned, so do we disregard our soul. 
And these things T say, not finding fault with our attention 
towards our servants, but thinking it meet to take at least as 
much care of our souls. And how should we do ? one may 
say. Shew it to Paul when ill ; call in Matthew ; let John 
sit by it. Hear from them, what he ought to do that is thus 
ill, they will surely tell, and will not conceal. For they are 
not dead, but live and speak. But doth the soul take no 
heed to them, being weighed down by the fever ? Do thou 
compel it, and awaken its reasoning power. Call in the 
Prophets. There is no need to pay money to these 
physicians, for neither do they themselves demand hire for 
themselves, nor for the medicines which they prepare do they 
drive thee to the necessity of expense, except for alms- 
giving; but in every thing else they even add to thy posses- 
sions; as, for instance, when they require thee to be temperate, 
they deliver thee from unseasonable and wrong expenses; 
when they tell thee to abstain from drunkenness, they make 
thee wealthier. Seest thou the skill of physicians, who besides 
health, are supplying thee also with riches? Sit down therefore 
by them, and learn of them the nature of thy disease. For 
instance, dost thou love wealth, and greedy gain, like as the 
fevered love water ? Listen at any rate to their admonitions. 
For like as the physician saith to thee, If thou wilt gratify 
thy desire, thou wilt perish, and undergo this or that ; even 
so also Paul : They that will be rich, fall into temptation, 
and a snare of the devil, and into foolish and hurtfid lusts, 

5 1 T\m.v)hich drown men in destruction and j)erdition*. 

^' ^' But art thou impatient? Hear him saying, Yet a little 

3 Hcb. while, and He that cometh will come, and will not tarry ^. 

^pwxA ^^^ Lord is at hand, he careful for nothing* ; and again, 

5. 6. The fashion of this world passeth away *. 

7 31?"^' ^^^ neither doth he command only, but also soothes, as 
a physician should. And like as they devise some other 
things in the place of cold things, so doth this man draw 

"MeTo- oflT'' the desire another way. Dost thou wish to be rich, 

'^^'^^^*^' saith he ; let it be " in good works." Dost thou desire to 

Scripture remedies against corctoitsness. 991 

lay up treasure ? I forbid it not at all ; only let it be in Matt. 


Heaven. 39^ 

And like as the physician saith ; that what is cold is 
hurtful to teeth, to nerves, to bones; so he too, more briefly 
indeed, as heedful of brevity, yet far more clearly and 
more powerfully, saith. For the love of money is the root of 
allevilsK e^J™' 

Of what then should one make use ? He tells this also : of 
contentedness instead of covetousness. For contentment ^ 
he saith, with godliness is great gain^. But if thou art 2 ibid, 
dissatisfied, and desirest more, and art not yet equal to cast^'^' 
away all superfluous things, he tells also him that is thus 
diseased, how he ought to handle these things too. That 
they that rejoice in wealth, be as though they rejoiced not ; 
and they that have, as though they possessed not ; and they 
that use this world, as not abusing it^. 7^303? 

Seest thou what manner of things he enjoins ? Wilt thou 
call in also another physician besides .'* To me at least it 
seems well. For neither are these physicians like those of the 
body, who often, while vying one with another, overwhelm the 
sick man. But not so these, for they have regard to the health 
of the sick, not to their own vainglory. Be not then afraid 
of the number of them ; One Master speaks in all, that is, 

[5.] See, for instance, another again entering in, and saying 
severe things concerning this disease, or rather it is the 
Master by him'*; For ye cannot serve God and mammon^. ■*'• e. I>y 
Yea, saith he, and how will these things be ? how shall we thew. 
cease from the desire.? Hence may we learn this also. And^^^^*^'' 

. . 6, 24. 

how shall we know } Hear him saying this too ; Lay not up 
for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where moth and 

rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and 

, 76 •* Matt. 

Steals 6, 19. 

Seest thou how by the place, by the things that waste 
there. He draws men off from this desire that is here, and 
rivets them to Heaven, where all things are impregnable? 
For if ye transfer your wealth there where neither rust nor 
moth corrupts, nor thieves break through and steal, ye will 
both expel this disease, and establish your soul in the greatest 

992 How the rich may still be saved. 

HoMiL. And together with what we have said, He brings forward 

■ g ■ an example also to teach thee moderation. And like as the 

physician, to alarm the sick man, saith, that such a one 

(lied from the use of cold water ; so doth He also bring in 

'Matt, the rich man', labouring indeed, and longing for life and 

' ' health, but not able to attain thereto, because of having set 

his heart on covetousness, but going away empty. And 

besides this man, another is shewn to thee again by another 

\}^^}f Evangelist, he that was in torment^, and was not master so 

16,24 — o 7 

26. much as of a drop of water. Then shewing that His injunc- 
^Mat.G, tions are easy. He saith. Behold the fouls of the air^. But 

being compassionate. He suffers not even the rich to despair. 

For the things which- are impossible rinlh men, are pos- 
*Luke sible with God*, saith He. For though thou be rich, the 

18 27 ... . 

' * physician is able to cure thee. For neither was it wealth 
that He took away, but to be slave of riches, and a lover of 
greedy gain. 

How then is it possible for the rich man to be saved? By 
possessing his goods in common with them that are in need, 
being such as Job was, and exterminating out of his soul the 
desire of more, and in no points going beyond real need. 

He shews thee together with these this self-same publican 
also, that was grievously oppressed by the fever of covetous- 
ness, quickly set free from it. For what more sordid than a 
publican ? Nevertheless, the man became indifferent to wealth 
from obeying the laws of the Physician. For indeed He 
hath for His disciples such persons as these, that were sick 
of the same diseases as we are, and have recovered their 
health quickly. And He shews us each, in order we may 
not despair. See at least this publican. Mark again another, 
a chief of the publicans, who promised fourfold indeed for 
all that he had extorted, and the half of all that he possessed, 
that he might receive Jesus. 

But art thou on fire with exceeding desire for riches. 
Have the possessions of all men instead of thine own. For 
indeed I give thee. He sailh^ more than thou seekest, in 
opening to thee the houses of the wealthy throughout the 
world. For whosoever hath forsaken father or mother, or 
sMatt. lands, or house, shall receive an hundred fold^. Thus wilt 

19 29 • 

' ' thou not enjoy more abundant possessions only, but thou 

A taste of true good makes men long for it. 993 

wilt even remove this grievous thirst allogethcv, and wilt Matt. 
• • . XXIII 

endure all things easily, so far from desiring more, not ' '39 

[seeking] often even necessary things. Thus dotli Paul 

suffer hunger, and is held in honour more than when he ate. 

Forasmuch as a wrestler also, when striving, and winning 

crowns, would not choose to give up and to be in repose; and 

a merchant who hath entered on sea voyages would not desire 

to be afterwards in idleness. 

And we therefore, if we should taste as we ought of 
spiritual fruits, shall thenceforth not even account the things 
present to be any thing, being seized by the desire of the 
things to come as with some most noble intoxication. 

Let us taste of them, therefore, that we may both be 
delivered from the turmoil of the things present, and may 
attain the good things to come, by the grace and love towards 
man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be the glory and 
the might, now and ever, and world without end. Amen. 

3 s 


Matt. xxiv. 1, 2. 

And Jesus went from the temple, and departed. And His 
disciples came to Him to shew Him the buildings of the 
temple. And He ansioered and said unto them, See ye not 
all these things ? Verily I say unto you, there shall not he 
left one stone upon another, that shall not he thrown down. 

For inasmuch as He said, Your house is left desolate, and 
had previously forewarned them of many grievous things ; 
therefore the disciples having heard these things, as though 
marvelling at it, came unto Him, shewing the beauty of the 
temple, and wondering, if so much beauty was to be de- 
stroyed, and materials so costly, and variety of workmanship 
past utterance ; He no longer thenceforth talks to them of 
desolation merely, but foretels an entire destruction. See 
ye not all these things, saith He, and do ye marvel, and are 
ye amazed ? There shall not remain one stone upon another. 
How then did it remain f one may say. But what is this ? 
For neither so hath the prediction fallen to the ground. For 
He said these things either indicating its entire desolation, 
or at that spot where He was. For there are parts of it 
destroyed unto the foundations. 

And together with this we would say another thing also, 
that from what hath been done, even the most contentious 
ought to believe concerning the remains, that they are 
utterly to be destroyed. 

A)id as He sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples 
came unto Him privately, saying. Tell us when shall these 

False Chruts and troiihles foretold. 995 

things be ? and what shall be the sign of Tluj Coming, and Matt. 

of the end of the world f 4_6. 

Therefore did they come unto Him privately, as it was of 

such matters they meaut to enquire. For they were in 

travail to know the day of His Coming, because of their 

eager desire to behold that glory, which is the cause of 

countless blessings. And these two things do they ask him. 

When shall these things be ? that is, the overthrow of the 

temple ; and, What is the sign of Thy Coming ? P3ut Luke 

saith'j the question was one concerning Jerusalem, as though ' Luke 

they were supposing that then is His Coming. And Mark ' 

saith, that neither did all of them ask concerning the end 

of Jerusalem, but Peter and John^, as having greater freedoms See 

r. , Mark 

of speech. ,3 3. 

What then saith He ? Take heed that no man deceive v, 4_6. 
you. For many shall come in My Name, saying, J am 
Christ, and shall deceive many. And ye shall hear of wars 
and rumours of wars. See that ye be not troubled; for all 
these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. 

For since they felt as being told of vengeance falling on others 
when hearing of that which was to be brought upon Jerusalem, 
and as though they were to be out of the turmoils, and were 
dreaming of good things only, and looked for these to befal 
them quite immediately; for this cause He again foretels to 
them grievous things, making them earnest, and commanding 
them on two grounds to watch, so as neither to be seduced 
by the deceit of them that would beguile them, nor to be over- 
powered by the violence of ills that should overtake them. 

For the war, saith He, shall be twofold, that of the deceivers, 
and that of the enemies, but the former far more grievous, 
as coming upon them in the confusion and turmoils, and 
when men were terrified and troubled. For indeed great 
was the storm then, when the Roman power was beginning to 
flourish, and cities were taken, and camps and weapons were 
set in motion, and many were readily believed. 

But of wars in Jerusalem is He speaking ; for it is not 
surely of those without, and every where in the world ; for 
what did they care for these ? And besides. He would thus 
say nothing new, if He were speaking of the calamities of 
the world at large, which are happening always. For before 

2 s 2 

*)J)G Truiihles of the Jens tnilij judgments from God. 

JioMii,. tills, were navs, and tumults, and fightings; but He speaks of 

^'''^^* the Jewish wars coming ujion them at no great distance, 

for henceforth the Roman arms were a matter of anxiety. 
Since then these things also were suflieient to confound them, 
He foretels them all. 

Then to shew that He Himself also will assail the Jews with 
them, and war on ihem, He speaks not of battles only, but also 
of plagues sent from God, famines, and pestilences, and earth- 
quakes, shewing that the wars also He Himself permitted to 
come upon them, and that these things do not happen for no 
purpose according to what has been before the accustomed 
course of things amongst men, but proceed from the wrath 
on high. 

Therefore He saith, they shall come not by themselves or 
at once, but with signs. For that the Jews may not say, 
that they who then believed were the authors of these evils, 
therefore hath He told them also of the cause of their coming 
upon them. For verilij I say nnto you, He said before, all 
these things shall come upon this generation, having made 
mention of the stain of blood on them. 

Then lest on hearing of the showers of evils, they should 
suppose the Gospel to be broken through. He added, Take 
heed, be not troubled, for all things must come to pass, i. e. 
which I foretold, and the approach of the temptations will 
set aside none of the things which T have said ; but there 
shall indeed be tumults and confusion, but nothing shall 
shake My ])redictions. 

Then since He had said to the Jews, Ye shall not see Me, 
till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of 
the fx/rd; and the disciples supposed, that together with the 
destruction would be the End also ; to set right this secret 
thought of theirs, He said. But the End is not yet. For that 
they did suspect even as I said, you may learn from their 
question. For, what did they ask ? When shall these things 
be? i. c. when shall Jerusalem be destroyed? And what is 
the sign of Thy Coming, and of the End of the world.'' 

But He answered nothing directly to this question, but 
first speaks of those other things that are urgent, and which 
it was needful for them to learn first. For neither concerning 
Jerusalem straightway, nor of His own second Coming, did 

Trials of the Church aho foretold. 997 

He speak, but touching; the ills that were to meet them at Matt. 


the doors. Wherefore also He makes them earnest in their 6—13.' 
exertions, by saying, Take heed that no man deceive you ; 
for many shall come in My Name, saying, I am Christ. 

Afterwards, when He hath roused them to listen about 
these things; {iox, lakelieed ,s,-d\ih He,that nomandeceire you;) 
and having made thetn energetic, and prepared them to be 
watchful, and hath spoken first of the deceivers, the false 
Christs, then He speaks of the ills of Jerusalem, assuring 
them ever by the things already past, foolish and conten- 
tious though they were, of those which were yet to come. 

[2.] But by wajs and rumours ofivars. He meaneth, what I 
before said, the troubles coming upon them. After this, because, 
as I have already said, they supposed after that war the End 
would come, see how He warns them, saying. But the End is v. 7. 
not yet. For nation, He saith, shall rise against nation, and 
kingdom against kingdom. Of the preludes to the ills of the 
Jews doth He speak. All these are the beginning of sorrows, v. 8. 
that is, of those that befal them. Then shall they deliver v. 9. 
you up to be ajfflicted, and shall kill you. 

In good season did He introduce their ills, having a con- 
solation from the common miseries; and not in this way 
only, but also by His adding, that it is for My Name's sake. 
For ye shall be hated. He saith, of all men for My Name's v. 10-13. 
sake. Then shall many be offended, and shall betray one 
another, a?id many false Christs and false prophets shall 
arise, and shall deceive many. And because iniquity shall 
abound, the love of many shall wax cold; but he that shall 
endure unto the end, the same shall he saved. 

This is the greater evil, when the war is intestine too, for 
there were many false brethren. Seest thou the war to be 
threefold ? from the deceivers, from the enemies, from the 
false brethren. See Paul too lamenting over the same things, 
and saying, Without uere fightings, tcithin were fears^ •,i 2 Cor. 
and, perils among false brethren" ; and again, For such arel^ ^' 
false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves ^1,26'. 
into the apostles of Christ^. '^\\i.^.\z. 

After this again, what is more grievous than all, they shall 
not have so much as the consolation from love. Then indi- 
cating, that these things will in no degree harm the noble 

y{)8 The Gospel preached to all nations hejvre the 

HoMiL.aiid the firm, He saitb, Fear not, ucilher be troubled. For 

^^2^' if ye shew forth the patience that becomes you, the dangers 
will not prevail over you. And it is a ])lain proof of this, 
that the word shall surely be preached every where in the 
world, so much shall ye be above the things that alarm you. 
For, that they may not say, how then shall we live .'* He said 
more, Ye shall both live and preach every whore. Therefore 

V, 14. He added moreover, And this Gospel shall be preached in 
the whole ivorld for a witness to all nations, and then shall 
the end come, of the downfal of Jerusalem. 

For in proof that He meant this, and that before the taking 
of Jerusalem the Gospel was preached, hear what Paul saith, 

>Rom. Their sound went into all the earth^; and again, The Gospel 

3 Col 1 which was preached to erery creature which is under Heaven"^. 

23. And seest thou him running from Jerusalem imto Spain ? 
And if one took so large a portion, consider what the rest 
also wrought. For writing to others also, Paul again saith 
concerning the Gospel, that it is bringing forth fruit, and 

3 CiA.i, growing up in every creature which is under Heaven^. 

But what meaneth, For a witness to all nations ? For- 
asmuch as though it was every where preached, yet it was 
not every where believed. It was for a witness, He saith, to 
them that were disbelieving, that is, for conviction, for accu- 
sation, for a testimony ; for they that believed will bear 
witness against them that believed not, and will condemn 
them. And for this cause, after the Gospel is preached in 
every part of the world, Jerusalem is destroyed, that they may 
not have so much as a shadow of an excuse for their per- 
verseness. For they that saw His power shine throughout 
every place, and in an instant take the world captive, what 
excuse could they then have for continuing in the same 
perverseness ? For in proof that it was every where preached 
at that lime, hear what Paul saith, of t lie Gospel ivhich was 

■♦Col. 1, jrreached to every creature which is under Heaven*. 

Which also is a very great sign of Christ's power, that in 
twenty or at most thirty years the word had reached the ends 
of the world. " After this therefore," saith He, " shall come 
the end of Jerusalem." For that He intimates this was 
manifesled by what follows. 

J'or He brought in also a prophecy, to confirm their de- 

fall of Jerusalem. Christ'' s pnioer sheion. 999 

solation, saying, But when ye shall see the abomination of Matt. 

desolation, spoken of by Daniel the Prophet, standing in the jg * 

holy place, let him that readeth understand. He referred them v. 15. 

to Daniel. And by abomination He nieaneth the statue of him 

who then took the city, which he who desolated the city and 

the temple placed within the temple, wherefore Christ calleth 

it, of desolation. Moreover, in order that they might learn 

that these things will be while some of them are alive, therefore 

He said. When ye see the abomination of desolation. 

[3.] Whence one may most marvel at Christ's power, and 

their courage, for that they preached in such times, in which 

most especially the Jewish state was warred against, in which 

most especially men regarded them as movers of sedition, 

when Caesar commanded all of them to be driven avvav '. ' '^'''^ 

18 2 
And the result was the same as if any one, (when the sea was ' 

stirred up on every side, and darkness was filling all the air, 
and successive shipwrecks taking place, and when all their 
fellow-sailors were at strife above, and monsters were rising 
up from beneath, and with the waves devouring the mariners, 
and thunderbolts falling, and there being pirates, and those 
in the vessel plotting one against another,) v\-ere to command 
men inexperienced in sailing, and who had not so much as 
seen the sea to sit at the rudder, and to guide and fight the 
vessel, and when an immense fleet was coming against them 
with a great array, making use of a single bark, with her crew 
in this disturbed state, to sink and subdue the fleet. For 
indeed by the Heathens they were hated as Jews, and by the 
Jews were stoned, as waging war against their laws ; and no 
where could they stand. 

Thus were all things, precipices, and reefs, and rocks, the 
things in the cities, the things in the fields, the things in the 
houses, and every single person was at war with them; 
generals and rulers, and private persons, and all nations, and 
all people, and a turmoil which cannot be set forth by words. 
For the Jewish race was exceedingly detestable to the govern- 
ment of the Romans, as having occasioned them endless 
trouble; and not even from this did the preaching of the 
Word take hurt ; but the city was stormed and set on 
fire, and involved its inhabitants in countless evils ; but the 

1 000 Extreme difficulties overcome by the Gospel. 

HoMiL. Apostles tliat came f'lom thence, introducing new laws, pre- 


3 vailed even over tlie Romans. 

O sti-ange and wonderful facts! Countless myriads of Jews 
did the Romans then subdue, and they did not prevail over 
twelve men fighting against them naked, and unarmed. What 
language can set forth this miracle? For they that teach, 
need to have these two things, to be worthy of credit, and to 
be beloved by them whom they are instructing; and together 
with these, and besides them, that their sayings should be 
easy of reception, and the time should be free from trouble 
and tumults. 

But then were all the contraries to these. For while they 
did not seem worthy of credit, they were withdrawing from 
such as did seem worthy of it, those who had been deceived 
by them. So far from being loved, they were even hated, and 
were taking men away from what they loved, both habits, and 
hereditary customs, and laws. 

Again, their injunctions had great difficulty; but the things, 
from which they were withdrawing men, much pleasure. And 
many were the perils, many the deaths, both themselves and 
they that obeyed them underwent, and together with all this, 
the time also occasioned them much difficulty, teeming with 
wars, tumults, disturbance, so that, even if there had been 
none of the things we have mentioned, it would have quite 
thrown all things into confusion. 

We have good occasion to say, Who shall tell the miylily 
yVs.\0&, works of the Lord, and make all His praises to he heard^. 
For if his own people amid signs hearkened not to Moses, 
because of the clay only, and the bricks; who persuaded these 
that every day were beaten and slain, and were suffi>ring in- 
curable evils, to leave a quiet life, and to prefer thereto this 
which was teeming with blood and death, and that when they 
who preached it were strangers to them, and very hostile in 
every way .? For I say not unto nations and cities and people, 
but into a small house let one bring in him that is hated of all 
that are in the house, and by him endeavour to bring them 
away from those whom they love, from father, and wife, and 
child, will he not surely be seen torn in pieces, before he hath 
opened his moulh.? And if there be added moreover a tunuilt 

Troublous times a great natural obstacle. 1001 

and strife of husband and wife in the house, will they not Matt. 
stone him to death before he steps on the threshold? And ifj"]^i3.' 
he also be one whom they may readily despise, and who enjoins 
galling things, and commands them who are living in luxury to 
practise self restraint, and together with this the conflict be 
against those who are far more in numbers and who excel him, 
is it not quite manifest that he will be utterly destroyed ? Yet 
nevertheless, this, which is impossible to be done in one house, 
this hath Christ accomplished in all the world, through pre- 
cipices and furnaces, and ravines, and rocks, and land and 
sea at war with Him, bringing in the healers of the world. 

And if thou art minded to learn these things more distinctly, 
I mean, the famines, the pestilences, the earthquakes, the 
other calamities, peruse the history about these things com- 
posed by Josephus, and thou wilt know all accurately. There- 
fore Himself too said, Be not troubled, for all must be,- and, 
lie that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved ; and, 
The Oospel shall surely be preached in all the world. For 
when weakened and faint at the fear of what had been said, 
He braces them up by saying. Though ten thousand things 
be done, the Gospel must be preached in every part of the 
world, and then shall the end come. 

[4.] Seest thou in what a state things were then, and how 
manifold was the war? And this is the beginning, when each 
of the things to be effected most required quiet. In what state 
then were they ? for nothing hinders us from resuming the 
same things again. The first war was that of the deceivers; 
For there shall come, He saith,/a/*e Christs and false pro- 
phets: the second, that of the Romans, For ye shall hear, He 
saith, of wars: the third, that which bringeth on the famines: 
the fourth, the pestilences and the earthquakes: the fifth, they 
shall deliver you into afflictions: the sixth, ye shall be hated 
of all men : the seventh, They shall betray one another, and 
hate one another (an intestine war doth He here make known) ; 
XhQW, false Christs, and false brethren; then, the love of the 
most shall wax cold, which is the cause of all the ills. 

Seest thou numberless kinds of war, new and strange ? 
Yet nevertheless in the midst of these things, and much more, 
(for with the intestine wars was mingled also that of kinsmen,) 

1002 Astrology is without proof . 

HoMiL.the Gospel prevailed over the whole earth. For the Gospel, 
^^4 J' He saith, shall be preached in the whole world. 

Where then are they who set up the power of a nativity 
and the cycle of times against the doctrines of the Cliurch ? 
For who has ever recorded that another Christ appeared; 
that such a thing took place ? Although they falsely afhrm 
other things, that ten myriads of years passed, yet this they 
cannot even feign. Of what kind of cycle then would ye 
speak ? For there was never another- Sodom, nor another 
Gomorrah, nor another flood. How long do ye trifle, talking 
of a cycle and nativity ? 

How then, it is said, do many of the things they^ say come 
to pass ? Because thou hast bereaved thyself of the help God 
bestows, and didst betray thyself, and didst place thyself 
without His Providence ; therefore doth the evil spirit turn 
and twist about thy matters as he will. 

But not so among the saints, or rather not even amongst 
us sinners, who utterly despise it. For although our practice is 
beyond endurance, yet because by God's grace we cling with 
much exactness to the doctrines of the truth, we are above 
the malice of the evil spirits. 

And altogether, what is a nativity ? nothing else than in- 
justice, and confusion, and that all things are borne along at 
random; or rather not at random only ; but more than this, 
with folly. 

" And if there is not any nativity, whence is such a 
one rich ? whence is such a one poor .?" 

' I know not : for in this way I will for a time reason with 
thee, instructing thee not to be curious about all things ; 
neither in consequence of this to go on at random and 
rashly. For neither because thou art ignorant of this, 
oughtest thou to feign the things that are not. It is better 
to be ignorant well, than to learn ill. For he that knoweth 
not the cause, will come soon to the right one ; but he who 
because he does not know the real cause, feigns one that is 
untrue, will not be able easily to receive the real ; but he 
needs more both of labours and toil, in order to take away 
the former. For indeed on a tablet, if it have been wiped 
smooth, any one may easily write what he will, but when it 

False notions icorse than none. Why bad men are rich. 1003 

is written upon, no longer in the same way, for we must Matt. 
first wipe out what has been ill written. And amongst phy- ^^ ' 
sicians again, he that applies nothing, is far better than he 
that applies hurtful things ; and he who builds unsoundly, is 
worse than he who doth not so much as build at all ; like 
as the land is far better that bears nothing, than that which 
bears thorns. 

Let us not then be impatient to learn all things, but let 
us endure to be even ignorant of some things, that when 
we have found a teacher, we may not afford him double 
toil. Or rather many oftentimes have remained even in- 
curably diseased, by carelessly entangling themselves in evil 
opinions. For neither is the toil the same to pluck up first 
what hath taken root amiss, and then to sow, as to plant a 
clear ground. For in that case, he must overthrow first, and 
then put in other things ; but in this, the hearing is ready. 

Whence then is such a one rich ? I will say, now ; many 
acquire wealth, by God's gift ; and many by His permission. 
For this is the short and simple account. 

What then ? it is said, doth He make the whoremongers 
to be rich, and the adulterers, and him that hath abused 
himself with mankind, and him that hath made a bad use 
of his possessions ? He doth not make them, but permits 
them to be rich ; and great is the difference, and quite 
infinite between making and permitting. But wherefore 
doth He suffer it at all ? Because it is not yet the time for 
judgment, that every one may receive according to his 

For what more worthless than that rich man, who giveth 
not to Lazarus so much as of his crumbs ? Nevertheless, he 
was more wretched than all, for he came to be possessed 
not even of a drop of water, and for this very cause most 
especially, that being rich he was cruel. For if there are 
two wicked men, who have not had the same portion here, 
but one in wealth, the other in poverty, they will not be simi- 
larly punished there, but the wealthier more grievously. 

[5.] Dost thou not see at least even this man, suffering more 
fearfully because he had received his good things ? Do thou 
also therefore, when thou seest in prosperity one who is 
become rich by injustice, groan, weep ; for indeed this 

1 004 Greater punishment for (jr eater advantages abased. 

Hum I L. wealth is to him an addition of ]mnishment. For like as they 
^^5^^* w'lo sin much, and are not minded to repent, treasure up to 
themselves a treasure of wrath; even so they, who, besides 
not being punished, are even enjoying i)rosperity, will under- 
go the greater punishment. 

And the proof of this, if thou wilt, I will shew thee, not 
from the things to come only, but also from the present life. 
For the blessed David, when he sinned that sin of Bathsheba, 
and was convicted by the prophet, for this cause most of all 
was he more severely reproved, that even when he had 
enjoyed such secui'ity, he was like this. Hear at least God 
upbraiding him with this especially. Did not I anoint ihee 
for a king, and delivered iliee from the hand of Saul, and 
give iJiee all that 'pertained to thy master, and all the house of 
Israel and Judah, and if it had been little for thee, I uoitld 
have added thus and thus; and wherefore hast thou done 
' 2Sam. ^/*a< which was evil in My sight^ ? For not for all sins are 
12, 7-9. there the same punishments, but many and diverse, according to 
the times, according to the persons, according to their rank, 
according to their understanding, according to other things 
besides. And that what I say may be more clear, let one 
sin be set forth, fornication ; and mark how many different 
punishments I find not from myself, but from the divine 
Scriptures. Did any one commit fornication before the 
Law, he is differently punished; and this Paul sheweth, 
For as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish 

2 Eom. without law^. Did any one commit fornication after the 
^' ^^' Law ? He shall suffer more grievous things. For as many 

3 ibid, as have sinned in the Law shall be judged by the Law^. Did 

any one connnit fornication being a priest, he receives from 
his dignity a very great addition to his punishment. So 
for this cause, whereas the other women were slain for 
fornication, the daughters of the priests were burnt ; the law- 
giver shewing the more amply, how great pimishment 
awaits the priest, if he connnits this sin. For if on the 
daughter he inflicts a greater punishment, because of her 
being a priest's daughter, much more on the man himself who 
bears the priest's office. Was fornication committed with 
any by violence ? she is even freed from punishment. Did 
one l)lay the harlot being rich, and another being poor ? 

Instances of privileges aggravating guilt. 1005 

Here ag;aiu also is a clifFeicnce. And this is evident from what Matt. 

• . XXJV 

we have said before concerning David. Was any one 14 

guilty of fornication after Christ's coming? Should he de- 

part uninitiated, he will suffer a punishment more sore than 

all those. Was any guilty of fornication after the Laver? 

in this case not even a consolation is left for the sin any 

more. And this self-same thing Paul declared when he said, 

He that despised Moses' law dieth without mercy, under 

two or three witnesses: of how much sorer 'punishment sup- 

pose ye shall lie he counted worthy, who hath trodden tinder 

foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the 

covenant an unholy tiling, and hath done despite to the 

grace of the Spirit^ ? Hath any been guilty of fornication,' Heb. 

bearing the priest's office now ? this above all is the crown 29.' 

of the evil deeds. 

Seest thou of one sin how many different forms ? one that 
before the Law, another that after the Law, another that of 
him who bears the priest's office; that of the rich woman, 
and that of the poor woman, of her that is a catechumen, 
and of the believing woman, of the daughter of the priest. 

And from the knowledge again great is the difference; For 
he which knew his Lord\s uill, and did it not, shall he heaten 
uith many stripes^. And to sin after examples bringeth'- T.uke 
greater vengeance. Therefore He saith, Butye,ivhen ye had ' 
seen it, repented not afterwards^, though ye had had the ad-^ Mat. 
vantage of much care. Therefore He upbraids Jerusalem ' 
likewise with this saying, Hotv often would I have gathered 
thy children together, and ye would not* ! W^^± 

And to sin being in luxury, this is shewn by the history of 
Lazarus. And from the place also the sin becomes more 
grievous, which He Himself also indicated when He said, 
Between the Temple and the AllarK ^ Mat. 

23 35 

And from the quality of the offences themselves, // is not ' 
marvellous if one he taken stealing ; and again, ^ Thou didst^ Pf'^v. 
slay thy sons and thy daughters ; this is beyond all thy ' 
whoredoms, and thine abominations''. 'Luke 

And from the persons again: Jf one man sin against 2\'^^' 
another, they shcdl pray for him; but if he sin against God, 

, , ,, J' 7 ■ a a " ^ ^ Sam. 

who shall entreat jor him ^ ^ 2, 25 

And when any one surpasses in negligence tliose who are 

1006 Past examples, disregarded^ condemn. 

HoMiL. far inferior; wherewith in Ezekicl He dotli charge tlu-ni, 
5, saying, Not even according to the judgments, of the nations 
'Ezek. ]iast thou done\ 
' ' And when one is not sobered even by the examples of 

'Ezek. others, She saw her sister, it is said, and just ijied her^. 

And when one has had the advantage of more abundant 

care; For if. He saith, these mightg ivorks had been done in 

Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago ; hut it 

shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon than for that 

3 Matt. city^. 

11 21 

22.' ' Seest thou perfect exactness, and that all for the same sms 
are not paying the same penalty ? For moreover when we 
have had the benefit of long-suffering, and profit nothing, we 
shall endure worse things. And this Paul shews, where he 
says. But after thy hardness and impenitent heart, thoii 

^Rom. treasurest up for tJiyself wratti*. 
' * Knowing then these things, let us not be offended, neither 

let us be confounded at any ofthe things that happen, nor bring 
in upon us the storm of thoughts, but giving place to God's 
Providence, let us give heed to virtue, and flee vice, that we 
may also attain to the good things to come, by the grace and 
love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and 
with Whom be glory unto the Father together with the Holy 
Spirit, now and always, and world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxiv. 16 — 18. 

Then let them which be in Judcsa Jlee into the mountains. 
And let him that is on the housetop not come down to 
take any thing out of his house. Neither let him which 
is in hisjleld return hack to take his clothes. 

Having spoken of the ills that were to overtake the city, 
and of the trials of the Apostles, and that they should remain 
unsubdued, and should overrun the whole world, He men- 
tions again the Jews' calamities, shewing that when the one 
should be glorious, having taught the whole world, the others 
should be in calamity. And see how He relates the war, by 
the things that seem to be small setting forth how intolerable 
it was to be. For, Then, saith He, let them which be in 
Jud<x:a flee into the mountains. Then. When ? When 
these things should be, when the abomination of desolation 
should stand in the holy place. Whence he seems to me to be 
speaking of the armies. Flee therefore then, saith He, for 
thenceforth there is no hope of safety for you. 

For since it had fallen out, that they often had recovered 
themselves in grievous wars, as under Sennacherib, under 
Antiochus again ; (for when at that time also, armies had 
come in upon them, and the Temple had been seized 
beforehand, the Maccabees rallying gave their affairs an 
opposite turn ;) in order then that ihey might not now also 
suspect this, that there would be any such change, He forbids 
them all thought of the kind. For it were well, saith He, 
to escape henceforth with one's naked body. Therefore 

1008 Cleaning of particular warnings about Jiight. 

HoMiL. them also that are on the liouseto]), He suffers not to enter 
* i^ ■ into the house to take their clothes, indicating the evils to be 
inevitable, and tbe calam'Uy without end, and that it must 
needs be that he that was involved therein should surely 
perish. Therefore He adds also, him that is in the field, 
saying, neither let this man turn back to take his clothes. 
For if they that are in doors flee, much more they that arc 
out of doors ought not to take refuge within, 
V. 19. Woe unto litem that are with cliild, and to them that give 

suck, to the one because of their greater inertness, and because 
they cannot flee easily, being weighed down by the burden 
of their pregnancy; to the other, because they are held by 
the tie of feeling for their children, and cannot save their 
sucklings. For money it is a light thing to despise, and an 
easy thing to provide, and clothes ; but the bonds of nature 
how could any one escape ? how could the pregnant woman 
become active ? how could she that gives suck be able to 
overlook that which she had borne ? 

Then, to shew again the greatness of the calamity. He saith, 

\.20,2]. Pray ye that your Jiight he not in the winter, neither on the 

Sahbalh day. For then shall he great tribulation, such as 

uas not since the beginning of the world until nou; neither 

shall be. 

Seest thou that His discourse is addressed to the Jews, and 
that He is speaking of the ills that should overtake them ? 
For the Apostles surely were not to keep the Sabbath day, 
neither to be there, when Vespasian did those things. For 
indeed the most part of them were aheady departed this life. 
And if any was left, he was dwelling then in other parts of 
the world. 

But wherefore neither in the winter, nor on the Sabbath 
day? Not in the winter, because of the difficulty arising 
from the season ; not on the Sabbath day, because of the 
absolute authority exercised by the Law. For since they had 
need of flight, and of the swiftest flight, but neither would 
the Jews dare to flee on the Sabbath day, because of the Law, 
neither in winter was such a thing easy ; therefore. Pray ye, 
sailh He ; for then shall be tribulation, such as never was, 
neither shall be. 

And let not any man suppose this to have been spoken 

Sufferings of the JeivH in their siege foretold. 1 009 

hypevbolically; but let him study the writings of Josephus, Matt. 



and learn the truth of the sayings. For neither can any one ^^^^• 

say, that the man being a believer, in order to establish 
Christ's words, hath exaggerated the tragical history. For 
indeed He was both a Jew, and a determined 5gw^ and very 
zealous, and among them that lived after Christ's Coming. 

What then saith this man ? That those terrors surpassed 
all tragedy, and that no such had ever overtaken the nation. 
For so great was the famine, that the very mothers fought 
about the devouring of their children, and that there were 
wars about this; and he saith that many when they were 
dead had their bellies ripped up. 

I should therefore be glad to enquire of the Jews. Whence 
came there thus upon them wrath from God intolerable, and 
more sore than all that had befallen aforetime, not in Judaja 
only, but in any part of the world ? Is it not quite clear, 
that it vvas for the deed of the Cross, and for this Rejection ? 
All would say it, and with all and before all the truth of the 
facts itself. 

But mark, I pray thee, the exceeding greatness of the ills, 
when not only compared with the time before, they appear 
more grievous, but also with all the time to come. For not 
in all the world, neither in all time that is past, and that 
is to come, shall any one be able to say such ills have been. 
And very naturally; for neither had any man perpetrated, 
not of those that ever have been, nor of those to come here- 
after, a deed so wicked and horrible. Therefore He saith, 
there shall be tribulation such as never was, nor shall be. 

And except those days should be shortened^ there should no v. 22. 
flesh be saved, but for the elects sake those days shall be 
shortened. By these things He shews them to be deserving 
of a more grievous punishment than had been mentioned, 
speaking now of the days of the war and of that siege. But 
what He saith is like this. \i, saith He, the war of the 
Romans against the city had prevailed further, all the Jews 
had perished ; (for by no flesh here, He meaneth no Jewish 
flesh,) both those abroad, and those at home. For not only 
against those in Judiea did they war, but also tliose that 
were dispersed every where they outlawed and banished, 
because of their hatred against the former. 

3 T 

1010 Christians encouraged against the troubles. 

HoMiL. ['2.] But whom doth He here mean by the elect? The 
^^^V' believers that were shut up in the midst of them. For that 
Jews may not say that because of the Gospel, and the wor- 
ship of Christ, these ills took place. He sheweth, that so 
far from the believers being the cause, if it had not been 
for them, all had perished utterly. For if God had per- 
mitted the war to be protracted, not so much as a remnant 
of the Jews had remained, but lest those of them who had 
become believers should perish together with the unbelieving 
Jews, He quickly put down the fighting, and gave an end 
to the war. Therefore He saith. But for the elect's sake 
they shall he shortened. But these things He said to leave 
an encouragement to those of them who were shut up in the 
midst of tliem, and to allow them to take breath, that they 
might not be in fear, as though they were to perish with 
them. And if here so great is His care for them, that for 
their sakes others also are saved, and that for the sake of 
Christians remnants were left of the Jews, how great will be 
their honour in the time for their crowns ? 

By this He also encouraged them not to be distressed at 
their own dangers, since these others are suffering such 
things, and for no profit, but for evil vipon their own head. 

But He not only encouraged them, but also led them off 
secretly and unsuspectedly from the customs of the Jews. 
For if there is not to be a change afterwards, and the 
temple is not to stand, it is quite evident that the law also 
shall be made to cease. 

However, He spake not this openly, but by their entire 
destruction He darkly intimated it. But He spake it not 
openly, lest He should startle them before the time. Where- 
fore neither at the beginning did He of Himself fall into 
discourse touching these things ; but having first lamented 
over the city. He constrained them to shew Him the stones, 
and question Him, in order that as it were in answering them 
their question, He might declare to them beforehand all 
the things to come. 

But mark thou, I pray thee, the dispensation of the 
Spirit, that John wrote none of these things, lest he should 
seem to write from the very history of the things done, (for 
indeed he lived a long time after the taking of the city,) but 

Indications of the time of the end. 1011 

they, who died before tlie takin((, and had seen none of Matt. 
these things, they write it, in order that every way the 23—29! 
power of the prediction should clearly shine forth. 

Then, if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, ^-^3-28. 
or there ; believe it not : for there shall arise false Christs, 
and false prophets, and shall shew signs and wonders, so 
as to deceive, if possible, the very elect. Behold, I have told 
you before. Wherefore if they shall say unto you. Behold, 
He is in the desert, go not forth ; behold, He is in the 
secret chambers, believe it not. For as the lightning cometh 
out of the east, and shineth even unto the west, so shall 
also the Coming of the Son of Man be. For tvheresoever the 
carcase is, there shall the eagles be gathered together. 

Having finished what concerned Jerusalem, He passes on 
to His own Coming, and tells the signs of it, not for their 
use only, but for us also, and for all that shall come after us. 

Then. When ? Here, as I have often said, the word, 
then, relates not to the connection in order of time with 
the things before mentioned. At least, when He was 
minded to express the connection of time. He added, Im- v. 29. 
mediately after the tribulation of those days, but here not 
so, but, " then,^'' not meaning what should follow straightway 
after these things, but what should be in the time, when 
these things were to be done, of which He was about to 
speak. So also when it is said, In^ those days cometh John ^, 
the Baptist, he is not speaking of the lime that should the com- 
straightway follow, but that many years after, and that in "^ent on 
which these things were done, of which He was about to place. 
speak. For, in fact, having spoken of the birth of Jesus, 
and of the coming of the Magi, and of the death of Herod, 
He at once saith, In those days cometh John the Baptist; 
although thirty years had intervened. But this is customary 
in the Scripture, I mean, to use this manner of narration. 
So then here also, having passed over all the intermediate 
time from the taking of Jerusalem unto the preludes of the 
consummation. He speaketh of the time just before the con- 
suinmation. Then, He saith therefore, if any man shall 
say unto you, lo, here is Christ, or there, believe it not. 

Awhile He secures them by the place, mentioning the 


1012 The deceivers. ChrisCs coming unmistakeahle. 

HoMiL. distinguishing marks of His second Coming, and tlie indi- 

— '- — ^cations of the deceivers. For not, as when at His former 
Coming He appeared in Bethlehem, and in a small corner of 
the world, and no one knew IJim at the beginning, so doth 
He say it shall be then too ; but openly and with all cir- 
cumstance, and so as not to need one to tell these things. 
And this is no small sign that He will not come secretly. 

But mark how here He saith nothing of war, (for He is 
interpreting the doctrine concerning His Advent,) but of 
them that attempt to deceive. For some in the days of 

^•^•' the Apostles deceived the multitude, ybr they shall come, 
saith He. a;?f/ sJiall deceive many; and others shall do so 
before His second Coming, who shall also be more grievous 

V. 24. than the former. For they shall shew. He saith, signs and 
uonders, so as to deceive if possible the very elect : here He 
is speaking of Antichrist, and indicates that some also shall 
minister to him. Of him Paul too speaks on this wise. 
Having called him man of sin, scud Son of perdition, He 

'2Thes. added, Jl'hose^ coming is ajter the working f>f Satan, tcith 

'" all power and signs and lying wonders; and with all 

deceivableness of nnrigJtleoiisness in them that perish. 

And see how He secures them ; " Go not forth into the 
deserts, enter not into the secret chambers." He did not 
say, " Go, and do not believe ;" but, " Go not forth, neither 
depart thither.'"' For great then will be the deceiving, 
because that even deceiving miracles are wrought. 

[.3.] Having told them how Antichrist cometh, as, for in- 
stance, that it will be in a ]ilace; He saith how Himself also 

v.27.28. cometh. How then doth He Himself come? As the light- 
ning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the icest, 
.<io shall also the Coming of the Son of Alan be. For where' 
soever the carcase is, there also will the eagles be gathered 

How then shineth the lightning ? It needs not one to 
talk of it, it needs not a herald, but even to them that sit 
in houses, and to them in chambers it shews itself in an 
instant of time throughout the whole world. So shall that 
Coming be, shewing itself at once every where by reason of 
the shining forth of His glory. But He mentions also 

The sign of the Cross ivill then oul shine the Sun. 1013 

another sign, uhere the carcase is, there also shall ^^'(^ ^^\y 
eagles be; meaning the nuiltitiide of the Angels, of the 29.30. 
Martyrs, of all the Saints. 

Then He tells of fearful prodigies. What are these 
prodigies? Immediately after the tribulation of those days,^-^^- 
saith He, the sun shall be darkened. Of the tribula- 
tion of what days doth He speak ? Of those of Anti- 
christ and of the false prophets ? For there shall be great 
tribulation, there being so many deceivers. But it is 
not protracted to a length of time. For if the Jewish war 
was shortened for the elect's sake, much more shall this 
temptation be limited for these same's sake. Therefore, 
He said not, " after the tribulation," but immediately 
after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened^ 
for almost at the same time all things come to pass. 
For the false prophets and false Christs shall come and 
cause confusion, and immediately He Himself will be 
here. Because no small turmoil is then to prevail over the 

But how doth He come ? The very creation being then 
transfigured, for the sun shall be darkened, not destroyed, 
but overcome by the light of His presence ; and the stars 
shall fall, for what shall be the need of them thenceforth, 
there being no night.? and the powers of Heaven shall be 
shaken, and in all likelihood, seeing so great a change come 
to pass. For if when the stars were made, they trembled 
and marvelled; [for^ when the stars were made, all Angels,^j^'^^^j 
it is sixid, praised 3Ie icith a loud voice ;) much more seeing 
all things in course of change, and their fellow-servants 
giving account, and the whole world standing by that awful 
judgment-seat, and those who have lived from Adam unto 
His Coming, having an account demanded of them of all that 
they did, how shall they but tremble, and be shaken ? 

Then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in Heaven ; v. 30, 
that is, the Cross being brighter than the sun, since this last 
will be darkened, and hide himself, and that will appear 
when it woidd not appear, unless it were far brighter than the 
beams of the sun. But wherefore doth the sign appear? 
In order that the shamelessncss of the Jews may be more 
abundantly silenced. For having the Cross as the greatest 

1014 The Cross a triumph to Christians, confusion to Jews. 

HoMiL.plea, Christ thus coraeth to that Judgment-Seat, shewing not 
Lxxvi. pj.^ vvounds only, but also the death of reproach. Theri 
shall the tribes mourn, for there shall be no need of au 
accusation, when they see the Cross; and they shall mourn, 
that by His death they are nothing benefited; because they 
crucified Ilim Whom they ought to have adored. 

Scest thou how fearfully He has pictured His Coming ? how 

He has stirred up the spirits of His Disciples ? For this reason, 

let me add, He puts the mournful things first, and then the 

good things, that in this way also He may comfort and refresh 

them. And of His Passion He suggests to them the remem- 

VeTa brance, and of His Resurrection, and *with a display of glory, 

TodffY°^- ^^^ mentions His Cross, so that they may not be ashamed 

naros. nor grieve, whereas indeed He cometh then setting it forth 

for His sign. And another saith, The]/ shall look on Him 

Whom they j)i6rced. Therefore it is that they shall mourn, 

when they see that this is He. 

And forasmuch as He had made mention of the Cross, He 
V. 30. added. They shall see the Son of Man coming, no longer on 
the Cross, but in the clouds of Heaven, with power and great 

For think not. He meaneth, because thou hearest of the 
Cross, that it is again any thing mournful, for He shall come 
with power and great glory. But He bringeth it, that their 
sin may be self-condemned, as if any one who had been 
sti'uck by a stone, were to shew the stone itself, or his gar- 
ments stained with blood. And He cometh in a cloud as 
He was taken up, and the tribes seeing these things mourn. 
Not however that the terrors shall with them proceed no 
further than mournings ; but the mourning shall be, that they 
may bring forth their sentence from within, and condemn 
T. 31. And then again. He will send His Angels with a great 
trumpet, and they shall gather the elect from the four winds, 
from one end of Heaven to the other. 

But when thou hast heard of this, consider the punish- 
ment of them that remain. For neither shall they suffer 
that former penalty only, but this too. And as above He 
2Matt. said, that they should say, Blessed^ is He that cometh in the 
' ' name of the Lord, so here, that they shall mourn. For since 

Christians should be ready to rejoice in the Judgment. 1015 

He had spoken unto them of grievous wars, that they might Matt. 
learn, that together with the fearful things here, the torments 31. 
there also await them, He brings them in mourning and 
separated from the elect, and consigned to Hell ; by this 
again rousing the Disciples, and indicating from how many 
evils they should be delivered, and how many good things 
they shall enjoy. 

[4.] And why now doth He call them by Angels, if He comes 
thus openly ? To honour them in this way also. But Paul 
saith, that they sliall he caught up in clouds. And He said 
this also, when He was speaking concerning a Resurrection. 
For^ the Lord Himself, li is said, shall descend from Heaven ^iT^ess. 
with a shout, with the voice of an Archangel. So that ' 
when risen again, the Angels shall gather them together, 
when gathered together the clouds shall catch them up ; 
and all these things are done in a moment, in an instant. 
For it is not that He abiding above calleth them, but He 
Himself coraeth with the sound of a trumpet. And what 
mean the trumpets and the sound? They are for arousing, 
for gladness, to set forth the amazing nature of the things 
then doing, for grief to them that are left. 

Woe is me for that fearful Day ! For though we ought to 
rejoice when we hear these things, v\'e feel pain, and are de- 
jected, and our countenance is sad. Or is it I only that feel 
thus, and do ye rejoice at hearing of these things? For 
upon me at least there comes a kind of shudder when these 
things are said, and I lament bitterly, and groan from the 
very depth of my heart. For 1 have no part in these things, 
but in those that are spoken afterwards, that are said unto the 
Virgins, unto him that buried the talents he had received, unto 
the wicked servant. For this cause I weep, to think from 
what glory we are to be cast out, from what hope of blessings, 
and this perpetually, and for ever, to spare ourselves a little 
labour. For if indeed this were a great toil, and a grievous 
law, we ought even so to do all things ; nevertheless many 
of the remiss would seem to have at least some pretext, a 
poor pretext indeed, yet would they seem to have some, that 
the toil was great, and the time endless, and the burden in- 
tolerable ; but now we can put forward no such objection ; 
which circumstance most of all will gnaw^ us no less than^^'f' 

1016 Lendincj to Christ the best investment. 

HoMiL. hell at that tiinc, when for want of a slight endeavour, and a 

— ^ little toil, we shall have lost Heaven, and the unspeakable 

blessings. For both the time is short, and the labour small, 
and yet we faint and are supine. Thou strivest on earth, and 
the crown is in Heaven; thou art punished of men, and art 
honoured of God; the race is for two days, and the reward 
for endless ages ; the struggle is in a corruptible body, and 
the rewards in an incorruptible. 

And apart from these things, we should consider another 
point also, that even if we do not choose to suifer any of the 
things that are painful for Christ's sake, we must in other ways 
most assuredly endure them. For neither, though thou 
shouldest not have died for Christ, wilt thou be immortal; 
neither though thou shouldest not have cast away thy riches 
for Christ, wilt thou go aw^iy hence with them. These things 
He requires of thee, which although He should not require 
ihem, thou wilt have to give up, because thou art mortal; He 
willeth thee to do these by thy choice, which thou must do 
by necessity. So much only He requires to be added, that 
it be done for His sake; since that these things befal men 
and pass away, cometh to pass of natural necessity. Seest 
thou how easy the conflict? What it is altogether necessary for 
thee to suffer, that choose to suffer for My sake ; let this only 
be added, and I have sufficient obedience. The gold which 
thou intendest to lend to another, this lend to Me, both at 
more profit, and in greater security. Thy body, wherewith 
thou art going to warfare for another, make it to war for Me, 
for indeed I surpass thy toils with recompenses in the most 
abundant excess. Yet thou in all other matters preferrest 
him that giveth thee more as well in loans, as in marketing 
and in warfare; but Christ alone, when giving more, and 
infinitely more than all, thou dost not receive. And what is 
this so great hostility ? What is this so great enmity ? Where 
will there be any excuse or defence left for thee, when the 
reasons for which thou preferrest man to man avail not to 
induce thee to prefer God to man ? 

Why dost thou commit thy treasure to the earth .? " Give 
it into My hand," He saith. Doth not the earth's Lord seem 
to thee more wordiy of trust than the earth? This indeed 
restoreth that which thou laidest in it, though oftentimes not 

Chriafs invitation and expostulation. 1017 

even tliis, but He gives thee also recompence for His keeping Matt. 
of it ? For indeed He doth exceedingly love us. Therefore^ 3i 

if thou shouldest wish to lend, He stands ready; or to sow, He ^^ 
receives it; or if thou shouldest wish to build. He draws 
thee unto Himself, saying, Build in My regions. Why 
runnest thou mito poor, unto beggarly men, who also for 
little gains occasion thee great trouble? Nevertheless, not 
even on hearing these things, do we make up our minds to it, 
but where are fightings and wars, and wild struggles^ and ''ray- 
trials and suits of law, and false accusations, thither do we 

[5.] Doth He not justly turn away from us, and punish us, 
when He is giving up Himself unto us for all things, and we are 
resisting Him? It is surely plain to all. For whether thou 
art desirous to adorn thyself, " Let it, He saith, be with My 
Ornaments f or to arm thyself, " with My Arms," or to clothe 
thyself, "with My Raiment;" or to feed thyself, "at My Table;" 
or to journey, "on My way;" or to inherit, "My Inherit- 
ance;" or to enter into a country, "the City of which I am 
Builder and Maker ;" or to build a house, " amongst My 
Tabernacles." " For I, so far from asking thee for a recompence 
of the things that I give thee, do even make Myself owe thee 
a recompence for this very thing, if thou be willing to use all 
I have." What can be equal to this munificence, " I am 
Father, I am Brother, I am Bridegroom, I am Dwelling 
Place, I am Food, I am Raiment, I am Root, I am Foundation, 
all whatsoever thou wiliest, I am." " Be thou in need of 
nothing, I will be even a Servant, for I came to minister, 
not to be ministered unto; I am Friend, and Member, 
and Head, and Brother, and Sister, and Mother; I am 
all; only cling thou closely^ to Me. I was poor for thee, and '^ ot/cefa;* 
a wanderer for thee, on the Cross for thee, in the tomb ^^^' 
for thee, above I intercede for thee to the Father; on 
earth 1 am come for thy sake an Ambassador from My 
Father. Thou art all things to Me, brother, and joint 
heir, and friend, and member." What wouldest thou 
more ? Why dost thou turn away from Him, Who loveth 
thee? Why dost thou labour for the world ? Why dost thou 
draw water into a broken cistern ? For it is this to labour 
for the ))resent life. Why dost thou comb wool into the 

1018 llie abiding consequences of actions. 

HoMiL. fire? Why dost tliou '^6'^// the air? Why dost thou '^run 

I.XXVI. . . o 


9> 26. Hath not every art an end? It is surely plain to every 
2. " ' one. Do thou also shew the end of thy worldly eagerness. 
•• Eccl. But thou canst not; for, Vanity of vanities, allis vanity^. Let 

us go to the tombs; shew me thy father; shew me thy wife. 

Where is he that was clad in raiment of gold ? he that rode 
^See in t]i(> chariot? he that had armies, that had the girdle^ that 
Horn. iii. had the heralds? he that was slaying these, and casting those 
P",^^; into prison ? he that put to death whom he would, and set 

a badge * _ ' ' 

of mili- free whom he was minded ? I see nothing but bones, and a 
rank, worm, and a spider's web ; all those things are earth, all 
those a fable, all a dream, and a shadow, and a bare relation, 
and a picture, or rather not so much as a picture. For the 
picture we see at least in a likeness, but here not so much as 
a likeness. 

And would that the evils stop with this. For now the 
honour, and the luxury, and the distinction, end with a 
shadow, with words ; but the consequences of them, are no 
longer limited to a shadow and to words, but continue, 
and will pass over with us elsewhere, and will be manifest 
to all, the rapine, the covetousness, the fornications, the 
adulteries, the dreadful things beyond number; these not in 
similitude, neither in ashes, but written above, both words, 
and deeds. 

With what eyes then shall we behold Christ ? For if any 
one could not bear to see his father, when conscious to 
himself that he had sinned against him, upon Him who 
infinitely exceeds a father in forbearance how shall we then 
look? how shall we bear it? For indeed we shall stand at 
Christ's judgment-seat, and there will be a strict enquiry 
into all things. 

But if any man disbelieve the judgments to come, let him 
look at the things here, at (hose in the prisons, those in the 
mines, those on the dunghills, the possessed, the frantic, 
them that are struggling with incurable diseases, those that 
are fighting against continual poverty, them that live in 
famine, them that are pierced with irremediable woes, those 
in captivity. For these persons would not suffer these things 
here, unless vengeance and punishments were to await all 

The Judgment proved hy 'present inequalities. 1019 

the others also that have committed such shis. And if the Mattt. 
rest have undergone nothing here, you ought to regard this 31 
very fact as a sign that there is surely something to follow 
after our departure here. For the self-same God of all 
would not take vengeance on some, and leave others un- 
punished, who have committed the same or more grievous 
offences, unless He designed to bring some punishments 
upon them there. 

By these arguments then and these examples let us also 
humble ourselves; and let them who are obstinate unbelievers 
of the judgment, believe it henceforth, and become better 
men ; that having lived here in a manner worthy of the 
kingdom, we may attain unto the good things to come, by 
the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 


Matt. xxiv. 32, 33. 

Now learn a parable of the Jig tree ; when his branch is yet 
tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is 
nigh: so likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, 
know that it is near, even at the doors. 

Forasmuch as He had said, Immediately after the tri- 
bulation of those days ; but they sought of this, after how 
long a time it should be, and desired to know in particular 
the very day, therefore He puts also the similitude of the 
fig tree, indicating that the interval was not great, but that 
in quick succession would occur His advent also. And 
this He declared not by the parable alone, but by the words 
that follow, saying, know that it is near, even at the doors. 

Whereby He foretels another thing also, a spiritual sum- 
mer, and a calm that should be on that day (after the pre- 
sent tempest) for the righteous ; but to the sinners the 
contrary, winter after summer, which He declares in what 
follows, saying, that the day shall come upon them, when they 
are living in luxury. 

But not for this intent only did He put forward this 
about the fig tree, in order to declare the interval ; for it was 
possible to have set this before them in other ways as well ; 
but that he might hereby also confirm His saying, as assuredly 
thus to come to pass. For as this [of the fig tree] is of 
necessity, so that too. For thus, wherever He is minded to 

The generation of the faithful abide till the end. 1021 

speak of that which will assuredly come to pass, He brings Matt 


forward the necessary courses of nature, both Himself, and ^^l^- 

the blessed Paul imitating Him. Therefore also when 
speaking of His Resurrection, He saith, When^ the corn q/' John 
wheat hath fallen into the earth, except it die, it ahideth ' ' 
alone; but ij" it die, it Irr in get h forth muchfruii. Whereby 
also the blessed Paul being instructed uses the same simili- 
tude, Thou /ooP, he saith, that ivliich thou sowest is not^^Cor. 
quickened, except it die. ' 

After this, that they might not straightway return to it 
again, and say, 'When?' he brings to their remembrance 
the things that had been said, saying, Verily I say unto v- 3^- 
you. This generation shall not pass, till all these things be 
fulfilled ! All these things. What things ? I pray thee. 
Those about Jerusalem, those about the wars, about the 
famines, about the pestilences, about the earthquakes, about 
the false Christs, about the false prophets, about the sowing 
of the Gospel every where, the seditions, the tumults, all 
the other tilings, which we said were to occur until His 
coming. How then, one may ask, did He say, This gene- 
ration ? Speaking not of the generation then living, but of that 
of the believers. For He is wont to distinguish a genera- 
tion not by times only, but also by the mode of religious 
service, and practice; as when He saith, This^ is the getiera-^Ps.^i, 
Hon of them that seek the Lord. 

For what He said above, All these must come to pass, v. 6. 
and again, the Gospel shall be preached, this He declares v. 14. 
here also, saying, All these things shall surely come to pass, 
and the generation of the faithful shall remain, cut off by 
none of the things that have been mentioned. For both 
Jerusalem shall perish, and the more part of the Jews shall 
be destroyed, but over this generation shall nothing prevail, 
not famine, not pestilence, not earthquake, not the tumults 
of wars, not false Christs, not false prophets, not deceivers, 
not traitors, not those that cause to offend, not the false 
brethren, nor any other such like temptation whatever. 

Then to lead them on more in failh. He saith, Heaiew^-^o. 
and earth shall pass aicay, but My words shall not pass 
away ; that is, it were more easy for these firm, fixed, and 
immoveable bodies to be blotted out, than for ought of My 

1022 Our Lord forbids curiosity about the time. 

HoMiL. words to fall to the ground. And lie who gainsays these 
-^ — ^things, let him test His sayings, and when he hath found 
them true (for so he surely will find them) from what is 
past, let him believe also the things to come, and let him 
search out all things with diligence, and he will see the 
actual events bearing witness to the truth of the prophecy. 
And the elements He hath brought forward, at once to 
declare, that the Church is of more honour than Heaven 
and earth, and at the same time to indicate Himself by this 
also to be Maker of all. For since He was speaking of the 
End, a thing disbelieved by many. He brought forward 
Heaven and earth, indicating His unspeakable power, and 
shewing with great authority, that He is Lord of all, and by 
these things rendering His sayings deserving of credit, 
even with those who are much given to doubt. 
V. 36. But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the 
c^^V^^^ Angels of Heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. By 
13, 32. saying, not the Angels, He stopped their mouths, that they 
should not seek to learn what these Angels know not ; and 
by saying, neither the Son, forbids them not only to learn, 
but even to enquire. For in proof that therefore He said 
this, see after His Resurrection, when He saw they were 
become over curious, how He stopped their mouths more 
decidedly. For now indeed He hath mentioned infallible 
signs, many and endless ; but then He saith merely, It is 
not for you to know times or seasons. And then that they 
might not say, we are driven to perplexit}', we are utterly 
scorned, we are not held worthy so much as of this. He says, 
^ActBi, which^ the Father hath put in His own power. And this, 
because He was exceedingly careful to honour them, and to 
conceal nothing from them. Therefore He refers it to His 
Father, both to make the thing awful, and to exclude that 
of which He had spoken from their enquiry. Since if it be 
not this, but He is ignorant of it, when will He know it ? 
Will it be together with us ? But who would say this ? And 
the Father He knoweth clearly, even as clearly as He 
knoweth the Son ; and of the Day is He ignorant ? More- 
3 1 Cor. over, the Spirit^ indeed search eth even the deep things of 
' ' God, and doth not He know so much as the time of the 
Judgment? But how He ought to judge He knoweth, and 

He did not meati that Himself hie w not the Day. 1023 

of the secrets of each He hath a full perception ; and Matt. 
what is far more common than that, of this could He be sg'^sJ* 
ignorant? And how, if all things uere made by Him, and john i, 
wiihont Him teas not even one tJti)tgmade, was He ignorant"^" 
of the Day? For He Who made the worlds', it is quite ' a'»»'as 
plain that He made the times also ; and if the times, even 
that Day. How then is He ignorant of that which He 
made ? 

[2.] And ye^ indeed say that ye know even His Substance, 'Arians. 
but that the Son not even the Day, the Son, Who is always in 
the bosom of the Father; and yet His Substance is much 
greater than the days, even infinitely greater. How then, 
while assigning to yourselves the greater things, do you not 
allow even the less to the Son, ^m Whom are hid all fhe^ Co\. 2, 
treasures of wisdom and knoivledye. But neither do you 
know what God is in His Substance, tliough ten thousand 
times ye talk thus madly, neither is the Son ignorant of 
the Day, but is even in full certainty thereof. 

For this cause, I say, when He had told all things, both 
the times and the seasons, and had brought it to the very 
doors, {for it is near, He saith, even at the doors,) He 
was silent as to the Day. For if thou seek after the day and 
hour, thou shalt not hear them of Me, saith He ; but if of 
times and preludes, without hiding any thing, I will tell thee 
all exactly. 

For that indeed I am not ignorant of it, I have shewn 
by many things ; having mentioned intervals, and all the 
things that are to occur, and how short from this present 
time until the Day itself, (for this did the Parable of the fig 
tree indicate,) and I lead thee to the very vestibule ; and if 
1 do not open unto thee the doors, this also I do for your 

And that thou mayest learn by another thing also, that the 
silence is not a mark of ignorance on His part, see, together 
with what we have mentioned, how He sets forth another 
sign also. But as in the days of Noe they ivere eating and v. 3S.39. 
drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day 
that the jlood came, and took all away ; so shall also the 
Coming of the Soti. of Man he. And these things He spake, 
shewing that He should come on a sudden, and unexpectedly, 

1024 The End, like the Flood, shall surprise the careless. 

HoMiL. and wlien tlic move part were livin<> luxuriously. For Paul 
^^^^"' too saith this, writing on tliis wise, IMieii ihcij shall speak of 
peace and safety, then sudden destruction couielli upon them; 
MThess. and to shew how unexpected, He said, 'rts travail upon a 
"'*' ^' uouian with child. How then doth He say, after the 
tribulation of those days ^ For if there be luxury then, and 
peace, and safety, as Paul saith, how doth He say, after the 
tribulation of those days? If there be luxury, how is there 
tribulation ? Luxury for them that are in a state of in- 
sensibility, and peace. Tlierefore He said not, when there is 
peace, but nhe?) they speak of peace and safely, indicating 
their insensibility to be such as of those in Noah's time, for 
that amid such evils they lived in luxury. 

But not so the righteous, but they were passing their time 
in tribulation and dejection. Whereby He shews, that 
when Antichrist is come, the pursuit of unlawful pleasures 
shall be more eager among the transgressors, and those 
that have learnt to despair of their own salvation. Then 
shall be gluttony, then revellings, and drunlienness. Where- 
fore also most of all He puts forth an example corresponding 
to the thing. For like as when the ark was making, tliey 
believed not, saith He ; but while it was set in the midst of 
them, proclaiming beforehand the evils that are to come, 
they, when they saw it, lived in pleasure, just as though 
nothing dreadful were about to take place ; so also now. 
Antichrist indeed shall appear, after whom is the end, and 
the punishments at the end, and vengeance intolerable; but 
they that are held by the intoxication of wickedness shall 
not so much as perceive the dreadful nature of the things 
that are on the point of being done. Wherefore also Paul 
saith, as travail upon a tvoman with child, even so shall 
those fearful and incurable evils come upon them. 

And wherefore did He not speak of the ills in Sodom.? It 
"^ Kudo- was His Will to introduce an example embracing all men% 
^tKdf. ^^^ disbelieved after it was foretold. So therefore, as by 
the more part the things to come are disbelieved, He confirms 
those things by the past, terrifying their minds. And together 
with the points I have mentioned. He shews this also, that of 
the former things also He was the Doer. Then again He sets 
another sign, by all which things He makes it evident, that 

Proofs of our Lord's knowledge. He hid it that all in iylU watch. 1 0'25 

He is not iu-norant of the day. And what is the sign ? Matt. 

Then shall lico he in ilie Jield, one shall be taken., and one\^_/^^[ 

left. Two women shall he grinding al the mill, one shall bev.^io-a. 
taken, and one left. Watcli therefore, for ye know not what 
hour your Lord doth come. And all these things are both 
proofs that He knew, and calculated to turn them from their 
enquiry. So for this cause He spake also of the days of 
Noe, for this cause He said too, Two shall he on the bed, 
signifying this, that He should come upon them thus un- 
expectedly, when they were thus without thought, and two 
women grinding at the mill, which also of itself is not the 
employment of them that are taking thought. 

And together with this, He declares that as well 
servants as masters should be both taken and left, both 
those who are at ease, and those in toil, as well from the one 
rank as from the other; even as in the Old Testament He 
saith, ^ Front him that sitteth upon the throne to the captive^ Exod. 
woman that is at the mill. For since He had said, that ' 
hardly are the rich saved, He shews that not even these are 
altogether lost, neither are the poor saved all of them, but 
both out of these and out of those are men saved, and lost. 

And to me He seems to declare, that at night will be the 
Advent. For this Luke too saith ^. Seest thou how accurately 2 Luke 
He knows all things .? ^'^' ^*- 

After this again, that they may not ask about it, He added, v. 42. 
JVatch therefore, for ye know not what hour your Lord doth 
come. He said not, "I know not," but. ye know not. For 
when He had brought them well nigh to the very hour, and 
had placed them there, again He deters them from the 
enquiry, from a desire that they should be striving always. 
Therefore He saith, Watch, shewing that for the sake of 
this. He did not tell it. 

But know this, that if the good man of ihe house had"- •'^3.44. 
known in what watch the thief nou Id come., he would have 
watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken 
up. Therefore be ye also ready, for in such an hour as ye 
think not, the Son of Man cometh. 

For this intent He tells them not, in order that they may 
watch, that they may be always ready ; therefore He saith. 
When ye look not for it, then He will come, desiring that they 

3 u 

1026 Times of Death and of Judgment unknown for our good. 
HoMiL. should be anxiously wailing, and coniinuully in virtuous 



But His meaning is like this; if the common sort of men 
knew when they were to die, diey would surely stjive earnestly 
[3.] at that hour. In t)rder therefore that they may strive, not 
at that hour only, therefore He tells them not either the 
common hour, or the hour of eacli, desiring them to be ever 
looking for this, that they may be always striving. Where- 
fore He made the end of each man's life also uncertain. 

After this, He openly calls Himself Lord, having no where 
spoken so distinctly. But here He seems to me also to put 
to shame the careless, that not even as much care as they that 
expect a thief have taken for their money, not even this 
much do these take for their own soul. For they indeed, 
when they cxj)ect it, watch, and sulfer none of the things in 
their house to be carried off; but ye, although knowing that 
He will come, and come assuredly, continue not watching, 
saith He, and ready so as not to be carried away hence un- 
prepared. So that the Day conieth unto destruction for them 
that sleep. For as tliat man, if he had known, would have 
escaped, so also ye, if ye be ready, escaj)e free. 

Tlien, as He had fallen upon the mention of the judgment, 
He directs His discourse to the teachers next, speaking of 
punishment and honours; and having put first them that do 
aright, He ends with them that continue in sin, making His 
discourse to close with that which is alarming. 

V. 45-47. Wherefore He first saith this. Who then is the faithful and 
zcise servant, ivhom his Lord shall set over His household to give 
them their meat in their due season ? Blessed is thai servant^ 
whom his Lord when He cometh shall find so doing. Verily I 
say vnto you, that lie shall make him ruler over all His goods. 
Tell me, is this too the language of one who is in ignorance ? 
For if because He said, neither doth the Son knou\ thou 
sayest He is ignorant of it; as He saith, tcAo then? what 
wilt tliou say ? Wilt thou say He is ignorant of this too ? 
Away with the thought. For not even one of them that are 
frantic would say this. And yet in the former case one might 
assign a cause ; but here not even this. And what when He 

' John said, PtVe/', lovest thou Me ? asking it, knew He not so much 

2 John' as this? nor when He said, Where"^ have ye laid Him/ 

11, ol. 

Other ivords of seeming iynorance. Our stewardship. 10Q7 

And the Father too will be found to be saying such things. Matt. 
For He Himself likewise saith, ' Adam, where art thou ? and, 45_47." 
The"^ cry of Sodom and. Gomorrah is waxed great be/ore Me. iGen.3, 
/ will go doivn, there/ore, and see whether their doings be g'^ 
according to their cry wldvh cometh unto 3Ie, and if not, \9, 20, 
I will know. And elsewhere He sailh, ^ Whether they will^^^^^^ 
hear, whether they icill understand. And in the Gospel too,^y ^• 
It* may be they will reverence BIy Son : all which are expres-M uke 
sions of ignorance. But not in ignorance did He say these ' ' 
things, but as compassing objects such as became Him: in 
the case of Adam, that He might drive him to make an 
excuse for his sin ; in that of the Sodomites, that He might 
teach us never to be positive, till we are present at the very 
deeds; in that of the prophet, that the prediction might not 
appear in the judgment of the foolish a kind of compulsion 
to disobedience ; and in the parable in the Gospel, that He 
might shew that they ought to have done this, and to have 
reverenced the Son : but here, as well that they may not be 
curious, nor over busy again, as that He might indicate that 
this was a rare and precious thing. And see of what great 
ignorance this saying is indicative, if at least He know not 
even him that is set over. For He blesses him indeed, I^or 
blessed, saith He, is that servant ; but He saith not who this 
is. For who is he, He sailh, whom His Lord shall set over? 
and. Blessed is he whom He shall find so doing. 

But these things are spoken not of money only, but also 
of speech, and of power, and of gifts, and of every steward- 
ship, wherewith each is entrusted. This parable would suit 
rulers in the state also, for every one is bound to make full use 
of what he hath for the common advantage. If it be wisdom 
thou hast, if power, if wealth, if what it may, \ei it not be for 
the hurt of thy fellow-servants, neither for thine own ruin. 
For this cause, therefore, He requires both things of him, 
wisdom, and fidelity: for sin arises from folly also. He calls 
him faithful ihen, because he hath purloined nothing, neither 
mispcnt his Lord's goods without aim or fruit; and wise, 
because he knew how to dispense the things given him, accord- 
ing as was fit. For indeed we have need of both things, 
as well not to purloin the goods of our Master, as also 
to dispense them as is fit. But if the one be wanting, the 

3 u 2 

1 028 Stewardship of wealth, knowledge,SfC. reward of faith fulness. 

HoMiL. olhcr balteth. For if lie be faitliful, and steal not, yd were 

i.xx\Ti. ^^ ^-aste and to spend upon that which concerned him not, 

great wore the blame ; and if he should know how to dis- 

])ense it well, yet were to purloin, again there is no common 

charge against him. 

And let us also that have money listen to these things. 
For not unto teachers only doth He discoiu'se, but also unto 
the rich. For either sort were entrusted with riches; those 
that teach with the more necessary wealth, ye with what is 
inferior. When then at the time that the teachers are scat- 
tering abroad the greater, ye are not willing to shew forth 
your liberality even in the less, or rather not liberality but 
honesty, (for ye give the things of another,) what excuse will 
you have ? But now, before the punishment of them that 
do the contrary tilings, let us hear the honour of him that 
ajiprovelh himself. For verily I say iinto you, He iciU set 
him over all His goods. 

Wliat can be equal to this honour ? what manner of speech 
will be able to set forth the dignity, the blessedness, when 
the King of Heaven, He that possesseth all things, is about 
to set u man over all His goods? Wherefore also He calleth 
him wise, liecause he knew, not to give up great things 
lor small, but having been terajierate here, hath attained to 

[4.] After this, as He ever doth, not by the honour only 
laid up for the good, but also by the punishment threatened 
against the wicked, doth He correct the hearers. Wherefore 
T.48-5i.also He added, But and if the evil serruut say in his heart, 
My Lord delayeth His coming ; and shall begin to smite his 
fellow servants, and shall eat and drink with the drunken: 
the Lord of that servant shall cone in a day wJien lie Ivoketh 
not for Him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, and 
shall cat him asunder, and sh<dl appoint him his portion with, 
the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing <if leetli. 
But if any one should say, "Seest thou what a thought hath 
entered into his mind, because of the day's not being known, 
3Iy Lord, he saith, delayeth Llis coniingf we should aflirm, 
that it was not because the day is not known, but because 
the servant is evil- Else wherefore came not this thought 
into the heart of the faithful and wise servant. For what, 

No real delay, self-indulgence the cause of unpreparedness. 1 029 

even tliough the Lord tarry, O wretched mat), surely tlioii Matt. 
lookest that He will come. Why then dost thou not take care ? 50 51* 

Hence then we learn, that He doth not so much as tarr}-. 
For this judgment is not the Lord's, but that of the evil 
servant's mind, wherefore also he is blamed for this. For 
in proof that He doth not tarry, hear Paul saying, ^The Lord^ Phil. 
is at liand, be careful for notJili) g ; and, ^ He that comelhwilh']^'f.\y'^ 
come^ and will not tarry. 1*^' ^7- 

But do thou hear also what followeth, and learn how con- 
tinually He reminds them of their ignorance of the Day, 
shewing that this is profitable to the servants, and fitted to 
waken and thoroughly to rouse them. For what though 
some gained nothing hereby ? For neither by other things 
profitable for them were some profiled, but nevertheless He 
ceaseth not to do His part. 

What then is the purport of that which follovveth ? /or v. 50.51. 
He shall come in a day when he looketh not for Hlm^ and in 
an hour that he is not aware of; and shall inflict upon him 
extreme punishment. Seest thou how even every where He 
puts this, the fact of their ignorance, indicating that it was 
profitable, and by this making them always earnest minded ? 
For this is the point at which He labours, that we should be 
always on the watch ; and since it is always in luxury that 
we are supine, but in afflictions we are braced up, therefore 
every where He saith this, that when there is relaxation, 
then come the terrors. And as further back He shewed this 
b}' the example of Noah, even so here He saith it is, when 
that servant is drunken, when he is beating, and that his 
punishment shall be intolerable. 

But let us not regard only the punishment appointed for 
him, but let us look to this other point too, lest we ourselves 
also be unawares to ourselves doing the same things. For 
to this servant are they like, who have money, and give not to" 
the needy. For thou too art steward of thine own possessions, 
not less than he who dispenses the alms of the Church. As 
then he has not a right to squander at random and at hazard 
the things given by you for the poor, since they were given 
for the maintenance of the poor ; even so neither mayest 
thou squander thine own. For even though thou hast re- 
ceived an inheritance from Ihv father, and hast in this uav 

1030 What ice earn or inherit is yet God's trust for the poor. 

HoMiL.all thou possessest : even thus all are God's. And then 
Ji^i^^ — 1 thou lor thy part rlesirest that what thou hast given should be 
thus carefully dis})cM)sed, and thinkest thou not that God will 
require His own ol us with greater slrietness, or that He 
suffers them to be wasted at random ? These things are not, 
they are not so. Because lor this end, He left these things 
in thine hand, in order to give them their meat in due 
season. But what meaneth, in due season ? To the needy, to 
the hungry. For like as thou gavest to thy fellow-servant to 
dispense, even so doth the Lord will thee too to spend these 
things on what is needful. Therefore though He was able to 
take them au ay from thee, He left them, that thou mighlest 
have opportunity to shew forth virtue ; that bringing us into 
need one of another, He might make our love for one another 
more fervent. 

But thou, when thou hast received, so far from giving, 
dost even beat. And yet if not to give be blame, what excuse 
is there for beating? But this, it seems to me, He speaks, 
hinting at the insolent, and the covetous, and indicating the 
charge to be heavy, wlien they beat them, whom they were 
commanded to feed. 

[5 ] But He seemeth to be here hinting also at those that live 
in luxury, since for luxury too there is laid op a great punish- 
ment. For He eaietJi diid drii/keth, ii is said, «•//// the drunken, 
pointing at gluttony. For not for this purpose didst thou 
receive, that thou should spend it on luxury, but that thou 
shouldcst lay it out on alms. What! are they thine own things 
which thou hast? With the goods of the poor hast thou been 
entrusted, though thou be possessed of them by honest labour, 
or though it be by inheritance from thy father. What, 
could not God liave taken away these things from thee? But 
He di)th not this, to give thee power to be liberal to the poor. 
But mark thou, 1 pray thee, how throughout all the 
parables He punishes them that lay not out their money 
ijpon the needy. For neither had the virgins robbed other 
men's goods, but they had not given their own ; neither had 
he that buried the one talent embezzled, but he had not 
doubled; neilherarethcy that overlooked the hungry punished, 
because they seized the possessions of others, but because 
they did not lay out their own, like as also this servant. 

Sin of vain and selfish expenditure. 1031 

Let us hearken, as many as please the belly, as many as Matt. 
lay out on costly banquets tlie riches that pertain not at all 50" 51 * 
to us, but belong to the needy. For do not, because out of 
great love to man thou art commanded to give as of thine, 
therefore suppose these things to be indeed thine own. He 
lent them to thee, that thou mightest be able to ajiprove 
thyself Do not then suppose them to be thine, when giving 
Him His own. For neither, if tliou hadst lent to any one, 
that he might go and be able to find means of gain, wouldest 
thou say the money was his. To thee then also hath God 
given, that tliou mightest traffic for Heaven. Make not then 
the exceeding greatness of His love to man a cause of in- 

Consider of what prayer it were a worthy object, to be able 
to find after Baptism a way to do away one's sins. If He 
had not said this. Give alms, how many would have said. 
Would it were ])ossible to give money, and so be freed from 
the ills to come ! But since this hath become possible, again 
are they become supine. 

" But I give," thou sayest. And what is this ? Thou hast 
not yet given as much as she, who cast in the two mites; or 
rather not so much as the half, nor a very small part of what 
she gave, but thou layest out the greater part on useless ex- 
penses, on banquets, and drunkenness, and extreme extrava- 
gance; now bidding, now bidden ; now spending, now con- 
straining others to spend ; so that the punishment is even 
rendered twofold for thee, both from what thyself doest, and 
w hat thou movest others to do. See at any rate how He Him- 
self blames His servant for this, /or he eatetli, He saith, 
and drinketh tvitli the driinJceii. For not the drunken only, 
but those that are with them, doth He punish, and very 
fitly, because (togefclier with corrupting their own selves) 
they make light also of the salvation of others. But nothing 
does so much provoke God, as for us to be inclined to 
overlook the things that concern our neighbour. Where- 
fore shewing His anger, He commands him to be cut 
asunder. Therefore He also affirmed love to be a distin- 
guishing mark of His disciples, since it is altogether neces- 
sary, that he who loveth should take thought for the things 
of his beloved. 

1()."3'2 Good works that do good to oUien are the best. 

HoMiL. To this way tlicn let us hold, for tliis is especially the 

-^— — way that leads up to Heaven, which renders men followers 
of Christ, which makes them, as far as possible, like God. 
See at any rate how these virtues are more needful, which 
have their dwelling by this way. And, if ye will, let us 
make an enquiry into them, and let iis bring forth the 
sentences from the judgment of God. 

Let there be then two ways of most holy life, and let the 
one secure the goodness of him that practises it, but the 
other of his neighbour also. Let us see ^^hether is the more 
approved and leads us to the summit of virtue. Surely he, 
who seeks his own things only, will receive even from Paul 
endless blame, and when I say from Paul, I mean from 
Christ, but the other commendations and crowns. Whence 
rs this evident ? Hear what His language is to one, what 

• I Cor. to the other. Let * tw man seek Jiis- oicn, but every *m(tn 

^"' ^^' another s wealth. Seest thou he rejects the one, and brings in 
the other? Again, Let every one of you ple/fse his neigh- 
bour for good, to edijication. Then comes also the praise 

2 Rom. bej^ond words with an admonition, T^c^y - rT^w Christ pleased 

^^'^■^' not Himself. 

Even these judgments then are sufficient to shew the 
victory ; but that this may be done even superabundant!}', 
let us see amongst good works, which are confined to our- 
selves, and which pass over from us to others also. Fasting 
then, and lying on the bare ground, and keeping virginity, 
and a self-denying life, these things bring their advantage 
to the persons themselves who do them ; but those that pass 
from ourselves to our neighbours are almsgiving, teaching, 

•■' 1 Cor. charity- Hear then Paul in this matter also saving, Though^ 

loo* » - • 

' ' J bestow all niij goods to feed the poor, and I hough I give 
my body to be burned, and hare not charity, I am nothing 

[0.] profited. Seest thou it in itself gloriously celebrated, and 
crowned i 

But if ye be willing, from a third point also let us com- 
])are them; and k^t the one fast, and deny himself, and be a 
martyr, and be burnt to death, but let anothcn- delay his 
martyrdom for his neighbour's edification ; and let him not 
only delay it, but let him even de])art w ithout martyrdom ; 
\vlio will be the more approved alter his removal hence ? 

How our Lord bids us shew love to them. 1033 

We need not have many words, nor a long circumlocution. Matt. 
For tlie blessed Paul is at liand, giving his judgment, and ^q g, ' 
saying, To* depart and to he icith Christ is better, neterthe- 1 Philip. 
less to abide In the Jlesh is more needful for you; e\ex\ lo^'^"^'^** 
his removal unto Christ did he prefer his neighbour's edifi- 
cation. For this is in tlie highest sense to be with Christ, 
even to be doing His will, but nothing is so mucli His will, 
as that which is lor one's neighbour's good. 

Wilt thou that I tell thee a fourth proof also of these things ? 
Peter'^, lovest thou 3Je, saith He; Feed My sheep: and having 2 John 
asked him a third time, declared this to be an infallible j^' 
proof of love. But not to priests only is this said, but to 
every one of us also, who are also entrusted with a little flock. 
For do not despise it, because it is a little flock : For My^^ Luke 
Father, He saith, hath pleasure in them. Eacli of us hath ' ' 
a sheep, let him lead that to the proper pastures. And let 
the man, as soon as he has risen from his bed, seek after 
nothing else, but how He may do and say something whereby 
he may render his whole house more reverent. The woman 
again, let her be indeed a good housekeeper; but before 
attending to this, let her have another more needful care, 
that the whole household may work the works of Heaven. 
For if in worldly matters, before attending to the affairs of 
our household, we labour diligently to pay public dues, that 
we may not for our undutifulness in these matters be beaten 
and dragged to the market places, and suffer ten thousand 
unseemly things ; much more ought we to do this in things 
spiritual, and to render what is duo to God the King of all, 
first, that we may not come to that place, where is gnashing 
of teeth. 

And after these virtues let us seek, which together with 
our own salvation will be able in the greatest degree to 
profit our neighbour. Such is almsgiving, such is prayer, 
or rather even this latter is by the former made efficacious, 
and furnished with wings. For'^ thy prayers, it is said, awt/'' Acts 
thine alms are come up for a memorial before God. But ' 
not prayers only, but fasting also hath its strength fi-om hence. 
Shouldest thou fast without almsgiving ; the act is not so 
much as counted for fasting ; but such a one is worse than 
a i>lutt()uoMs man and a drunkard ; and so nuich worse, as 

1034 Selfishness excludes from the kingdom of Heaven. 

HoMii,. cruelty is a move p;iicvou.s tiling than luxury. And why do I 

-" speak of fasting? Though thou practiseself-denial, though thou 

practise virginity, thou art set without the Bridcchaniber, if 
thou hast not alinspiving. And yet what is equal to virginity, 
which not even in the new dispensation hath come under the 
compulsion of law, on account of its high excellence ? but 
nevertheless it is cast out, when it hath not almsgiving. But 
if virgins are cast out, because they have not this in due 
abundance, who will be able without this to obtain pardon ? 
There is no man, but he must quite of necessity perish, who 
hath not this. 

For, if in worldly matters no man lives for himself, but 
artizan, and soldier, and husbandman, and merchant, all of 
them contribute to the common good, and to their neighbour's 
advantage ; much more ought we to do this in things spiritual. 
Yov this is most properly to live : since he at least who is 
living for himself only, and overlooking all others, is useless, 
and is not so much as a human being, nor of our race. 

What then, thou wouldcst say, if I neglect my own in- 
terests, while seeking after the good of the rest? It is not 
possible, for one who seeks after the good of the rest to over- 
look his own; for he who seeks after the good of the rest pains 
no man, but pities all, helps them to the utmost of his power; 
will rob no man, will covet the goods of no man, will not 
steal, will not bear Ailse witness ; will abstain from all wicked- 
ness, will apply himself to all virtue, and will pray for his 
enemies, and do good to them that plot against liim,and will 
neither revile any, nor speak ill of them, though he hear 
from them ten thousand evil things ; but will speak the words 
>2 Cor. of the Apostle; ' Who is ireak, and I am not ueak? who is 
' ' offended, and I burn not ? But when looking to our own 
good, it is not quite sure that the good of the rest will 

By all which things being persuaded that it is not possible 
for one to be saved, who hatli not looked to the common 
good, and seeing this man that was cut asimder, and him that 
buried his talent, let us choose this way, that we may also 
attain unto eternal life, unto which God grant we may all 
attain, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, to Whom be glory, Morld without end. Anum. 


Matt. xxv. 1 — 30. 

Then shall the kingdom of heaven, He saith, be likened 
unto ten virgins, tvhich took their lamps, and uent forth 
to meet the Bridegroom. But Jive of iheni uere ivise, 
and the other Jive foolish, which took not. He saith, oil. 

Then, while the Bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered 
and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made. 
Behold, the Bridegroom cometh ; go ye out to meet Him. 
And the Jive arose, and being in perplexiti/, said to tlte 
wise, Give us of your oil. But they consented not, saying, 
Not so, lest there be not enough for us and you ; go to 
them that sell, and buy. 

And tvJtile they icere gone for this, the Bridegroom came, 
and those we7it in ; but these came afterivards, saying. 
Lord, Lord, open to us. But He ansnered and said. Verily 
I say unto you, I know yon not. Watch therefore, for ye 
know not the day, nor the hour. 

Tlieit He spake again another parable. A man tra- 
velling into a far country, called his oivn servants, and 
delivered unto them his goods; to one five talents, to 
another tivo, to another one, to every man according to 
his several ability, and took his journey. Then, when 
tite two had brougJtt him tlte double, he that had been 
entrusted tcith the one talent brought it alone, and being 
blamed saith, I knew that thou art a hard man, reapi)tg 
wliere thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast 
not sf rawed; and I was afraid, and hid thy talent; to I 

1036 The several parables that teach service to others. 

HoMiL. there thou hasl that is thine. His Lord ausirered and 

said, Thou wicked servant, thou knenest that I reap 

lohere I have not soivn, and (jalher tchere I have not 
strancd: thou onf/htest therrfore to have put my money 
to the exchanycrs, and then at my coniiny I miyht have 
received mine own with iisnry. Take therefore the 
talent from him, and give it to him that hath ten talents. 
For to him that hath shall be given, and he shall have 
more abundantly; but from him that hath not, shall be 
taken an ay even that nhich he hatJi. And cast ye the 
unprojitable servant info outer darkness, there sliall he 
weeping and gnashing of teeth. 

These parables are like the fonner parable of the faithful 
servant, and of him that was ungrateful and devoured his 
Lord's goods. For there are four in all, in different ways 
admonishing us about the same things, 1 mean, about dili- 
gence in almsgiving, and about helping our neighbour by 
all means which we are able to use, since it is not possible 
to be saved in another way. But there He speaks more 
generally of all assistance which should be rendered to one's 
lU-Mghbour; but as to the virgins, he speaketh particularly 
of mercifulness in alms, and more strongly than in the 
fonner parable. For there He punishes him that beats, 
and is drunken, and scatters and wastes his lord's goods, 
but here even him that doth not help, nor spends abundantly 
his goods upon the needy. For they had oil indeed, but not 
in abundance, wherefore also they are punished. 

But wherefore doth He set forth this parable in the person 
of the virgins, and doth not merely suppose any person 
whatever.'' Great things had He spoken of virginity, saying, 
' ^^^^^' There^ are eunuchs, iclto have made themselves eunuchs for 
the Kingdom of Heaven's sake; and, He that is able to 
receive, let him receive it. He knew also that the generality 
of men would have a great opinion of it. For indeed the 
work is by nature great, and is shewn so by this, that neither 
under the old dispensation was it fulfilled by those ancient 
and holy men, nor under the new was it brought under 
the comi)ulsion of the Law. For He did not command this, 
but lelt it to the choice of liis hearers. Wherefore Paul 

Virgmit/j a hiyh virtue, hut spoiled bij selfishness. 1037 

also said, Now^ concernhuj vinjins I have no commandment Matt. 
of the Lord. "For though I praise him that attains thereto, i_l3o" 
yet I constrain not him that is not willing, neither do I make ' i Cor. 
the thing an injunction." Since then the thing is both great '''^^' 
[in itself] and hath great honour with tlie multitude, lest any 
one (attaining to this) should feel as though he had attained 
to all, and should be careless about the rest. He putteth 
forth this parable sufficient to persuade them, that virginity, 
though it should have every thing else, if destitute of the 
good things arising out of almsgiving, is cast out with the 
harlots, and He sets the inhuman and merciless with them. 
And most reasonably, for the one was overcome by the love 
of carnal pleasure, but these ^ of money. But the love of ^ at Se 
carnal pleasure and of money are not equal, but that of 
carnal pleasure is far keener and more tyrannical. And the 
weaker the antagonist, the less excusable are these" that^o.Ivi-ki)' 
overcome thereby. Therefore also He calls them foolish, for 
that having undergone the greater labour, they have betrayed 
all for want of the less. But by lamps here, He meanelh 
the gift itself of virginity, the purity of holiness ; and 
by oil, humanity, almsgiving, succour to them that are in 

Then, ivhile the Brideqroom. tarried, thei/ all slumbered 
and slept. He shews that the time intervening will not be 
short, leading His disciples away from the expectation that 
His Kingdom was quite immediately to appear. For this 
indeed they hoped, therefore He is continually holding them 
back from this hope. And at the same time He intimates 
this too, that death is a sleep. For they slept, He saith. 

Jnd about midnight there was a cry made. Either He 
was continuing the parable, or again He shews that the 
Resurrection will be at night. But the cry Paul also in- 
dicates, saying. With* a shout, uith a voice of an Archangel, *iThess, 
with the last tramp. He shall come donn from Heaven, (eomp. 
And what mean the trumpets, and what saith the cry.? T/«? J Cor. 
Bridegroom comet h. When therefore they had trimmed 
their lamps, the foolish say unto the wise, Give us of your 
oil. Again He calls them foolish, shewing that nothing can 
be more foolish, than they who are wealthy here, and depart 
naked thither, where most of all we have need of humanity. 

103S Now and here ice i/msl obtain the oil of mercy, 

HoMiL.wlicro we want iiiucli oil. But not in this respect only were 
^'^^^'"' they foolish, but also because they looked to receive it there, 
and sought it out of season ; and yet nothing could be more 
humane than those virgins, who for this especially were 
appi'oved. Neither do they seek for it all, for, Give us, they 
say, ofyojir oil ; and the urgency of their need is indicated ; 
for our hnnpa, the}' say, ore (joing out. But even so they 
failed, and neither the humanity of those whom they asked, 
nor the easiness of their request, nor their necessity and want, 
made them obtain. 

But what now do we learn from hence? That no man 
can protect us there, if we are betrayed by our works, not 
because he will not, but because he cannot. For these too 
take rel'uge in the impossibility. This the blessed Abraham 
> Luke also indicated, saying, Between^ lis and you there is a great 
' 9^'^fy ^o ^^^^^ "Ot even when willing is it permitted them 
to pass it. 

But go to them that sell, and buy. And who are they that 
sell.'' The poor. And where arc these.? Here, and then 
[•2.] should they have sought them, not at that time. Seest thou 
what great profit arises to us from the poor? shouldest thou 
take them away, thou woiddest take away the great hope of 
our salvation. Wherefore here must we get together the oil, 
that it may bo useful to us there, when the time calls us. 
For that is not the time of collecting it, but this. Spend 
not then your goods for nought in luxury and vainglory. 
For thou wilt have need of much oil there. 

Having heard these things, those virgins went their way ; but 
they profited nothing. And this He saith, either pursuing the 
parable, and working it up; or also by these things shewing, 
that though we should become humane after our dej)arture, 
we shall gain nothing from thence towards our escape. 
Therefore neither did their forwardness avail these virgins, 
because they went to them that sell not here, but there ; nor 
the rich man, when he became so charitable, as even to be 
anxious about his relations. For he that was passing by 
him that was laid at the gate, is eager to rescue iVom perils 
and from hell them whom he did not so much as see, and 
entreats that some be sent to tell them these things. But 
nevertheless, he derived no benefit from thence, as neither 

Special lessons of the different parahles. 1039 

did these virgins. For when ihey having heard these things Matt. 

went tlicir way, the Bridegroom came, and they that were ]_3o.* 

ready went in with Him, but the olliers were shut out. 

After their many labours, after their innumerable toils, and 

that intolerable fight, and those trophies which they had 

set up over the madness of natural appetite, disgraced, and 

with their lamps gone out, they withdrew, bending down 

their faces to the earth. For nothing is more sullied than 

virginity not having mercy; so that even the multitude are 

wont to call the unmerciful dark. " Where then was the 

profit of virginity, when they saw not the Bridegroom ? and 

not even when they had knocked did they obtain, but they 

heard that fearful saying. Depart, I know you not. And v. 12. 

when He hath said this, nothing else but hell is left, and 

that intolerable punishment; or rather, this word is more 

grievous even than hell. This word He speaks to them also, 

°, , . . . , 'seeMat. 

that work miquity '. 7, 23. 

Watch therefore, for ye knoio not the day nor the hour.^-^^- 

Seest thou how continually He adds this, shewing how 

awful our ignorance concerning our departure hence ? 

Where now are they, who throughout all their life are 

remiss, but when they are blamed by us, are saying, At 

the time of my death, I shall leave money to the poor. 

Let them listen to these words, and be amended. For 

indeed at that time many have failed of this, having been 

snatched away at once, and not permitted so much as to 

give charge to tlieir relations touching what they wished 

to be done. 

This parable was spokcii with respect to mercy in alms; 
but the one that comes after this, to them that neither in 
money, nor in word, nor in protection, nor in any other 
thing whatever, are willing to assist their neighbours, but 
withhold all. 

And wherefore can it be that this parable brings forward, 
a King, but that a Bridegroom ? That thou mightest learn 
how close Christ is joined unto the virgins that strip them- 
selves of their possessions ; for this indeed is virginity. 
Wherefore Paul also makes this as a definition of the thing. 
The- unmarried tcoman careth for the things of the Lord; ^^Cor. 7, 
such are his words: and, For that uhich is comely, and that 

1040 No excuse for not improvimj even the one Talent. may attend upon the Lord without distraction. These 

~ things we advise, He saiih. 

And if in Lul^e the parable of the talents is otherwise put, 
this is to be said, that the one is really different from the 
other. For in that, from the one capital different degrees of 
increase were made, for from one pound one brought five, 
another ten ; wherefore neither did they obtain the same 
recompense; but here, it is the contraiy, and the Crown is 
accordingly e([ual. For he that received two gave two, and 
he that had received the five again in like manner; l)ut 
there since from the same beginning one made the greater, 
one the less, increase ; as might be expected, in the rewards 
also, they do not enjoy the same. 

But see Him every where, not requiring it again imme- 
diately. For in the case of the vineyard, He let it out to 
husbandmen, and went into a far country ; and here He 
connuilted to them the talents, and look His journey, that 
thou mightest learn His longsuffering. And to me He 
seems to say these things, to intimate the Resurrection. 
But here it is no more a vineyard and husbandmen, but all 
servants. For not to rulers only, nor to Jews, but to all, 
doth He address His discourse. And they who bring a 
return unto Him confess frankly, both what is their own, 
and what their Master's. And the one saith. Lord, Thou 
gavest me Jive talents ; and the other saith, Two, indicating 
that from Him they received the source of their gain, and 
they are very thankful, and reckon all to Him. 

V. 23. What then saith the Master.? Well done, thou good (for 

this is goodness to look to one's neighbour) and faltJtJul 
servant ; thou wast faithful over few things, I will set thee 
over many livings: enter thou into the joy of thy Lord, 
meaning by this expression all blessedness, 

V. 24.25. But not so that other one, but how? / knew that thou 
art a hard man, reaping where thou souedst not, and 
gathering where thou strawedst not : and I was afraid, 
and hid thy talent: lo, there thou hast that is thine. 

V.27. What then the Master? Thou oughtest to have put My 
money to the exchangers, that is, " thou oughtest to have 
spoken, to have admonished, to have advised." But are 
they disobedient? Yet this is nought to thee. 

It is not enough to keep from doing wrong. 1041 

What could be more gentle than this ? For men indeed Matt. 
do not so, but him that hath put out the money at usury, 28— so! 
even him do they make also responsible to require it again. [3.] 
But He not so ; but. Thou oughtest, He saith, to have put it 
out, and to have committed the requiring of it again to Me. 
And I should have required it vi^ith increase; by increase 
upon the hearing, meaning the shewing forth of the works. 
Thou oughtest to have done that which is easier, and to have 
left to Me what is more difficult. Forasmuch then as he 
did not this, Take, saith He, the talent from him, and givey-^S.29. 
it to him that hath ten talents. For unto every one that 
hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance ; but from 
him that hath not shall he taken away even that which he 
hath. What then is this? He that hath a gift of word 
and teaching to profit thereby, and useth it not, will lose the 
gift also ; but he that giveth diligence, will gain to himself 
the gift in more abundance ; even as the other loseth what 
he had received. But not to this is the penalty limited for 
him that is slothful, but even intolerable is the punishment, 
and with the punishment the sentence, which is full of a 
heavy accusation. For cast ye, saith He, the unprojltahle v. 30. 
servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth. Seest thou how not only the spoiler, 
and the covetous, nor only the doer of evil things, but also 
he that doeth not good things, is punished with extreme 

Let us hearken then to these words. As wo have oppor- 
tunity, let us help on our salvation, let us get oil for our 
lamps, let us labour to add to our talent. For if we be 
backward, and spend our time in sloth here, no one will pity 
us any more hereafter, though we should wail ten thousand 
times. He also that had on the filthy garments condemned 
himself, and profited nothing. He also that had the one 
talent restored that which was committed to his charge, and 
yet was condemned. The virgins again entreated, and 
came unto Him and knocked, and all in vain, and without 

Knowing then these things, let us contribute alike wealth, 
and diligence, and protection', and all things for our neigh- iirpoo-ra 
hours' advantage. For the talents here are each person's '^"*''- 


1042 Our tongue given us to speak the words of Christ. 

HoMiL. ability, whctliev in tlie way of protection, or in money, or in 

^'^^^" - teaching, or in wlmt thing soever of the kind. Let no man 

say, I have but one talent, and can do nothing; for thou 

canst even by one approve thyself. For thou art not poorer 

than that widow; thou art not more uninstructed than Peter 

'Acts 4, and John, who were both unlearned, and ignorant vien^ ; 

^'^' but nevertheless, since they shewed forth a zeal, and did all 

things for the connnon good, they attained to Heaven. For 

nothing is so pleasing to God, as to live for the common 


For this end God gave us speech, and hands, and feet, 
and strength of body, and mind, and understanding, that we 
might use all these things, both for our own salvation, and 
for our neighbour's advantage. For not for hymns only and 
thanksgivings is our speech serviceable to us, but it is pro- 
fitable also for instruction and admonition. And if indeed 
we used it to this end, we should be imitating our Master ; 
but if for the opposite ends, the devil. Since Peter also, 
when he confessed the Christ, was blessed, as having spoken 
the words of the Father ; but when he refused the cross, and 
dissuaded it, he was severely reproved, as savouring the 
things of the devil. But if where the saying was of igno- 
rance, so heavy is the blame, when we of our own will commit 
many sins, what favour shall we have? 

Such things then let us speak, that of themselves they 

may be evidently the words of Christ. For not only if 

2Mat.9, 1 should say. Arise ^, and walk; neither if I should say, 

^Acts9 "Tahitlia^j arise, then only do I speak Christ's words, but 

40. much more if being reviled I bless, if being despitofully 

used I pray for him that doeth despite to me. Lately 

indeed I said, that our tongue is a hand laying hold on the 

feet of God ; but now much more do 1 say, that our tongue 

is a tongue imitating the tongue of Christ, if it shew forth 

the strictness that becometh us, if we speak those things 

which He wills. But what are the things which He wills us 

to speak } Words lull of gentleness and meekness, even as 

also He Himself used to speak, saying to them that wei'e 

"John 8, insulting Him, *I have not a decil ; and again, ^If I have 

5 John spoken evil, bear witness of the evil. li" thou also speak 

18,23. in this way; if thou speak for thy neighbour's amendment. 

The tongue that receives Christ'' s Body should he like His. 1043 

thou wilt obtain a tontine like that Tongue. And these Matt. 
things God Himself saith ; For^ he that bringeth out the ^o. ' 
precious from the vile, shall be as My Mouth ; such are His ij^J7i5^ 
words. ^^* 

When therefore thy tongue is as Christ's Tongue, and thy 
mouth is become the Mouth of the Father, and thou art 
a temple of the Holy Ghost, then what kind of honour could 
be equal to this ? For not even if thy mouth were made 
of gold, no nor even of precious stones, would it shine like 
as now, when lit up with the ornament of meekness. For 
what is more lovely than a mouth that knoweth not how 
to insult, but is used to bless [and give good words] ? But 
if thou canst not bear to bless him that curses thee, hold 
thy peace, and accomplish but this for the time ; and 
proceeding in order, and striving as you ought, thou wilt 
attain to that other point also, and wilt acquire such a mouth, 
as we have spoken of. 

[4.] And do not account the saying to be rash. For the Lord 
is loving to man, and the gift coiiieth of His goodness. It 
is rash to have a mouth like the devil, to have a tongue 
resembling that of an evil demon, especially for him that 
partakes of such mysteries, and communicates of the very 
Flesh of the Lord. Reflecting then on these things, become 
like Him, to the utmost of thy power. No loiiger then will 
the devil be able so much as to look thee in the face, 
when thou art become such a one as this. For indeed he 
recognises the image of the King, he knows the weapons of 
Christ, whereby he was worsted. And what are these ? 
Gentleness and meekness. For when on the mountain 
Christ overthrew and laid low the devil who was assaulting 
him, it was not by making it known that He was Christ, but 
He entrapped him by these sayings, he took him by gentle- 
ness, he turned him to flight by meekness. Thou also must 
do this ; shouldest thou see a man become a devil, and 
coming against thee, even so do thou likewise overcome. 
Christ gave thee also power to become like Him, so far 
as thy ability extends. Be not afraid at hearing this. The 
fear is not to be like Him. Speak then after His manner, 
and thou art become in this respect such as He, so far as it 
is possible for one who is a man to become so. 


1044 Hoio ihe tovyiie is made like Sat<m's, how like Christ's. 

HoMiL. Wherefore greater is he that thus speaks, than he tliat 
i.xxYin. propijesies. For this is entirely a Gift, but in the 'other 
is also thy labour and toil. Teach thy soul to frame thee 
a mouth like to Christ's Mouth. For it can create such 
things, if it will ; it knows the art, if it be not remiss. And 
how is such a mouth made? one may ask. By what kind of 
colourings? by what kind of material ? By no colourings, 
indeed, or material ; but by virtue only, and meekness, and 

Let us see also how a devil's mouth is made ; that we 
may never frame that. How then is it made ? By curses, 
by insults, by envy, by perjury. For when any one speaks 
his words, he takes his tongue. What kind of excuse then 
shall we have ; or rather, what manner of punishment shall 
we not undergo ; when this our tongue, wherewith we are 
allowed to taste of the Lord's flesh, when this, I say, we 
overlook, speaking the devil's words ? 

Let us not overlook it, but let us use all diligence, in 
order to train it to imitate its Lord. For if we train it to 
this, it will place us with great confidence at Christ's 
Judgment seat. Unless any one know how to speak thus, 
the Judge will not so much as hear him. For like as when 
the judge chances to be a Roman, he will not hear the 
defence of one who knows not how to speak thus; so like- 
wise Christ, unless thou speak after His fashion, will not 
hear thee, nor give heed. 

Let us learn therefore to speak in such wise, as our Judge 

is wont to hear; let it be our endeavour to imitate that 

Tongue. And shouldest thou fall into grief, take heed lest 

the tyranny of despondency pervert thy tongue, but that 

thou speak like Christ. For He too mourned for Lazarus 

and Judas. Shouldest thou fall into fear, seek again to 

speak even as He. For He Himself fell into fear for thy 

^ Kara sake, with regard to His manhood'. Do thou also say, 

ItKolo- Nevertheless^, not as I tvill, but as Thou wilt. 

h^f^^ And if thou shouldest lament, weep calmly as He. Shouldest 

8 Luke t^io" 'all into plots and sorrows, treat these too as Christ. 

22, 42. for indeed He had plots laid against Him, and was in 

5 Matt, sorrow, and saith, 3Ii/^ soul is exceeding sorrowful^ ecen 

' ' unto death. And all the examples He presented to thee. 

Imitate the meekness of Christ, and of Moses. 1045 

in order that thou shouldest continually observe the same Matt. 

measures, and not destroy the rules that have been given 30. ' 

thee. So shalt thou be able to have a mouth like His 

Mouth, so while treading on the earth, thou wilt shew forth 

a tongue like to that of Him, Who sits on high ; thou wilt 

maintain the limits He observed in despondency, in anger, 

in suffering, in agony. 

How many are they of you that desire to see His Form ? 
Behold, it is possible, not to see Him only, but also to 
become like Him ; if we are in earnest. 

Let us not delay then. He doth not so readily accept 
prophets' lips, as those of meek and forbearing men. ^^'^'"7^2*03 
many will say unto Me, He saith, Have we not prophesied 
in Thy Name? And I ivill say unto thenii I know you not. 

But the lips of Moses, because he was exceeding gentle 
and meek, {for^ Moses, it is said, was a meek man above «//^^"J"''' 
the men rchich were upon the face of the earth,) He so 
accepted and loved, as to say, Face^ to face, mouth to mouth,^ Exod. 
did He speak, as a man speaketh unto his friend. Numb.' 

Thou wilt not command devils now, but thou shalt then com- ^^' ^* 
mand the fire of hell, if thou keep thy mouth like to Christ's 
mouth. Thou shalt command the abyss of fire, and shalt 
say unto it. Peace*, he still, and with great confidence shalt .^g'"^ 
set foot in the Heavens, and enjoy the Kingdom ; unto 
which God grant all of us to attain, by the grace and love 
towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, be unto 
the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, glory, might, 
honour, now and always, and world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxv. 31 — 41. 

When the Son of Man shall come in the glory of His Father, 
and all the holy Angels with Him, then shall He sit, saith 
lie, upon the throne of His glory, and He shall divide the 
sheep from the kids ; and the one He will accept, because 
they Jed Him, when an hungred, and gave Him drink when 
thirsty, and took Him in when a stranger, and clothed Him 
when naked, and visited Him when sick, and came to see 
Him when in prison : and He will give the kingdom, to 
them. Bat the others, accusing them for the opposite 
things. He will send into the eternal jire, 'prepared for the 
devil and his angels. 

Unto this most delightful portion of Scripture, which we 
do not cease continually revolving, let us now listen with 
all earnestness and com|)unction, this wherewith His dis- 
course ended, even as the last thing, reasonably ; for great 
indeed was His regard for philanthropy and mercy. Where- 
fore in what precedes He had discoursed concerning this in a 
different way ; and here now in some respects more clearly, 
and more earnestly, not setting forth two nor three nor five 
persons, but the whole world ; aUhough most assuredly the 
former places, which speak of two persons, meant not two 
persons, but two portions of mankind, one of them that dis- 
obey, the other of the obedient. But here He handleth the 
word more fearfully, and with fuller light. Wherefoi'e neither 
doth He say, The kingdom is likened, any more, but oj)enly 
shews Himself, saying, When the Son of Man shall come in 

The sheep, how distinguished from the goats. 10-17 

His gloru. For now is He come in dishonour, now in Matt. 
affronts and reproaches ; but then shall He sit upon the 3il_4i'. 

throne of His glory. 

And continually doth He make mention of glory. For 
since the Cross was near, a thing that seemed to be matter of 
reproach, for this cause He raises up the hearer; and brings 
before his sight the Judgment seat, and setteth round him all 
the world. 

And not in this way only doth He make His discourse 
awful, but also by shewing the Heavens opened. For all 
the Angels will be present with Him, He saith, themselves 
also to bear witness, in how many things they had ministered, 
when sent by the Lord for the salvation of men. 

And every thing will help to render that day fearful. Then, 
shall be gathered together. He saith, all nations, that is, the 
whole race of men. And He shall separate them one from 
another, as the shepherd his sheep. For now they are not 
separated, but all mingled together, but the division then 
shall be made with all exactness. And for a while it is by 
their place that He divides them, and makes them manifest ; 
afterwards by the names He indicates the dispositions of 
each, calling the one kids ', the other sheep, that He might' ^pi<pM, 
indicate the unfruitful ness of the one, for no fruit will comenotca- 
from kids; and the great profit from the other, for indeed-^''*'*/ 
from sheep great is the profit, as well from the milk, asrome. 
from the wool, and from the young, of all which things the 
kid ^ is destitute. 2 |p,<^os 

But while the brutes have from nature their unfruilfulness, 
and fruitfulness, these have it from choice, wherefore some 
are punished, and the others crowned. And He doth not 
punish them, until He hath pleaded with them ; wherefore 
also, when He hath put them in their place. He mentions 
the charges against them. And they speak with meekness, 
but they have no advantage from it now; and very reasonably, 
because they passed by a work so much to be desired. For 
indeed the Prophets are every where saying this, I^ will have ^ Rosea, 
mere}/ and not sacrifice, and the Lawgiver by all means ^'^* 
urged them to this, both. by words, and by works; and nature 
herself taught it. 

But mark them, how they are destitute not of one or two 

1048 Sin of refusing ivhaf, Christ, asks in His poor. 

HoMiL. tilings only, but of all. For not only did they fail to feed 
Lxxix. ^^^ hungry, or clothe the naked; but not even did they visit 
the sick, which was an easier thing. 

And mark how easy are IJis injunctions. lie said not, 
" I was in prison, and ye set Me free ; I was sick, and ye 
raised Me np again ;" but, ye visited Me, and, ye came unto 
Me. And neither in hunger is the thing commanded grievous. 
For no costly table did He seek, but what is needful only, 
and Ilis necessary food, and He sought in a suppliant's 
garb, so that all things were enough to bring punishment 
on them; the easiness of the request, for it was bread; the 
pitiable character of Him that recpiesteth, for He was poor ; 
the sympathy of nature, for He was a man ; the desirableness 
of the promise, for He promised a kingdom; the feai'fulness 
of the punishment, for He threatened hell. The dignity of 
the one receiving, for it was God, Who was receiving by the 
poor ; the surpassing nature of the honour, that He vouch- 
safed to condescend so far; His just claim for what they 
bestowed, for of His own was He receiving. But against 
all these things covetousness once for all blinded them that 
were seized by it; and this, though so great a threat was set 
against it. 

For further back also He saith, that they who receive not 

such as these shall suffer more grievous things than Sodom ; 

V. 45. and here He saith, Inasmuch as ye did it not unto one of 

y°40. '^'^ least of tJiese My brethren, ye did it not unto Me. What 

sayest Thou? they are Thy brethren; and how dost Thou 

call them least ? Why, for this reason they are brethren, 

because they are lowly, because they are poor, because they 

are outcast. For such doth He most invite to brotherhood, 

the imknown, the contemptible, not meaning by these the 

monks only, and them that have occupied the mountains, 

but every believer ; though he be a secular person, yet if he 

be hungry, and famishing, and naked, and a stranger. His 

will is he should have the benefit of all this care. For 

r^ajitism renders a man a brother, and the partaking of the 

divine Mysteries. 

[2.] Then, in order that thou mayest see in another way also 
the justice of the sentence, He first praises them that have 
done right, and saith. Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit 

Comparison of the Righteous condemns the Wicked. 1049 

the Kingdom prepared for you before the foundation of the Matt. 
world. For I was an hungred, and ye gave Me meat, and ^^7' 
all that follows. For that they may not say, we had it not, 
He condemns them by their fellow-servants; like as the 
virgins by the virgins, and the servant that was drunken and 
gluttonous by the faithful servant, and him that buried his 
talent, by them that brought the two, and each one of them 
that continue in sin, by them that have done right. 

And this comparison is sometimes made in the case of an 
equal, as here, and in the instance of the Virgins, some- 
times of him that hath advantage, as when he said, ' The ' Matt. 
men of Nineveh shall rise up and shall condemn ihis\2 ' 
generation, because they believed at the preaching of Jonas; 
and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here; and, The queen 
of the south shall condemn this generation, because site 
came to hear the wisdom of Solomon ; and of an equal 
again, ^They shall be your judges; and again of one at 2 Matt. 
advantage, ^Know ye not, that we shall judge Angels, howl'^^V' 
much more things that pertain to this life ? 6, 3. 

And here, however, it is of an equal ; for he compares 
rich with rich, and poor with poor. And not in this way 
only doth He shew the sentence justly passed, by their 
fellow-servants having done what was right when in the 
same circumstances, but also by their not being obedient so 
much as in these things in which poverty was no hindrance; 
as, for instance, in giving drink to the thirsty, in looking 
upon him that is in bonds, in visiting the sick. And when 
He had commended them that had done right, He shews 
how great was originally His bond of love towards them. 
For, Come, saith He, ye blessed of My Father, inherit the 
Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the tvorld. 
To how many good things is this name equivalent, to be 
blessed, and blessed of the Father ? And wherefore were 
they counted worthy of such great honours ? What is the 
cause ? / teas an hungred, and ye gave Me meat; I was 
thirsty, and ye gave Me drink; and what follows. 

Of what honour, of what blessedness are these words ? 
And He said not, Take, but. Inherit, as one's own, as your 
Father's, as yours, as due to you from the first. For, before 
you were, sailh He, these things had been pre}>ared, and 

1050 Little is required compared with the recompense. 
HoMiL. made ready for you, forasmuch as I knew you would be sucli 


as you are. 

And in return for what do they receive such things ? For 
tlie covering of a roof, for a garment, for bread, for cold 
water, for visiting, for going into the prison. For indeed 
in every case it is for what is needed ; and sometimes not 
even for that. For surely, as I have said, the sick and he 
that is in bonds seeks not for this only, but the one to be 
loosed, the other to be delivered from his infumity. But 
He, being gracious, requires only what is within our power, 
or rather even less than what is within our power, leaving to 
us to exert our generosity in doing more. 

But to the others He saith, Depart from Me, ye cursed, 
(no longer of the Father ; for not He laid the curse upon 
them, but their own works,) i?fto the everlasting Jire, prepared, 
not for you, but /or the devil and his angels. For concern- 
ing the Kingdom indeed, when He had said, Come, inherit 
the Kingdom, He added, prepared for you before iJte found- 
ation of the world; but concerning the fire, no longer so, but, 
prepared for the devil. 1, saith He, prepared the Kingdom 
for you, but the fire no more for you, but /t»r the devil and 
his angels ; but since ye cast yourselves therein, impute it 
to yourselves. And not in this way only, but by what 
follows also, like as though He were excusing Himself to 
them. He sets forth the causes. 

For I was an hungred, and ye gave vie no meat. For 
though He that came to thee had been thine enemy, were 
not His sufferings enough to have overcome and subdued 
even the merciless ? hunger, and cold, and bonds, and 
nakedness, and sickness, and to wander every where house- 
less .'' These things are sufficient even to desti'oy enmity. 
But ye did not these tilings even to a Friend, being at once 
Friend, and Benefactor, and Lord. Though it be a dog we 
see hungry, often we are overcome ; and though we behold 
a wild beast, we are subdued ; but seeing the Lord, art thou 
not subdued .'' And wherein are these things worthy of 
defence ? 

For if it were this onl}^, were it not sufficient for a recom- 
pense ? (I speak not of hearing such a voice, in the presence 
of the world, from Him that sitteth on the Father's Throne, 

Hoiv our Lord prepared His disciples for His Passion. 1051 

and of obtaining the Kingdom,) but were not the very doing Matt. 

it sufficient for a reward ? But now even in the presence ' {_^^ ' 

of the world, and at the appearing of that unspeakable 

glory, He proclaims and crowns thee, and acknowledges 

thee as His sustainer and host, and is not ashamed of 

saying such things, that He may make the crown brighter 

for thee. 

So for this cause, while the one are punished justly, the 

others are crowned by grace. For though they had done 

ten thousand things, the munificence were of grace, that 

in return for services so small and cheap, such a heaven, 

and a kingdom, and so great honour, should be given 


And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these ch. 26, 
... . 1 "^ 

sayings, He said unto His disciples. Ye know that after 

two days is the Passover, and the Son of Man is betrayed 
to be crucijied. In good season again doth He speak of 
the Passion, when He had reminded them of the Kingdom, 
and of the recompense there, and of the deathless punish- 
ment ; as though He had said. Why are ye afraid at the 
dangers that are for a season, when such good things await 
you.? But mark thou, I pray thee, how He hath in all His [3,] 
first sayings after a new manner worked up and thrown into 
the shade what was most painful to them. For He said not. 
Ye know that after two days I am betrayed, but. Ye know 
that after two days is the Passover, to shew that what is 
done is a mystery, and that a feast and celebration is being 
kept for the salvation of the world, and that with fore- 
knowledge He suffered all. So then, as though this were 
sufficient consolation for them, He did not even say any 
thing to them now about a Resurrection ; for it was super- 
fluous, after having discoursed so much about it, to speak 
of it again. And moreover, as 1 said, He shews that even 
His very Passion is a deliverance from countless evils, 
having by the Passover reminded them of the ancient benefits 
in Egypt. 

Then were assembled together the high priests, and the v. 3—5. 
scribes, and the elders of the people, in the palace of the 
high priest, who was called Caiaphas, and consulted how 
they might take Jesus by subtlety, and kill Him. But they 

1052 Hoio many Higli, Priests. Madness of the Rulers. 

H'^Miy said, Not on the feasl day, lest there be an uproar among 
the people. 

Secst thou the unspeakable corruption of the Jewish 
state ? Attempting unlawful acts, they come to the high 
priest, desiring to obtain their authority from that quarter, 
whence they ought to have found hindrance. 

And how many high priests were there? For the law wills 
there should be one, but then there were many. Whence 
it is manifest, that the Jewish constitution had begun to 
dissolve. For Moses, as I said, commanded there should 
be one, and that when he was dead there should be another, 
and by the life of this person He measured the banishment 
of them that had involuntarily committed manslaughter. 
How then were there at that time many high priests } They 
were afterwards made for a year. And this the Evangelist 
declared, when he was speaking of Zacharias, saying, that 
he was of the course of Abia. Those therefore doth he 
here call high priests, who had been high priests. 

What did they consult together } That they might seize 
Him secretly, or that they might put Him to death ? Both ; 
for they feared the people. Whei'efore also they waited for 
the feast to be past ; for they said. Not on the feast day. 
For the devil, lest he should make the Passion conspicuous, 
was not willing it should take place at the Passover; but they, 
lest there should be an uproar. Mark them then ever fearing, 
not the ills from God, neither lest any greater pollution 
should arise to them from the season, but in every case the 
ills from men. 

Yet for all this, boiling with anger, they changed their 
purpose again. For though tJiey had said, Not at the feast 
time; when they found the traitor, they waited not for the 
time, but slew Him at the feast. But why did they take 
Him then ? They were boiling with rage, as I said ; and 
they expected then to find Him, and all tilings they did 
as blinded. For though He Himself made the greatest use 
of their wickedness for His own Dispensation, they were 
not surely for this guiltless, but deserving of inflictions 
without number for their temper of mind. At least when 
all should be set free, even the guilty, then these men slew 
the Guiltless, Him that had conferred on them countless 

Our Lord's example of forbearance and forgiveness. 1053 

benefits, and Who for a time had neglected the Gentiles Matt. 
for their Sake. But O lovingkindness ! them that were thus 3_5 ' 
depraved, them that were thus froward, and full of countless 
evils, He again saves, and sends the Apostles to be slain in 
their behalf, and by the Apostles makes entreaty. For^ *^^>2Cor. 
are ambassadors of Clirist. ^i ^^* 

Having then such patterns as these, I say not, let us die 
for our enemies, for we ought to do even this; but since we 
are too feeble for this, I say for the present, at least let us 
not look with an evil eye upon our friends, let us not envy 
our benefactors. I say not for the present, let us do good 
to them that evil entreat us, for I desire even this; but 
since you are too gross for this, at least avenge not your- 
selves. What is our condition, a scene, and acting ? Where- 
fore can it be that ye set yourselves directly against the acts 
enjoined? It is not for nought that all else hath been 
written, and how many things He did at the very Cross 
suihcient to recall them to Him ; but that thou mightest 
imitate His goodness, that thou mightest emulate His 
lovingkindness. For indeed He cast them to the ground, and 
restored the servant's ear, and discoursed with forbearance; 
and great miracles did He shew forth, when lifted up, turning- 
aside the sunbeams, bursting the rocks, raising the dead, 
frightening by dreams the wife of him that was judging Him, 
at the very judgment shewing forth all meekness, (which was 
of power not less than miracles to gain them over,) forewarning 
them of countless things in the judgment hall ; on the very 
cross crying aloud, '^Father, for give them ilieirsin. And when "^ Luke 
buried, how many things did He shew forth for their salvation ? ' " * 
And having risen again, did he not straightway call the Jews? 
did He not give them remission of sins? did He not set 
before them countless blessings? What can be moi'e strange 
than this? They that crucified Him, and were breathing 
murder, after they crucified Him, became sons of God. 

What can be equal to this tenderness ? On hearing these 
things let us hide our faces, to think that we are so far re- 
moved from Him, Whom we are commanded to imitate. Let 
us at least see how great the distance, that we may at any rate 
condemn ourselves, for warring with these, in behalf of whom 
Christ gave His Life, and not being willing to be reconciled 

1054 Reasoyis for overcoming revengeful thoughts. 

HoMiL. to them, whom tliat He might reconcile He refused not even 

to be slain ; unless this too be some expense, and outlay of 

money, which ye object in almsgiving. 

[4.] Consider of how many things thou art guilty ; and so far 
from being backward to forgive them that have injured thee, 
thou wilt even run unto them that have grieved thee, in order 
that thou mayest have a ground for pardon, that thou mayest 
find a remedy for thine own evil deeds. 

The sons of the Greeks, who look for nothing great, have 
often shewn self-command toward these : and thou who art to 
depart hence with such hopes, shrinkest, and art slow to act; 
and that which time effects, this thou endurest not to do before 
the time for God's Law, but wiliest this passion to be 
quenched without reward, rather than for a reward? For 
neither, if this should have arisen from the time, wilt thou 
have any advantage, but rather great will be the punishment, 
because, what time hath effected, this the law of God per- 
suaded thee not to do. 

But if thou sayest that thou burnest with the memory of 
the insult; call to mind if any good hath been done thee by 
him that hath offended thee, and how many ills thou hast 
occasioned to others. 

Hath he spoken ill of thee, and disgraced thee ? Consider 
also that thou hast spoken thus of others. How then wilt 
thou obtain pardon, which thou bestowest not on others? 
But hast thou spoken ill of no one ? But thou hast heard 
men so speaking, and allowed it. Neither is this guiltless. 

Wilt thou learn how good a thing it is not to remember 

injuri(js, and how this more than any thing pleases God.? 

Them that exult over persons, justly chastised by Himself, 

He punishes. And yet they are justly chastised ; but thou 

shouldest not rejoice over them. So the Prophet having 

1 Anjofj brought many accusations, added this also, saying, ' They felt 

tm' h '^'''^i/^^^^9 foi' If^^ affiiction of Joseph; and again, ^ She that in- 

11, I. habitetk Enan, cajne not forth to lament for the place near 

^^^- her. And yet both Joseph, (that is, the tribes that were 

sprung from him,) and the neighbours of these others, were 

punished according to the pui-pose of God ; nevertheless, it 

is His will that we sympathise even with these. For if we, 

being evil, when we are punishing a servant, if we should see 

The offender, by submitting first , has the advantage. 1055 

one of his fellow slaves laughing, we at the same time are Matt. 
provoked the more, and turn our anger against him; nuich ^_f,/ 
more will God punish them that exult over those whom He 
chastises. But if upon them that are chastised by God it is 
not right to trample, but to grieve with them, much more 
with them that have sinned against us. For this is love's 
sign ; love God prefers to all things. For as in the royal 
purple, those are precious amongst the flowers and dyes, which 
make up this robing; so here too, these virtues are the precious 
ones, which preserve love. But nothing maintains love so 
much as the not remembering them that have sinned against 

" Why? did not God guard the other side also ? Why? 
did He not drive him that hath done the wrong to him that 
is wronged ? Doth He not send him from the Altar to the 
other, and so after the reconciliation invite him to the Table ?" 
But do not therefore wait for the other to come, since thus 
thou hast lost all. For to this intent most especially doth 
He appoint unto thee an unspeakable reward, that thou 
mayest prevent the other, since, if thou art reconciled by his 
entreaties, the amity is no longer the result of the Divine 
command, but of the other party's diligence. Wherefore also 
thou goest away uncrowned, while he receives the rewards. 

What sayest thou ? Hast thou an enemy, and art thou not 
ashamed ? Why is not the devil enough for us, that we bring 
upon ourselves those of our own race also ? Would that not 
even he had been minded to war against us ; would that not 
even he were a devil ! 

Knowest thou not how great the pleasure after reconcili- 
ation ? For what, though in our enmity it appear not great? 
For that it is sweeter to love him that doth us wrong than to 
hate him, after the enmity is done away thou shalt be able 
to learn full well. Why then do we imitate the mad, devour- [^51 
ing one another, warring against our own flesh ? 

Hear even under the Old Testament, how great regard 
there was for this, The^ ways of revengeful men are unto death. ' Prov. 
One^ man keepeth anger against another, and doth he seek j^j^x. 
healing of God? "And yet He allowed, eye /or eye, and'^'^f'"^* 
tooth for tooth, how then doth He find fiiult?" Because He 
allowed even those things, not that we should do them one 

1050 A good man cannot be harmed by any injuries. 
HoMiL. to another, but tliat thvou";h tlie fear of sufrcrinf?, we might 

LXXIX *- *-» 

abstain from the commission of crime. And besides, those 

acts are the fruits of a short-lived anger, but to remember 
injuries is the part of a soul that practises itself in evil. 

But hast thou suffered evil ? yet nothing so great, as thou 
wilt do to thyself by remembering injuries. And besides, it 
is not so much as possible for a good man to suffer any 
evil. For suppose there to be any man, having both children 
and a wife, and let him practise virtue, and let him have 
moreover many occasions of being injured, as well abun- 
dance of possessions, as sovereign power, and many friends, 
and let him enjoy honour ; only let him practise virtue, for 
this must be added, and let us in supposition lay plagues 
upon him. And let some wicked man come unto him, and 
involve him in losses. What then is that to him who 
accounts money nothing.'' Let him kill his children. What 
this to him, who learns to be wise touching the Resurrection? 
Let him slay his wife ; what is this to him who is instructed 
not to sorrow for them that are fallen asleep } let him cast 
him into dishonour. What this to him who accounts the 
things present, the flower of the grass ? If thou wilt, let him 
also torture his body, and cast him into prison, what this 

'2 Cor. to him that hath learnt, Though^ our outward man perish, 

sRoln y^^ ^^"^ inicard man is renewed; and that ^tribulation 

5> 4. worketh approval ? 

Now 1 had undertaken that he should receive no harm ; 
but the account as it proceeded hath shewn that he is even 
advantaged, being renewer], and becoming approved. 

Let us not then vex ourselves with others, injuring our- 
selves, and rendering our soul weak. For the vexation is 
not so much from our neighbours' wickedness, as from our 
weakness. Because of this, should any one insult us, we 
weep, and frown ; should any one rob us, we suffer the 
same like those little children, which the more clever of 
their companions provoke for nothing, grieving them for 
small causes ; but neveriheless these too, if they should see 
them vexed, continue to tease them, but if laugliing, they 
on the contrary leave off. But wc are more foolish even 
than these, lamenting for these things, about which we 
ought to laugh. 

Childish anger becomes not men in Christ. 1057 

Wherefore I entreat, let us let o;o this childish mind, and Matt. 

• • XXVI 

lay hold of Heaven. For indeed, Christ willeth us to be "5, ' 

men, perfect men. On this wise did Paul also connnand, 

^Brethren, be not children in understanding, he saith, howbeit^ 1 Cor. 

in malice be ye children. ' ' 

Let us therefore be children in malice, and flee wickedness, 

and lay hold on virtue, that we may attain also to the good 

things eternal, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord 

Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and might, world without 

end. Amen. 

6 Y 


Matt. xxvi. 6, 7. 

Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the 
leper, there came unto Him a woman having an alabaster 
box of very precious ointment, and poured it on His Head, 
as He sat at meat. 

This woman seems indeed to be one and the same with 
all the Evangelists, yet she is not so; but though with the 
three she doth seem to me to be one and the same% yet not 
so with John, but another person, one much to be admired, 
the sister of Lazarus. 

But not without purpose did the Evangelist mention the 
leprosy of Simon, but in order that He might shew whence 
the woman took confidence, and came unto Him. For inas- 
much as the leprosy seemed a most unclean disease, and to be 
abhorred, and yet she saw Jesus had both healed the man, 
(for else He would not have chosen to have tarried with a 
leper,) and had gone in to his house; she grew confident, that 
He would also easily wipe off the uncleanuess of her soul. 
And not for nought doth He name the city also, Bethany, 
but that thou mightest learn, that of His own will He 
cometh to His Passion. For He who before this was fleeing 

» St. Augustine, on St. John, Horn, ther the person were the same or not. 

xlix. §. 3. speaks of the identity as St. Chrysostom supposes two unctions 

doubtful. See also Greswell, vol. ii. at Bethany. See note at the end of 

Diss. xvii. and vol. iii. Diss. iii. Itseems 'Sermons preached at St. Saviour's 

that the occasion recorded in St. Luke Church, Leeds.' 
vii. 37. must have been different, vrhe- 

Great Faith of her ivho anointed our Lord's Feet. 1059 

through the midst of them; then, at the time when their envy Matt. 

was most kindled, comes near within about fifteen furlongs; 8— is. 

so completely was His former withdrawing Himself a part of 

T ,. , 1 lit. an 

a dispensation'. econo- 

The woman therefore having seen Him, and having taken my- 
confidence from thence, came unto Him. For if she that 
had the issue of blood, although conscious to herself of no- 
thing like this, yet because of that natural seeming unclean- 
ness, approached Him trembling and in fear; much more 
was it likely this woman should be slow, and shrink back 
because of her evil conscience. Wherefore also it is after 
many women, the Samaritan, the Canaanite, her that had 
the issue of blood, and other besides, that she cometh unto 
Him, being conscious to herself of much impurity; and then 
not publicly but in a house. And whereas all the others 
were coming unto Him for the healing of the body alone, 
she came unto Him by way of honour only, and for the 
amendment of the soul. For neither was she at all afflicted 
in body, so that for this most especially one might marvel 
at her. 

And not as to a mere man did she come unto Him ; for 
then she would not have wiped [His feet] with her hair, but 
as to one greater than man can be. Therefore that which is 
the most honourable member of the whole body, this she 
laid at Christ's feet, even her own head. 

But when His disciples saw it, they had indignation, such v. 8-13. 
are the words, saying. To what purpose is this waste ? For 
this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to 
the poor. But when Jesus understood it. He said, Why 
trouble ye the woman ? for she hath wrought a good work 
upon Me ? For ye have the poor always with you, but Me 
ye have not always. For in that she hath poured this oint- 
ment on My Body, she did it for My burial. Verily I say 
unto you. Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the 
whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath 
done, be to Id for a memorial of her. 

And whence had they this thought ? They used to hear 
their Master saying,'/ will have mercy, and not sacrifice,"^ ^ee 
and blaming the Jews, because they omitted the weightier g^J^^ 
matters, judgment, and mercy, and faith, and discoursing 12, 7. 

3 Y 2 

1 060 Why the disciples found fault. Our Lord's use of the occasion. 

HoMiL. much on the Mount concerning' ahnseivins', and from these 

LXXX o o o^ 

'- things they inferred with themselves, and reasoned, that if 

lie accepts not whole burnt offerings, neither the ancient 

worship, much more will He not accept the anointing 

of oil. 

But though they thus thought, He knowing her intention 
suffers her. For indeed great was her reverence, and un- 
speakable her zeal; wherefore of this exceeding condescen- 
sion, lie permitted the oil to be poured even on His Head. 

For if He refused not to become man, and to be borne 
in the womb, and to be fed at the bi'east, why marvellest 
thou, if He doth not utterly reject this ? For like as the 
Father suffered savour of meat, and smoke, even so did He 
the harlot, accepting, as I have already said, her intention. 
For Jacob too anointed a pillar to God, and oil was offered in 
the sacrifices, and the priests were anointed with ointment. 

But the disciples not knowing her purpose found fault 
unseasonably, and by the things they laid to her charge, 
they shew the woman's munificence. For saying, that it 
might have been sold for three hundred pence, they shewed 
how much this woman had spent on the ointment, and how 
great generosity she had manifested. Wherefore He also 
rebuked" them, saying. Why trouble ye the woman? And 
He adds a reason, as it was His will again to put them in 
mind of His Passion, For she did it, He said,/or My Burial. 
And another reason, For ye have the poor always with you, 
but Me ye have not always; and. Wheresoever the Gospel 
shall be preached, that shall be told also which this woman 
hath done. 

Seest how again He declares beforehand the going forth 
unto the Gentiles, in this way also consoling them for His 
death, if after the Cross His Power was so to shine forth, 
that the Gospel should be spread abroad in every part of the 

Who then is so wretched, as to set his face against so 
much truth ? For lo ! what He said is come to pass, and 
to whatever part of the earth thou mayest go, thou wilt see 
her celebrated. 

And yet neither was the person that did it distinguished, 
nor had what was done many witnesses, neither was it in a 

Chrisfs foreknowledye. How far He praised the act. 1061 

theatre, but in a house, that it took place, and this a house Matt. 
of some lepei", the disciples only being present. 8— 13.* 

[2.] Who then proclaimed it, and caused it to be spread 
abroad ? It was the power of Him Who is speaking these 
words. And while of countless kings and generals the noble 
exploits even of those whose memorials remain have sunk 
into silence ; and having overthrown cities, and encom- 
passed them with walls, and set up trophies, and enslaved 
many nations, they are not known so much as by hearsay, 
nor by name, though they have both set up statues, and 
established laws ; yet that a woman who v/as a harlot poured 
out oil in the house of some leper, in the presence of ten 
men, this all men celebrate throughout the world ; and 
so great a time has passed, and yet tha memory of that 
which was done hath not faded away, but alike Persians 
and Indians, Scythians and Thracians, and Sarmatians, and 
the race of the Moors, and they that dwell in the British 
Islands, spread abroad that which was done secretly in a 
house by a woman that had been a harlot. 

Great is the loving-kindness of the Lord. He endureth 
an harlot, an harlot kissing his feet, and moistening them 
with oil, and wiping them with her hair, and He receives 
her, and reproves them that blame her. For neither was it 
right that for so much zeal the woman should be driven to 

But mark thou this too, how far they were now raised up 
above the world, and forward in ahnsgiving. And why was 
it He did not merely say, She hath icr ought a good work^ 
but before this, Why trouble ye the woman ? That they 
might learn not at the beginning to require too high prin- 
ciples of the weaker sort. Therefore neither doth He 
examine the act merely itself by itself, but taking into 
account the person of the woman. And indeed if He had 
been making a law, He would not have brought in the 
woman, but that thou mightest learn that for her sake these 
things were said, that they might not mar her budding faith, 
but rather cherish it, therefore He saith it, teaching us 
whatever good thing may be done by any man, though it 
be not quite perfect, to receive it, and encourage it, and 
advance it, and not to seek all perfection at the beginning. 

1062 The example applied to munificence in Church ornaments. 

HoMiL. For, that at least He Himself would rather have desired 
^^^^' this, is manifest from the fact, that He required a bag to be 
borne, Who had not where to lay His Head. But then the 
time demanded not this, that He should correct the deed, 
but that He should accept it only. For even as, if any one 
asked Him, without the woman's having done it. He would 
not have approved this; so, after she had done it, He looks 
to one thing only, that she be not driven to perplexity by 
the reproof of the disciples, but that she should go from 
His care, having been made more cheerful and better. For 
indeed after the oil had been poured out, their rebuke had 
no seasonableness. 

Do thou then likewise, if thou shouldest see any one 
provide sacred vessels and offer them, and loving to labour 
upon any other ornament of the Church, about its walls or 
floor; do not command what has been made to be sold, or 
overthrown, lest thou spoil his zeal. But if, before he bad 
provided them, he were to tell thee of it, command it to 
be given to the poor ; forasmuch as He also did this not to 
spoil the spirit of the woman, and as many things as He 
says, He speaks for her comfort. 

Then because He had said. She hath done it for My 
burial; that He might not seem to perplex the woman, by 
making mention of such a thing as this. His burial and 
death, I mean ; see how by that which follows He recovers 
her, saying. What she hath done shall he spoken of in the 
whole icorld. 

And this was at once consolation to His disciples, and 
comfort and praise to her. For all men. He saith, shall 
celebrate her hereafter; and now too hath she announced 
beforehand My Passion, by bringing unto Me what was 
needed for a funeral, let not therefore any man reprove her. 
For I am so far from condemning her as having done amiss, 
or from blaming her as having not acted rightly, that I will 
not suffer what hath been done to lie hid, but the world 
shall know that which has been done in a house, and in 
secret. For in truth the deed came of a reverential mind, 
and fervent faith, and a contrite soul. 

And wherefore did He promise the woman nothing spi- 
ritual ; but the perpetual memory ? From this He is causing 

Candour of the narrators. Hardness of Judas. 10(J3 
her to feel a confidence about the other thmsrs also. For if Matt. 

"5C X VT 

she hath wrought a good work, it is quite evident she shall i4_i6! 
receive a due reward. 

Then went one of the twelve, he that was called Judas v.u.]b. 
Iscariot, unto the chief priests, and said unto them, Wliat 
will ye give me, and I will deliver Him unto you ? Then. 
When ? When these things were spoken, when He had 
said, It is for My Burial, and not even thereby was he 
moved to compunction, neither when he heard that the 
Gospel should be preached every where did he fear, (and 
yet it was the language of unspeakable power,) but when 
women shewed so much honour, and women that had been 
harlots, then he wrought the devil's works. 

But what can be the reason they mention his surname ? 
Because there was also another Judas. And they do not 
shrink from saying. He was of the twelve ; so entirely do 
they hide none of those things which seem to be matters of 
reproach. And yet they might have said merely this, that 
he was one of the disciples, for there were others besides. 
But now they add, of the twelve, as though they had said. 
Of the first company of those selected as the best, of them 
with Peter and John, Because for one thing did they care, 
for truth alone, not for concealing what things were done. 

For this cause many of the signs they pass by, but of the 
things that appear to be matters of reproach they conceal 
nothing; but though it be word, though it be deed, though 
it be what you will of this kind, they proclaim it with 
confidence. And not these only, but even John himself [3.] 
who utters the higher doctrines. For he most of all tells 
us of the affronts and the reproachful things that were done 
unto Him. 

And see how great is the wickedness of Judas, in that 
he comes unto them of his own accord, in that he does this 
for money, and for such a sum of money. 

But Luke saith, that he conferred with the chief captains ^ ' Luke 
For after that the Jews became seditious, the Romans set ' * 
over them those that should provide for their good order. 
For their government had now undergone a change according 
to the prophecy. 

To these then he went and said, What will ye give me, v.i4-i6. 

10(J4 Judas, u-arned in vain, a warning to ike covetous. 

HoMiL. and I tiill deliver him unto you. Jnd they covenanted with 
~ — ^-^ him for thirty pieces of silver. And from that time he 
soiujht opportunity to betray Him. For indeed he was 
afraid of the multilude, and desired to seize him alone. 

Oh madness! liow did eovetousness altogether blind him! 
For he that had often seen Him when lie went through the 
midst, and was not seized, and when He afforded many 
demonstrations of His Godhead and Power, looked to lay 
hold on Him ; and this while He was using like a charm 
for him so many, both awful and soothing words, to put 
an end to this evil thought. For not even at the supper did 
He forbear from this care of him, but unto the last day 
discoursed to him of these things. But he profited nothing. 
Yet not for that did the Lord cease to do His part. 

Knowing this, then, let us also not intermit to do all 
things unto them that sin and are remiss, warning, teaching, 
exhorting, admonishing, advising, though we profit nothing. 
For Christ indeed foreknew that the traitor was incorrigible, 
yet nevertheless He ceased not to supply what could be 
done by Himself, as well admonishing as threatening and 
bewailing over him, and no where plainly, nor openly, but in 
a concealed way. And at the very time of the betrayal. He 
allowed him even to kiss Him, but this benefited him 
nothing. So great an evil is eovetousness, this made him 
both a traitor, and a sacrilegious robber. 

Hearken, all ye covetous, ye that have the disease of 
Judas; hearken, and beware of the calamity. For if he 
that was with Christ, and wrought signs, and had the 
benefit of so much instruction, because he was not freed 
from the disease, was sunk into ^uch a gulf; how much 
more shall ye, who do not so much as listen to the Scripture, 
who are constantly riveted to the things present, become an 
easy prey to this calamity, unless ye have the advantage of 
constant care. Every day was that man with Him, Who 
had not where to lay His head, and every day was he 
iiistructcd by deeds, and by words, not to have gold, nor 
silver, nor two coats ; and yet he was not taught self 
restraint; and how dost thou ex))cct to esca])e the disease, 
if thou hast not the bcneHt of earnest attention, and dost not 
use mucli diligence ? For terrible, terrible is the monster, 

Covelousness unnatural. How it comes oti. 1005 

yet nevertheless, if" thou be willing, thou wilt easily get the Matt. 


better of him. For the desire is not natural ; and this is 

manifest from them that are free from it. For natural things 
are common to all ; but this desire has its origin from remiss- 
ness alone ; hence it takes its birth, hence it derives its 
increase, and when it has seized upon those who look 
greedily after it, it makes them live contrary to nature. 
For when they regard not iheir fellow countrymen, their 
friends, their brethren, in a word all men, and with these 
even themselves, this is to live against nature. Whence it 
is evident that the vice and disease of covetousness, wherein 
Judas, being entangled, became a traitor, is contrary to 
nature. And how did he become such a one, you may say, 
having been called by Christ ? Because God's call is 
not corapulsoi-y, neither does it force the will of them who 
are not minded to choose virtue, but admonishes indeed, 
and advises, and does and manages all things, so as to per- 
suade men to become good ; but if some endure not, it does 
not compel. But if thou vvouldest learn from what cause 
he became such as he was, thou wilt find him to have been 
ruined by covetousness. 

And how was he taken by this calamity .? one may say. 
Because he grew remiss. For hence arise such changes, as 
on the other hand, those for the better from diligence. How 
many for instance that were violent, are now more gentle 
than lambs ? how many lascivious persons have become 
afterwards continent? how many, heretofore covetous, yet 
now have cast away even their own possessions ? And the 
contrary again has been the result of remissness. For Gehazi 
also lived with a holy, and he too became depraved 
from the same disease. For this calamity is the most 
grievous of all. Hence come robbers of tombs, hence men- 
slayers, hence wars and fightings, and whatsoever evil 
thou mayest mention, it coraeth hence. And in every re- 
spect is such a one useless, whetlier it be requisite to lead 
an army or to guide a people ; or rather not in public matters 
only, but also in private. If he is to marry a wife, he will 
not take the virtuous woman, but the vilest of all; if he have 
to buy a house, not that whicli becomes a Iree man, but 

1066 The covetous man never contented. 

HoMiL. what can bring much rent; if he is to buy slaves, or what 

^^^^' else it may be, he will take the worst. 

And why do I speak of leading an army, and guiding a 
people, and managing households; for should he be a king, 
he is the most wretched of all men, and a pest to the world, 
and the poorest of all men. For he will feel like one of the 
common sort, not accounting all men's possessions to be his, 
but himself to be one of all; and when spoiling all men's 
goods, thinks himself to have less than any. For measuring 
the things present by his desire for those whereof he is not 
yet possessed, he will account the former nothing compared 

• the latter. Wherefore also one saith, 'Fliere^ is not a more 
SA 1 '^^f^k^d tiling than a covetous man ; for such a one both 
setteth himself to sale, and goeth about, a common enemy 
of the world, grieving that the earth doth not bear gold 
instead of the corn, and the fountains instead of streams, 
and the mountains instead of stones; vexed at the fruitful- 
ness of the seasons, troubled at common benefits ; shunning 
every means whence one cannot obtain money ; undergoing 
all things whence one can scrape together so much as two 
farthings ; hating all men, the poor, and the rich ; the poor, 
lest they should come and beg of him ; the rich, because he 
hath not their possessions. All men he accounts to be 
possessed of what is his, and as though he had been injured 
by all, so is he displeased with all. He knows not plenty, 
he has no experience of satiety, he is more wretched than 
any, even as, on the other hand, he that is freed from these 
things, and practises self-restraint, is the most enviable. 
For the virtuous man, though he be a servant, though a 
prisoner, is the most happy of all men. For no one shall 
do him ill, no not though all men should come together 
out of the world, setting in motion arms and camps, and 
warring with him. But he that is depraved and vile, and 
such as we have described, though he be a king, though 
he have on a thousand diadems, will suffer the utmost 
extremities, even from a common hand. So feeble is vice, 
so strong is virtue. 

Why then dost thou mourn, being' in a state of poverty. 
Why wailest thou keeping a feast, for indeed it is an 

The soul richest in outward poverty. 1067 

occasion of feasting. Why weepest thou, for poverty is Matt. 
a festival, if thou be wise. Why lamentest thou, thou little i4_i6." 
child ; for such a one we should call a little child. Did 
such a person strike thee ? What is this, he made thee 
more able to endure ? But did he take away thy money ? 
He hath removed the greater part of thy burden. But hath 
he cut off thine honour? Again thou tellest me of another 
kind of freedom. Hear even those without teaching wisdom 
touching these things, and saying, " Thou hast suffered no 
ill, if thou shew no regard to it." But hath he taken away 
that great house of thine, vyhich hath enclosures about it ? 
But behold the whole earth is before thee, the public 
buildings, whether thou wouldest have them for delight, 
or for use. And what is more pleasing or more beautiful 
than the firmament of Heaven. 

How long are ye poor and needy? It is not possible 
for him to be rich, who is not wealthy in his soul ; like as 
it is not possible for him to be poor, who hath not the poverty 
in his mind. For if the soul is a nobler thing than the 
body, the less noble parts have not power to affect it after 
themselves ; but the noble part draws over unto herself, and 
changes those that are not so noble. For so the heart, 
when it has received any hurt, affects the whole body 
accordingly ; if its temperament be disordered, it mars all, 
if it be rightly tempered, it profits all. And if any of the 
remaining parts should have become corrupt, while this 
remains sound, it easily shakes off what is evil in them also. 

And that I may further make what I say more plain, what 
is the use, I pray thee, of verdant branches, when the root 
is withering? and what is the harm of the leaves being 
withered above, while this is sound ? So also here there 
is no use of money, while the soul is poor; neither harm 
from poverty, when the soul is rich. And how can a soul, 
one may say, be rich, being in want of money ? Then 
above all times might this be ; for then also is it wont to be 

For if, as we have often shewn, this is a sure proof of 
being rich, to despise wealth, and to want nothing ; and of 
poverty again, to want, and any one would more easily 
despise money in poverty than in wealth, it is quite evident 

1068 Riches feed the Jlame of vain desire. 

HoMiL.that to be in poveitv rather makes one to be rich. For 

— ^ ^indeed that the rich man sets his heart on money more 

than the poor man, is siu'ely jjlain to every one ; like as the 
drunken man is thirsty, rather than he that hath partaken of 
drink sufficiently. For neither is his desire such as to be 
qnenchcd by too mnch ; but, on the contrary, it is its nature 
to be inflamed by this. For fire likewise, when it has 
received more food, then most of all waxes fierce; and 
the tyranny of wealth, when thou hast cast into it more gold, 
then most especially is increased. 

If then the desiring more be a mark of poverty; and 
he that is in the possession of riches is like this ; he is 
especially in poverty. Seest thou that the soul then most 
of all is poor, when it is rich ; and then is rich, when it is 
in poverty? 

And if thou wilt, let us exercise our reasoning in persons 
also, and let there be two, the one having ten thousand 
talents, the other ten, and from both let us take away these 
things. Who then will grieve the most? He that hath 
lost the ten thousand. But he would not have grieved 
more, unless he had loved it more ; but if he loves more, 
he desires more ; but if he desires more, he is more in 
poverty. For this do we most desire, of which we are most 
in want, for desire is from want. For where there is satiety, 
there cannot be desire. For then are we most thirsty, when 
we have most need of drink. 

And all these things have 1 said, to shew that if we be 
vigilant, no one shall harm us; and that the harm arises not 
from poverty, but from ourselves. Wherefore I beseech you 
■with all diligence to put away the pest of covetousness, that 
we may both be wealthy here, and enjoy the good things 
eternal, unto which God grant we may all attain, by the 
grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
Whom be glory world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxvi. 17, 18. 

Noiu the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples 
came to Jesus, saying, Where wilt Thou that toe prepare 
for Thee to eat the Passover? And He said. Go into the 
city to such a man, and say unto him. The Master saith, 
My time is at hand ; I will keep the Passover at thy house 
with My disciples. 

By the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, he 
means the day before that feast ; for they are accustomed 
always to reckon the day from the evening, and he makes 
mention of this in which in the evening the Passover must 
be killed ; for on the fifth day of the week they came unto 
Him. And this' one calls the day before the feast of un-ijohn 
leavened bread, speaking of the time when they came to ' 
Him, and another saith on this wise, Then^ came the day ^ Luke 
of unleavened bread, when the Passover must be killed ; by ^^' 
the word came, meaning this, it was nigh, it was at the 
doors, making mention plainly of that evening. For they 
began with the evening, wherefore also each adds, when the 
Passover was killed. 

And they say, Where wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee 
to eat the Passover? So even from this it is manifest, that 
He had no house, no place of sojourning; and I suppose 
neither had they. For surely they would have entreated him 
to come there. But neither had they any, having now parted 
with all thinfis. 

1070 Power of the Lord in comynanding merC s service. 

HoMiL. But wherefore did He keep the Passover ? To indicate 

'—^hy all things unto the last day, that He is not opposed 

to the Law. 

And for what possible reason doth He send them to an 
unknown person ? To shew by this also that He might 
have avoided suffering. For He Who prevailed over this 
man's mind, so that he received them, and that by words; 
what would He not have done with them that crucified Him, 
if it had been His will not to suffer.'' And what He did 
about the ass, this He did here also. For there too He 

1 Matt, saith, If^ any man say aughl unto you^ ye shall say, that 
' ■ tJie Lord hath need of them; and so likewise here, The 
Master saith, I will keep the Passover at thy house. But 
I marvel not at this only, that he received Him, being un- 
known, but that expecting to bring upon himself such 
enmity and implacable hostility, he despised the enmity of 
the multitude. 

After this, because they knew him not, He gave them a 

«i Sam. sign, like as the Prophet touching Saul, saying, Tltou^ shall 

10, 3. jind one going up and carrying a bottle; and here, carrying 
a pitcher. And see again the display of his power. For 
He did not only say, / uill keep the Passover, but He adds 
another thing also, My time is at hand. And this He did, 
at once continually reminding His disciples of the Passion, 
so that exercised by the frequency of the prediction, they 
should be prepared for what was to take place ; and at the 
same time to shew to themselves, and to him that was 
receiving Him, and to all the Jews, which I have often 
mentioned, that not involuntarily doth He come to His 
Passion. And He adds, with My disciples, in order that 
both the preparation should be sufficient, and that the man 
should not suppose that He was concealing Himself 

V. 20. Now when the even was come. He sat down with the 
twelve disciples. Oh the shamelessness of Judas! For he 
too was present there, and came to partake both of the 

3 lit. salt mysteries, and of the meaP, and is convicted at the very 
table, when although he had been a wild beast, he would 
have become tame. 

For this cause the Evangelist also signifies, that while 
they are eating, Christ speaks of His betrayal, that both by 

Our Lord's merciful dealing with the traitor. 1071 

the lime and by the table he mioht shew the wickedness of Matt. 

the traitor, 21—24. 

For when the disciples had done, as Jesus had appointed 
them, when the even was come. He sat down with the twelve. 
And as they did eat. He said, we are told, Verily, I sayv.2\. 
unto you, that one of you shall betray Me. And before the 
supper, He had even washed his feet. And see how He 
spares the traitor. For He said not, such a one shall betray 
me ; but, one of you, so as again to give him power of 
repentance by concealment. And He chooseth to alarm 
all, for the sake of saving this man. Of you, the twelve, 
saith He, that are every where present with me, whose feet 
I washed, to whom I promised so many things. 

Intolerable sorrow thereupon seized that holy company. 
And John indeed saith, they icere'^ in doubt, and looked one ^ ^^hn 
upon another, and each of them asked in fear concerning ' 
himself, although conscious to themselves of no such thing. 
But this Evangelist saith, that being exceeding sorrowful, r.l^.'is. 
they began every one of them to say unto Him, Lord, is it /^ jo'hnls 
And He answered and said. He it is, to whom L shall give a 26. 
sop, when I have dipped it. 

Mark at what time He discovered him. It was when it 
was His will to deliver the rest from this trouble, for they 
were even dead with the fear, wherefore also they were 
instant with their questions. But not only as desiring to deliver 
them from their distress He did this, but also as willing to 
amend the traitor. For since after having often heard it 
generally, he continued incorrigible, being past feeling. He 
being minded to make him feel more, takes off his mask. 

For when being sorrowful they began to say. Is it I, Lord? y.'iS.'iA. 
He answered and said. He that dippeth with Me in the dish, 
the same shall betray Me. The Son of Man goeth, as it is 
written of Him, but woe to the man by whom the Son of 
Man is betrayed. Ll had been good for that man if he had 
not been born. 

Now some say that he was so bold as not to honour his 
Master, but to dip with Him : but to me Christ seems to 
have done this too, to shame him the more, and bring him 
over to a better disposition. For this act again has some- 
thing more in it. But these things we ought not to pass by [2.] 

1072 Predestination no excuse for Judas. random, but they should be infixed in our minds, and 
— — 'wrath would find no place at any time. 

For who, bearing in mind that supper, and the traitor 
sitting at meat with the Saviour of all, and Him Who was to 
be betrayed thus meekly reasoning, would not put away all 
venom of wrath and anger ? See at any rate how meekly 
He conducts Himself towards him, The Son of Man goelh, 
as it is tcrilten of Him. 

And these things again He said, both to restore the 
disciples, that they might not think the thing was a sign 
of weakness, and to amend the traitor. 

But woe unto that man by whom the Son of Man is 
betrayed ! it had been good for that man if he had not 
been born. See again in His rebukes His unspeakable 
meekness. For not even hei*e with invective, but more in 
the way of compassion, doth He apply what He saith, but 
in a disguised way again ; and yet not his former senseless- 
ness only, but his subsequent shamelessness was deserving 
of the utmost indignation. For after this conviction he 
saith. Is it I, Lord ? Oh insensibility ! He enquires, when 
conscious to hiuiself of such things. For the Evangelist 
too, mai'velling at his boldness, saith this. What then 
saith the most mild and gentle Jesus } Thou sayest. And 
yet He might have said, O thou unholy, thou all unholy 
one ; accursed, and profane ; so long a time in travail with 
mischief, who hast gone thy way, and made satanical com- 
])acts, and hast agreed to receive money, and hast been 
convicted l)y Me too, dost thou yet dare to ask } But 
none of these things did Ho say ; but how } Thou sayest ? 
fixing for us bounds and rules of long suffering. 

But some one will say, Yet if it was written that He was 
to suffer these things, wherefore is Judas blamed, for he did 
the things that were written ? But not with this intent, but 
from wickedness. For if thou enquire not concerning the 
motive, thou wilt deliver even the devil from the charges 
against him. But these things are not, they are not so. 
For both the one and the other are deserving of countless 
punishments, although the world was saved. For neither 
did the treason of Judas work out salvation for us, 
but the wisdom of Christ, and the good contrivance of 

God uses, but needs not, man's wickedness. 1073 

His fair skill, using the wickednesses of others for our Matt. 
advantage. 1^^ 

" What then," one may say, " though Judas had not 
betrayed Him, would not another have betrayed Him ?" 
And what has this to do with the question ? " Because if 
Christ must needs be crucified, it must be by the means of 
some one, and if by some one, surely by such a person as 
this. But if all had been good, the dispensation in our 
behalf had been impeded." Not so. For the Allwise knows 
how He shall bring about our benefits, even had this hap- 
pened. For His wisdom is rich in contrivance, and incom- 
prehensible. So for this reason, that no one might suppose 
that Judas had become a minister of the dispensation, he 
declares the wretchedness of the man. But some one will 
say again, " And if it bad been good if he had never been 
born, wherefore did He suffer both this man, and all the 
wicked, to come into the world ?" When thou oughtest to 
blame the wicked, for that having the power not to become 
such as they are, they have become wicked, thou leavest 
this, and busiest thyself, and art curious about the things of 
God ; although knowing that it is not by necessity that any 
one is wicked. 

" But the good only should be born," he would say, " and 
there were no need of hell, nor punishment, nor vengeance, 
nor trace of vice, but the wicked should either not be born 
at all, or being born should straightway depart." 

First then, it were well to repeat to thee the saying of the 
Apostle, Niuj ' hut, O man, tvho art thou that repliesl against ' Rom. 
God? Shall the thing formed say to Him that formed if, ' 
JVhi/ hast Thou tnade me thus ? 

But if thou still demandest reasons, we would say this, 
that the good are more admired for being among the bad ; 
because their long-suffering and great self-command is then 
most shewn. But thou takest away the occasion of their 
wrestlings, and conflicts, by saying these things. *' What 
then, in order that these may appear good, are others 
punished?" saith he. God forbid, but for their own wicked- 
ness. For neither because they were brought into the world 
did they become wicked, but on account of their own 
wickednessj wherefore also they are punished. For how 

3 / 

1 074 Judas a loilling slave of Satan. 

HoMiL. should they fail to be deserving of punishment, seeing they 

~ — ^— 'have so many teachers of virtue, and gain nothing there- 
from. For like as the noble and good arc worthy of double 
honour, because they both became good, and took no 
hurt from the wicked; so also the worthless deserve two- 
fold punishment, both because they became wicked, when 
they might have become good, (they shew it who have 
become such,) and because they gained nothing from the 

But let us see what saith this wretched man, when con- 

V. 25. victed by his Master. What then saith he? Rabbi, is it I? 
And why did he not ask this from the beginning .? He 
thought to escape knowledge by its being said, owe of you ; 
but when He had made him manifest, he ventured again 
to ask, confiding in the clemency of his Master, that He 
[-3.] would not convict him. O blindness ! Whereunto hath it 
led him ? Such is covetousness, it renders men fools and 
senseless, yea reckless, and dogs instead of men, or rather 
even move fierce than dogs, and devils after being dogs. 
This man at least received unto him the devil even when 
plotting against him, but Jesus, even when doing him good, 
he betraj-ed, having already become a devil in will. For 
such doth the insatiable desire of gain make men, out of 
their mind, frenzy-smitten, altogether given up to gain, as 
was the case even with Judas. 

But how do Matthew and the other Evangelists say, that, 
when he made the agreement touching the treason, then 

'John the devil seized him; but John, that afler^ the sop Satan 
' ' enlervd into him. And John himself knew this, for further 

5 John back he saith. The- devil having now put into the heart 
' ' of Judas, that he should betray Him. How then doth he 
say. After the sop Satan entered into him ? Because he 
enters not in suddenly, nor at once, but makes much trial 
first, which accordingly was done here also. For after 
having tried him in the beginning, and assailed him quietly, 
after that he saw him prepared to receive him, he thence- 
forth wholly breathed himself into him, and completely got 
the better of him. 

But how, if they were eating the Passover, did they eat it 
contrary to the law? For they should not have eaten it, 

Judas woj'se tha?i mad through covetoasness. 1075 

sitting down to their meat'. What then can be said? That Matt. 

after eating it, they then sat down to the banquet. 24. 25.* 

But another Evangelist saith, that on that evening He»Exod. 

12 11 

not only ate the Passover, but also said, Witli^ desire I haveo, j^^^g 
desired lo eat this Passover uiih you, that is, on that year. 22, is. 
For what reason ? Because then the salvation of the world 
was to be brought about, and the mysteries to be delivered, 
and the subjects of sorrow to be done away with by His 
death ; so welcome was the Cross to Him. But nothing 
softened the savage monster, nor moved, nor shamed him. 
He pronounced him wretched, saying, Woe to that man. 
He alarmed him again, saying, // icere good for him if he 
had not been horn. He put him to shame, saying. To whom 
I shall give a sop, wheti I have dipped it. And none of 
these things checked him, but he was seized by covetous- 
ness, as by some madness, or rather by a more grievous 
disease. For indeed this is the more grievous madness. 

For what would the madman do like this ? He poured 
not forth foam out of his mouth, but he poured forth the 
murder of his Lord. He distorted not his hands, but 
stretched them out for the price of precious Blood. Where- 
fore his madness was greater, because he was mad being 
in health. 

But he doth not utter, [sayest thou,] sounds without 
meaning. And what is more without meaning than this 
language. What will ye give me, and I will deliver Him v. 15. 
unio youf I icill deliver, the devil spake by that mouth. 
But he did not smite the ground with his feet struggling? 
Nay, how much belter so to struggle, than thus to stand 
upright. But sayest thou, he did not cut himself with 
stones ? Yet how much better, than to do such things as 
these ! 

Will ye, that we bring forward the possessed and the 
covetous, and make a comparison between the two. But let 
no one account what is done a reproach to himself For we 
do not reproach the nature, but we lament the act. The 
possessed was never clad with garments, cutting himself 
with stones, and running, he rushes over rough paths, driven 
headlong of the devil. Do not these things seem to bo 
dreadful ? What then, if I shall shew the covetous doing 

•3 z 2 

1076 The covetous are the worst of madmen. 

HoMiL. more Kiievons things than these to their own soul, and to 


-^ — 'such a degree more grievous, that these are considered 
child's play compared with those ? Will you indeed shun 
the pest ? Come then, let us see if they are in any respect 
in a more tolerable state than they. In none, but even in a 
more grievous condition ; for indeed they are more objects 
of shame than ten thousand naked persons. For it were far 
better to be naked as to clothing, than being clad with the 
fruits of covctousness, to go about like them that celebrate 
the orgies for Bacchus. For like as they have on madmen's 
masks and clothes, so have these also. And much as the 
nakedness of the possessed is caused by madness, so doth 
madness produce this clothing, and the clothing is more 
miserable than the nakedness. 

And this I will hereby endeavour to prove. For whom 
should we say was more mad, amongst madmen themselves ; 
one who sheuld cut himself, or one who together with 
himself should hurt those who met him ? It is quite clear 
that it is this last. The madmen then strip themselves of 
their clothing, but these all that meet them. " But these 
tear their clothes to pieces." And how readily would every 
one of those that ai*e injured consent that his garment should 
be torn, rather than be stripped of all his substance ? 

" But those do not aim blows at the face." In the first 
place, the covetous do even this, and if not all, yet do all 
inflict by famine and penury more grievous pains on the 

" But those bile not with the teeth." Would that it were 
with teeth, and not with the darts of covetousness fiercer 
'Ps. 57, than teeth. For^ their teeth are weapons and darts. For 
who will feel most pained, he that was bitten once, and 
straightway healed, or he that is for ever eaten up by the 
teeth of penury .'' For penury when involuntary is more 
grievous than furnace or wild beast. 

" But those rush not into the deserts like the possessed of 
devils." Would it were the deserts, and not the cities, that 
they overran, and so all in the cities enjoyed securit}'. For 
now in this respect again, they are more intolerable than all 
the insane, because they do in the cities these things which 
the others do in the deserts, making the cities deserts, and 

The covetous go naked, as not clothed with virtue. 1077 

like as in a desert, where there is none to hinder, so plunder- Matt. 

24. 25. 


ing the goods of all men. 

"But they do not pelt with stones them that meet them."' 
And what is this ? Of stones it were easy to beware ; but 
of the wounds which by paper and ink they work to the 
wretched poor, (framing writings full of blows without 
number,) who, out of those that fall in with them, can ever 
easily beware ? 

[4.] And let us see also what they do to themselves. They 
walk naked up and down the city, for they have no garment 
of virtue. But if this doth not seem to them to be a dis- 
grace, this again is of their exceeding madness, for that they 
have no feeling of the unseemliness, but while they are 
ashamed of having their body naked, they bear about the 
soul naked, and glory in it. And if you wish, 1 will tell 
you also the cause of their insensibility. What then is the 
cause ? They are naked amongst many that are thus naked, 
wherefore neither are they ashamed, like as neither are we 
in the baths. So that if indeed there were many clothed 
with virtue, then would their shame appear more. But now 
this above all is a worthy subject for many tears, that 
because the bad are many, bad things are not even esteemed 
as a disgrace. For besides the rest, the devil hath brought 
about this too, not to allow them to obtain even a sense of 
their evil deeds, but by the multitude of them that practise 
wickedness, to throw a shade over their disgrace ; since if it 
came to pass that he was in the midst of a multitude of 
persons practising self-restraint, such a one would see his 
nakedness more. 

That they are more naked than the possessed is evident 
from these things ; and that they go into the deserts, neither 
this again could any one gainsay. For the wide and broad 
way is more desert than any desert. For though it have 
many that journey on it, yet none from amongst men, but 
serpents, scorpions, wolves, adders, and asps. Such are they 
that practise wickedness. And this way is not only desert, 
but much more rugged than that [of the mad]. And this is 
hereby evident. For stones and ravines and crags do not 
so wound those that mount them, as robbery and covelous- 
ness the souls that practise them. 

1078 The covetous are sepulchres. They cut themselves. 
HoMiL. And that they live by the tombs, like tlie possessed, or 

T XXXT •/ •/ ^ i 

- ^ ' ' rather that they themselves are tombs, is plain by this. What 
is a tomb? A stone having a dead body lying in it. Wherein 
then do these men's bodies differ from those stones ? or 
rather, they are more miserable even than they. For it is not 
a stone containing a dead body, but a body more insensible 
than stones, bearing about a dead soul. Wherefore one would 
not be wrong in calling them tombs. For so did our Lord 
too call the Jews, for this reason most especially ; He went 

» Matt, on at least to say, Their^ inward parts are full of ravening 

23 26 

3nd * «'/<^ covelousness. 

comp. V. Would ye that I shew next, how they also cut their heads 
with stones ? Whence then first, 1 pray thee, wilt thou 
learn this ? From the things here, or from the things to 
come ? But of the things to come they have not much 
regard ; we must speak then of the things here. For are 
not anxieties more grievous than many stones, not wonnding 
heads, but consuming a sonl. For they are afraid, lest 
those things should justly go forth out of their house, which 
have come unto them unjustly; they tremble in fear of the 
utmost ills, are angry, are provoked, against those of their own 
house, against strangers ; and now despondency, now fear, 
now wrath, comes upon them in succession, and they are as 
if they were crossing precipice after precipice, and they are 
earnestly looking day by da}- for what they have not yet 
acquired. Vv^'herefore neither do they feel pleasure in the 
things they have, both by reason of not feeling confidence 
about the security of them, and because v.ith their whole 
mind they are intent upon what they have not yet seized. 
And like as one continually thirsting, though he should 
drink up ten thousand fountains, feeleth not the pleasure, 
because he is not satisfied ; so also these, so far I'rom feeling 
pleasure, are even tormented, the more they heap around 
themselves; from their not feeling any limit to such desire. 

And things here arc like this ; but let us speak also of 
the Day to come. For though they give not heed, yet it 
is necessary for us to speak. In the Day to come then, one 
will see every where such men as these undergoing punish - 

» Matt. ment. For when He saith, 1^ was an hungred, and ye gave 

35,42. l\lc no meat I I was tJiirsly, and ye gave Me no drink; He 

Punishments hereafter. No excuse for covetousness. 1079 

is punishing these j and when He saith, Depart into the Matt. 
everlasting fire prepared for the Devil, He is sending thilher "23. 24.' 

them that make a bad use of riches. And the wicked 
servant, who gives not to his fellow-servants the goods of 
his Lord, is of the number of these men, and he that buried 
his talent, and the five virgins. 

And whithersoever thou shalt go, thou wilt see the 
covetous punished. And now they will hear, There^ /s'Luke 
a void between us and you; now. Depart^ from Me «^*'Oj^^^j 
the fire that is prepared. And now being cut asunder, they 25, 4i. 
will go away, where there is gnashing of teeth ; and from 
every place one may see them driven, and finding a place no 
where, but gathered in hell alone. What then is the use of [5.] 
the right faith to us for salvation, when we hear these things? 
There, gnashing of teeth, and outer darkness, and the fire 
prepared for the Devil, and to be cut asunder, and to be 
driven away ; here, enmities, evilspeakings, slanders, perils, 
cares, plots, to be hated of all, to be abhorred of all, even 
of the very persons that seem to flatter us. P^or as good 
men are admired not by the good only but even by the 
wicked ; so bad men, not the good only, but also the 
worthless, hate. And in proof that this is true, I would 
gladly ask of the covetous, whether they do not feel painfully 
one toward another ; and account such more their enemies 
than those that have done them the greatest wrong; whether 
they do not also accuse themselves, whether they do not 
account the thing an aflfront, if any one brings this reproach 
upon them. For indeed this is an extreme reproach, and a 
sure proof of much wickedness ; for if thou dost not endure 
to despise wealth, of what wilt thou ever get the better? 
of lust, or of the mad desire of glory, or anger, or of wrath ? 
And how would any be persuaded of it? For as to lust, 
and anger, and wrath, many impute it even to the tem- 
perament of the flesh, and to this do students of medicine 
refer the excesses thereof; and him that is of a more hot 
and languid temperament, they afl3rm to be more lustful; but 
him that runs out into a drier kind of ill temperament, 
eager, and irritable, and wrathful. But with respect to 
covetousness, no one ever heard of their having said any 
such thing. So entirely is the pest the effect of mere 
remissness, and of a soul past feeling. 

1080 Dangers of the several ages of our life. 

HoMiL. Therefore, I beseech you, let us give diligence to amend 

^all such things, and to give an opposite direction to the 

passions that come upon us in every age. But if in every 
part of our life we sail past the labours of virtue, every 
whei'e undergoing shipwrecks; when we have arrived at 
the harbour destitute of spiritual freight, wc shall undergo 
extreme punishment. For our present life is an outstretched 
ocean. And as in the sea here, there are different bays 
exposed to different tempests, and the ^Egean is difficult 
because of the winds, the Tyrrhenian strait because of the 
confined space, the Charybdis that is by Africa because of 
the shallows, the Propontis, which is without the Euxine 
sea, on account of its violence and currents, the parts 
without Cadiz because of the desolation, and tracklessness, 
and unexplored places therein, and other portions for other 
causes ; so also is it in our life. 

And the first sea to view is that of our childish days, 
having much tempestuousness, because of its folly, its 
facility, because it is not stedfast. Therefore also we set 
over it guides and teachers, by our diligence adding what is 
wanting to nattire, even as there by the pilot's skill. 

After this age succeeds the sea of the youth, where the 
winds are violent as in the ^gean, lust increasing upon us. 
And this age especially is destitute of correction ; not only 
because he is beset more fiercely, but also because his 
faults are not reproved, for both teacher and guide after 
that withdraw. When therefore the winds blow more 
fiercely, and the pilot is more feeble, and there is no 
helper, consider the greatness of the tempest. 

After this there is again another period of life, that of 
men, in which the cares of the household press upon us, 
when there is a wife, and marriage, and begetting of children, 
and ruling of a house, and thick falling showers of cares. 
Then especially both covetousness flourishes and envy. 

When then we pass each part of our life with shipwrecks, 
how shall we suffice for the present life.'' how shall we escape 
future punishment. For when first in the earliest age we 
learn nothing healthful, and then in youth wc do not practise 
sobriety, and when grown to manhood do not get the better 
of covetousness, coming to old age as to a hold full of bilge- 
Tyater, and as having made the barque of the soul weak by all 

Ill spent youth ends in wretched old age. 1081 

these shocks, the planks being separated, we shall arrive at that Matt. 
harbour, bearing much filth instead of spiritual merchandise, 23. 24/ 
and to the Devil we shall furnish laughter, but lamentation 
to ourselves, and bring upon ourselves the intolerable punish- 

That these things may not be, let us brace ourselves up 
on every side, and, withstanding all our passions, let us cast 
out the lust of wealth, that we may also attain unto the 
good things to come, by the grace and love towards man of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory for ever and ever. 


Matt. xxvi. 26 — 28. 

And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and gave thanks, 
and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said. Take, 
eat ; This is My Body. 

And He took a cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, 
saying, Drink ye all of it ,- This is My Blood of the New 
Testament, Which is shed for many, for the remission of 


An! how great is the blindness of the traitor! Even 

partaking of the mysteries, he remained the same; and 

admitted to the most holy Table, he changed not. And 

'Luke this Luke shews by saying, that after this Satan entered' 

S also i"to l^i™j "ot ^^ despising the Lord's Body, but thenceforth 

Johni3,iaushinG: to scorn the traitor's shamelessness. For indeed 

27. o a , 

his sin became greater from both causes, as well in that he 
came to the mysteries with such a disposition, as that having 
approached them, he did not become better, either from fear, 
or from the benefit, or from the honour. But Christ forbad 
him not, although He knew all things, that thou mightest 
learn that He omits none of the things that pertain to 
correction. Wherefore both before this, and after this, He 
continually admonished him, and checked him, both by 
deeds, and by words; both by fear, and by kindness; both 
by threatening, and by honour. But none of these things 
withdrew him from that grievous pest. 

Wherefore thenceforth He leaves him, and by the mys- 
teries again reminds the disciples of His being slain, and 
in the midst of the meal His discourse is of the Cross, by 

Time of the Passover chosen to shew the Type. 1083 

the continual repeating of the prediction, nialiiug His Matt. 
Passion easy to receive. For if, when so many things had ^^28 ' 
been done and foretold, they were troubled ; if they had 
heard none of these things, what would they not have felt? 

And as tlteij were eating, He took hread. and brake it. 
Why can it have been that He ordained this Sacrament 
then, at the lime of the Passover? That thou mightest learn 
from every thing, both that He is the Lawgiver of the Old 
Testament, and that the things therein are foreshadowed '| 
because of these things. Tiiereforc, I say, where the type 
is, there He puts the truth. 

But the evening is a sure sign of the fulness of times, and 
that the things were now come to the very end. 

And He gives thanks, to leach us how we ought to 
celebrate this Sacrament, and to shew that not unwillingly 
doth He come to the Passion, and to teach us whatever we 
may suffer to bear it thankfully, thence also suggesting 
good hopes. For if the type was a deliverance from such 
bondage, how much more will the truth set free the world, 
and will He be delivered up for the benefit of our race. . 
Wherefore, I would add, neither did He appoint the Sacra- | 
ment before this, but when henceforth the rites of the Law 
were to cease. And thus the very chief of the feasts He 
brings to an end, removing them to another most awful 
Table, and He saith, Take, eat, This is My Body, Which is 
broken for many. 

And how were they not confounded at hearing this ? 
Because He had before told unto them many and great 
things touching this. Wherefore that He establishes no 
more, for they had heard it sufficiently, but he speaks of 
the cause of His Passion, namely, the taking away of sins. 
And He calls it Blood of a New Testament, that of the 
undertaking, the Promise, the New Law. For This He 
undertook also of old, and This comprises the Testament 
that is in the New Law. And like as the Old Testament 
had sheep and bullocks, so this has the Lord's Blood. 
Hence also He shews that He is soon to die, wherefore also 
He made mention of a Testament, and He reminds them 
also of the former Testament, for that also was dedicated 
with blood. And again He tells the cause of His Death, 

1084 The Spiritual Passover. Christ Himself partook. 

HoMiL. Which is shed for many for the remission of si/is; and He 
^"^^"' saith, Do this in remembrance of Me. Seest thou how He 
removes and draws them off from Jewish customs? For like 
as ye did that, He saith, in remembrance of the miracles in 
Egypt, so do this likewise in remembrance of Me. That 
was shed for the preservation of the firstborn, this for the 
remission of the sins of the whole world. For, This, saith 
He, is 3Iy Blood, Which is shed for the remission of sins. 

But this He said, indicating thereby, that His Passion 
and His Cross are a mystery, by this too again comforting 

1 Exod. His disciples. And like as Moses saith. This ' shall he to 
^^' '^' you for an evcrlastiny memorial, so He too, in remembrance 

2 Lute of Me, until I come\ Therefore also He saith, Wilh^ desire 
22, 15. J y^^^,g desired to eat this Passover, that is, to deliver you 

the new rites, and to give a Passover, by wliich I am to 
make you spiritual. 

And He Himself drank of It. For lest on hearing this, 

they should say. What then r do we drink Blood, and eat 

Flesh } and then be perplexed, (for when He began to 

discourse concerning these things, even at the very sayings 

^john6,many were offended^,) therefore lest the}- should be troubled 

60. 61, ^j^gjj likewise, He first did this Himself, leading them to the 

66, ^ , , 

calm participation of the mysteries. Therefore He Himself 
drank His own Blood. What then must we observe that 
other ancient rite also ? some one may say. By no means. 
For on this account He said. Do this, that He might with- 
draw them from the other. For if this worketh remission of 
sins, as it surely doth work it, the other is now superfluous. 

As then in the case of the Jews, so here also He hath 
bound up the memorial of the benefit with the mystery, by 
this again stopping the mouths of heretics. For when they 
say, Whence is it manifest that Christ was sacrificed ,'' together 
with the other arguments we stop their mouths from the 
mysteries also. For if Jesus did not die, of what are the 
rites the symbols ? 

[2.] Seest thou liow much diligence hath been used, that 
it should be ever borne in mind that He died for us } For 

" Sec 1 Cor. xi. 26. and St, Chrys. He come,' expressly to St. Paul, 
on the place, Horn, xxvii, on 1 Cor, Various early writers attribute them 
where he attributes the words ' until to our Lord, 

Why our Lord drank wine after His Resurrectio7i. 1085 

since the Marcionists, and Valentinians, and Manichaeans Matt. 

. . XXVI. 

were to arise, denying this dispensation, He continually 29. 

reminds us of the Passion even by the Mysteries, (so that 

no man should be deceived;) at once saving, and at the 

same time teaching by means of that sacred Table. For 

this is the chief of the blessings ; wherefore Paul also is in 

every way pressing this. 

Then, when He had delivered it, He saith, / will not'^-'^^- 
drink of the fruit of this vine, until that day when I drink 
it new with you in My Father's Kingdom, For because 
He had discoursed with them concerning Passion and 
Cross, He again introduces what He has to say of His 
Resurrection, having made mention of a kingdom before 
them', and so calling His own Resurrection. 1 ^ij 

And wherefore did He drink after He was risen again } f*^'^'"' 
Lest the grosser sort might suppose the Resurrection was 
an appearance. For the common sort made this an infal- 
lible test of His having risen again. Wherefore also the 
Apostles also persuading them concerning the Resurrection 
say this, We^ who did eat and drink with Him. - Acts 

To shew therefore that they should see Him manifestly ' ' 
risen again, and that He should be with them once more, 
and that they themselves shall be witnesses to the things 
that are done, both by sight, and by act. He saith, Until I 
drink it new with you, you bearing witness. For you shall 
see Me risen again. 

But what is new. In a new, that is, a strange, manner, 
not having a passible body, but now immortal and incor- 
ruptible, and not needing food. 

It was not then for want that He both ate and drank after 
the Resurrection, for neither did His Body need these things 
any more, but for the full assurance of His Resurrection. 

And wherefore did He not drink water after He was risen 
again, but wine. To pluck up by the roots another wicked 
heresy. For since there are certain who use water in the 
mysteries; to shew that both when He delivered the mysteries 
He had given wine, and that when He had risen and was 
setting before them a mere meal without mysteries, He used 
wine, of the fruit, He saith, of the vine. But a vine pro- 
duces wine, not water. 


V. 30. 

' alff- 

1086 The Jinal Hymn. Flight of Disciples foretold. 

HoMfL. And when they had sung an hymn, they went out to the 

Mount of Olives. Let them hear this, as many as, Hke swine 

eating at random, rudely sjnirn tlie natural' table, and rise 

eTjT^i/ yp jjj drunkenness, whereas it were meet to give thanks, and 

end with an hymn. 

Hear this, as many as wait not again for the last prayer 
of the mysteries, for this is a symbol of that. He gave 
thanks before He gave it to His disciples, that we also may 
give thanks. He gave thanks, and sang an hymn after the 
giving, that we also may do this self-same thing. 

But for what reason doth He go forth unto the moun- 
tain ? Making Himself manifest, that He may be taken, in 
order not to seem to hide himself. For He hastened to go 
to the place which was also known to Judas. 
V. 31. Then He saith unto them, All ye shall be offended in 
lech. ^^^- After this He mentions also a prophecy, For it is 
13, 7. written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be 
scattered abroad: at once persuading them ever to give 
heed to the things that are written, and at same time making 
it plain that He was crucified, according to God's purpose; 
and by every thing shewing He was no alien from the Old 
Covenant, nor from the God preached therein, but that what 
^ oIko- is done is a dispensation % and that the Prophets all pvo- 
*"'^'" claimed all things beforehand from the beginning that are 
comprised in the matter, so that they be quite confident 
about the better things also. 

And He teaches us to know what the Disciples were 

before the crucifixion, what after the crucifixion. For 

j indeed they who, when He was crucified, were not able so 

/ much as to stand their ground, these after death were mighty, 

and stronger than adamant. 

And this self-same thing is a demonstration of His death, 
the fright and cowardice, I mean, of His Disciples. For 
if when so many things have been both done and said, still 
some are shameless, and say that He was not crucified; if 
none of these things had come to pass, to what pitch of 
wickedness would they not have proceeded ? So for this 
reason, not by His own sufferings only, but by what took 
place with respect to the Disciples, He confirms the word 
concerning His death, and by the mysteries also, in every way 

Presumptuous comjidmce of St. Peter. 1087 

confounding those that are diseased with the pest of Mar- Matt. 


cion. For this reason He suffers even the chief Apostle to " " 

deny Him. But if He was not hound nor crucified, whence 
sprung the fear to Peter, and to the rest of the Apostles. 

He suffers them not however, on the other hand, to wait 
until the sorrows, but what saith He? But, after I am v. 32. 
risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. For not 
from Heaven doth He appear at once, neither will He 
depart into any distant country, but in the same nation, in 
which He had also been crucified, nearly in the same place, 
so as hereby again to assure them that He that was crucified 
was the very same that rose again, and in this way to 
comfort them more abundantly when in sorrow. Therefore 
also He said in Galilee, that being freed from the fears of 
the Jews they might believe His saying. For which cause 
indeed He appeared there. 

But Peter answered and said, Though all men should J^v. 33. 
offended because of Thee, yet will I never be offended. 

[3.] What sayestthoUjO Peter? the Prophet said. The sheep 
shall be scattered; Christ hath confirmed the saying, and 
sayest thou. No ? Is not what passed before enough, when 
Thou saidst, Far ' he it from Thee, and thy mouth was • Matt. 
stopped ? For this then He suffers him to fall, teaching him ^^' 
thereby to believe Christ in all things, and to account His 
declaration more trustworthy than one's own conscience. And 
the rest too reaped no small benefit from his denial, having 
come to know man's weakness, and God's truth. For when 
He foretels any thing, we must no longer be subtle, nor lift 
up ourselves above the common sort. For, thy- rejoicing, -Gal. 6, 
it is said, thou shalt have in thyself, and not in another. ' 
For where he should have prayed, and have said. Help us, 
that we be not cut off, he is confident in himself, and saith. 
Though all men should he offended in Thee, yet will I never ; 
though all should undergo this, I shall not undergo it, which 
led him on by little and little to self-confidence. Christ then, 
out of a desire to put down this, permitted his denial. For 
since he neither submitted to Him nor the Prophet, (and yet 
for this intent He brought in the Prophet besides, that they 
may not gainsay,) but nevertheless since he submitted not to 
His words, he is instructed by deeds, 

1088 Peter's fall, why permitted. Our LonVs Prayer. 

HoMiL. For in proof that for this intent He permitted it, that He 

1 £^j^g ' might amend this in him, hear what He saith, ' / have prayed 
22,32, for thee, that iliy faith fail not. For this He said sharply 

reproving him, and shewing that his fall was more grievous 
than the rest, and needed more help. For the matters of 
blame were two; both that he gainsaid; and, that he set 
himself before the other; or rather a third too, namely, that 
he attributed all to himself. 

To cure these things then, He suffered the fall to take place, 
and for this cause also leaves the others, and addresses Him- 

2 ib, 31, self earnestly to him. For, Simon^, saith He, Simon, behold 

Satan hath desired to have you that he may sijt you as 
wheat; that is, that he may trouble, confound, tempt you; but 
I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not. 

And why, if Satan desired all, did He not say concerning 
all, I have prayed for you? Is it not quite plain that it is 
this, which I have mentioned before, that it is as reproving 
him, and shewing that his fall was more grievous than the 
rest, that He directs His words to him? 

And wherefore said He not. But I did not suffer it, rather 
than, / have prayed? He speaks from this time lowly things, 
on His way to His Passion, that He may shew His humanity. 
For He that has built His Church upon Peter's confession, 
and has so fortified it, that ten thousand dangers and 
deaths are not to prevail over it; He that hath given him 
the keys of Heaven, and hath put him in possession of 
so much authority, and in no manner needed a prayer 
for these ends, (for neither did He say, I have prayed, but 
with His own authority, / icill build My Church, and I uill 
give thee the keys of Heave)i^ how should He need to pray, 
that He might brace up the shaken soul of a single man? 
Wherefore then did He speak in this way ? For the cause 
which I mentioned, and because of their weakness, for they 
had not as yet the becoming view of Him. 

How then was it that He denied? he said not, that thou 
mayest not deny, but that thy faith fail not, that thou perish 
not utterly. For this came from His care. 

For indeed fear had driven out all else, for it was beyond 
measure, and it became beyond measure, since God had to 
an exceeding degree deprived him of His help, and He did 

St. Peter taught not to contradict. 1089 

exceedingly deprive him thereof, because there was to an Matt. 
exceeding degree in him the passion of self-will and contra- "34" 35 * 
diction. In order then that He might pluck it up by the roots, 
therefore He suffered the terror to overtake him. 

For in proof that this passion was grievous in him, he 
was not content with his former words, gainsaying both 
prophet and Christ, but also after these things when Christ 
had said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, that this wi/;/</,v.34.35. 
before the cock crow, ihoii shalt deny Me thrice, he replieth, 
Though. I should die tvith Thee, I will not deny Thee in any 
wise. And Luke signi fies moreover, that the more Christ warned 
him, so much the more did Peter exceedingly oppose Him. 

What mean these things, O Peter ? When He was saying, 
One of you shall betray Me, thou didst fear lest thou shouklest 
be the traitor, and didst constrain ihe Disciple to ask, although 
conscious to thyself of no such thing; but now, when He is 
plainly crying out, and saying, All shall be offended, art thou 
gainsaying it, and not once only, but twice and often } For this 
is what Luke saith. 

Whence then did this come to him.? From much love, 
from much pleasure. I mean, that after that he was delivered 
from that distressing fear about the betrayal, and knew the 
traitor, he then spoke confidently, and lifted himself up over 
the rest, saying, Though all men shall he offended, yet will v. 3:^. 
/ not be offended. And in some degree too his conduct 
sprung from jealousy, for at supper they reasoned ^ which oj^ Luke 
them is the greater, to such a degree did this passion trouble ' " 
them. Therefore He checked him, not compelling him to the 
denial, God forbid ! but leaving him destitute of His help, and 
convicting human nature. 

See at any rate after these things how he was subdued. 

For after the Resurrection, when he had said, ^And what shall' •'°'i" 

this man do? and was silenced, he ventured no more to 

gainsay as here, but held his peace. Again, towards the 

Assumption \ when he heard,*// is not for you to know titjies^ i.e. the 

or seasons, again he holds his peace, and contradicts not. Alter sion^° 

these things, on the house, and by the sheet, when he heard *^cts h 

a voice saying to him, * What God hath cleatised, call not thou 5 Acts 

common, even though he knew not for the time what the '^' ^^' 

saying could be, he is quiet, and strives not. 

4 A 

1090 A good will needs God's help, a bad frustrates it. 

HoMiL. [4.] All these things did that fall effect, and whereas 
i^xxii^ |jgfQj.g tj^j^j jjg attributes all to himself, saying, Though all 
men shall he ojfended, yet will t not be offended: and, 
If I should die, I tvill not deny Thee, (when he should have 
said, If I receive the assistance from Thee;) — yet after these 
'Acts 3, things altogether the contrary, ' Why do ye give heed to us, as 
though by our own power or holiness we had made him to 
walk ? 

Hence we learn a great doctrine, that a man's willingness 
is not sufficient, unless any one receive the succour from 
above ; and that again we shall gain nothing by the succour 
from above, if there be not a willingness. And both these 
things do Judas and Peter shew; for the one, though he had 
received much help, was profited nothing, because he was not 
willing, neither contributed his part ; but this one, though he 
was ready in mind, because he received no assistance, fell. 
For indeed of these two things is virtue's web woven. 

Wherefore I entreat you neither (when you have cast all 
upon God) to sleep yourselves, nor, when labouring earnestly, 
to think to accomplish all by your own toils. For neither is it 
God's will that we should be supine ourselves, therefore He 
worketh it not all Himself; nor yet boasters, therefore He did 
not give all to us ; but having removed what was hurtful in 
either way, left that which is useful for us. Therefore He suf- 
fered even the chief Apostle to fall, both rendering him more 
humbled in mind, and training him thenceforth to greater love. 
'Luke7 -^or' to whom more is forgiven, it is said, he loveth more. 
■*7' Let us then in every thing believe God, and gainsay Him 

in nothing, though what is said seem to be contrary to our 
thoughts and senses, but let His Word be of higher authority 
than both reasonings and sight. Thus let us do in the 
Mysteries also, not looking at the things set before us, but 
keeping in mind His sayings. 

For His Word cannot deceive, but our senses are easily 
beguiled. That hath never failed, but this in most things 
goeth wrong. Since then the Word saith, This is my Body, 
let us both be persuaded and believe, and look at it with the 
eyes of the mind. 

For Christ hath given nothing sensible, but though in things 
sensible yet all to be perceived by the mind. So also in 

Sin of unworthily receiving Holy Communion. 1091 

Baptism, the gift is bestowed by a sensible thing, that is, Matt. 
by water ; but that which is clone is perceived by the mind, 34. 35/ 
the birth, I mean, and the renewal. For if thou hadst been 
incorporeal. He would have delivered thee the incorpoi*eal 
gifts bare ; but because the soul hath been locked up in a 
body, He delivers thee the things that the mind perceives, in 
things sensible. 

How many now say, I would wish to see His Form, the 
mark. His clothes. His shoes. Lo! thou seest Him, Thou 
touchest Him, thou eatest Him. And thou indeed desirest 
to see His clothes, but He giveth Himself to thee not to see 
only, but also to touch and eat and receive within thee. 

Let then no one approach it with indifference, no one faint- 
hearted, but all with burning hearts, all fervent, all aroused. 
For if Jews standing, and having on their shoes and their 
staves in their hands, ate with haste, much more oughtest thou 
to be watchful. For they indeed were to go forth to Palestine, 
wherefore also they had the garb of pilgrims, but thou art about 
to remove unto Heaven. Wherefore it is needful in all respects [5,] 
to be vigilant, for indeed no small punishment is appointed to 
them that partake unworthily. 

Consider how indignant thou art against the traitor, against 
them that crucified Him. Look therefore, lest thou also thyself 
become guilty of the Body and Blood of Christ. They slaugh- 
tered the all-holy Body, but thou receivest It in a filthy soul 
after such great benefits. For neither was it enough for Him 
to be made man, to be smitten and slaughtered, but He also 
commingleth Himself with us, and not by faith only, but also 
in very deed maketh us His Body. What then ought not 
he to exceed in purity that hath the benefit of this sacri- 
fice, than what sunbeam should not that hand be more pure 
which is to sever this Flesh, the mouth that is filled with 
spiritual fire, the tongue that is reddened by that most awful 
Blood? Consider with what sort of honour thou wast 
honoured, of what sort of Table thou art partaking. That 
which when Angels behold, they tremble, and dare not 
so much as look up at It without awe on account of the 
Brightness that cometh thence, with this we are fed, with this 
we are commingled, and we are made one body and one flesh 

4 a2 

1092 JVe should feed of Christ as infants at the breast. 

HoMiL. with Christ. ' Who shall declare the mighty works of the 
rxx£u^ 2;c,rrf, and cause all His praises to be heard? What shepherd 
2. 'feeds his sheep with his own limbs? And why do I say, 
shepherd ? There are often mothers that after the travail of 
birth send out their children to other women as nurses; but 
He endureth not to do this, but Himself feeds us with His 
own Blood, and by all means entwines us with Himself 

Mark it, He was born of our substance. But, you say, this 
is nothing to all men ; though it docs concern all. For if He 
came unto our nature, it is quite plain that it was to all; but 
if to all, then to each one. And how was it, you say, that all 
did not reap the profit therefrom. This was not of His doing. 
Whose choice it was to do this in behalf of all, but the fault 
of them that were not willing. 

With each one of the faithful doth He mingle Himself in 
the Mysteries, and whom He begat. He nourishes by Him- 
self, and putteth not out to another; by this also persuading 
thee again, that He had taken thy flesh. Let us not then be 
remiss, having been counted worthy of so much both of love 
and honour. See ye not the infants with how much eagerness 
they lay hold of the breast.'' with what earnest desire they fix. 
their lips upon the nipple ? With the like let us also approach 
this Table, and the nipple of the spiritual Cup. Or rather, with 
much more eagerness let us, as infants at the breast, draw out 
the grace of the Spirit, let it be our one sorrow, not to partake 
of this Food. The works set before us are not of man's power. 
He that then did these things at that Supper, this same now 
also works them. We occupy the place of servants. He who 
sanctifieth and changeth them is the same. Let then no 
Judas be present, no covetous man. If any one be not a 
disciple, let him withdraw, the Table receives not such. For 
' Matt. Jl keep the passover^, He saith, with My Disciples. 
2o, 18. i^ijjg Table is the same as That, and hath nothing less. 
For it is not so that Christ wrought that, and man this, but 
He doth this too. This is that upper chamber, where they 
were then; and hence they went forth unto the mount of 

Let us also go out unto the hands of the poor, for this spot 
is the mount of Olives. For the multitude of the poor are 

Oil of alms. Sin of admitting unworthy communicants. 1093 

olive-trees planted in the house of God, dropping the Matt. 
oil, which is profitable for us There, which the five virgins -^^Jg^- 
had, and the others that had not received perished thereby. 
Having received this, let us enter in, that with bright 
lamps we may meet the Bridegroom ; having received this, 
let us go forth hence. 

Let no inhuman person be present, no one that is cruel 
and merciless, no one at all that is unclean. 

[6.] These things I say to you that receive, and to you that 
minister. For it is necessary to address myself to you also, 
that you may with much care distribute the gifts there. 
There is no small punishment for you, if being conscious 
of any wickedness in any man, you allow him to partake 
of this Table. His^ blood shall be required at your hands, i Ezek. 
Though any one be a general, though a deputy, though it ' ' 
be he himself who is invested with the diadem, and come 
unworthily, forbid him, the authority thou hast is greater 
than his. Thou, if thou wert entrusted to keep a spring of 
water clean for a flock, and then wert to see a sheep having 
much mire on its mouth, thou wouldest not suffer it to stoop 
down unto it and foul the stream: but now being entrusted 
with a spring not of water, but of Blood and of Spirit, if 
thou seest any having on them sin, which is more grievous 
than earth and mire, coming unto it, art thou not displeased? 
dost thou not drive them off? and what excuse canst thou 
have ? 

For this end God hath honoured you with this honour, 
that ye should discern these things. This is your office, 
this your safety, this your whole crown, not that ye should 
go about clothed in a white and shining vestment. 

And whence know I, you may say, this person, and 
that person? I speak not of the unknown, but of the noto- 

Shall I say something more fearful. It is not so grievous 
a thing for the Energumens^ to be within, as for such as ''i.e. 
these, whom Paul affirms to trample Christ under foot, and ^^^j^ 
to accou7it^ the blood of the covenant unclean, and to c/o devils. 

3 Heb 

despite to the grace of the Spirit. For he that hath fallen lo 29. 
into sin and draws nigh, is worse than one possessed with 
a devil. For they, because they are possessed are not 


1094 The unworthy excluded for amendment. 

HoMiL. punished, but those, when they draw nigh unworthily, are 
delivered over to undying ])unishnient. Let us not 
therefore drive away these only, but all without exception, 
whomsoever we may see coming unworthily. 

Let no one communicate who is not of the disciples. 
Let no Judas receive, lest he suffer the fate of Judas. 
This multitude also is Christ's Body. Take heed, therefore, 
thou that ministerest at the Mysteries, lest thou provoke the 
Lord, not purging this Body. Give not a sword instead of 

Nay, though it be from ignorance that he come to commu- 
nicate, forbid him, be not afraid. Fear God, not man. If 
thou shouldest fear man, thou wilt be laughed to scorn even 
by him, but if God, thou wilt be an object of respect even 
to men. 

But if thou darest not to do it thyself, bring him to me ; 
I will not allow any to dare do these things. I would 
give up my life rather than impart of the Lord's Blood to 
the unworthy; and will shed my own blood rather than 
impart of such awful Blood contrary to what is meet. 

But if any hath not known the bad man, after much 
enquiry, it is no blame. For these things liave been said 
about the open sinners. For if we amend these, God will 
speedily discover to us the unknown also ; but if we let 
these alone, wherefore should He then make manifest those 
that are hidden. 

But these things I say, not that we repel them only, nor 
cut them off, but in order that we may amend them, and 
bring them back, that we may take care of them. For thus 
shall we both have God propitious, and shall find many to 
receive worthily ; and for our own diligence, and for our 
care for others, receive great reward ; unto which God grant 
we may all attain by the grace and love towards man of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory world without end. 


Matt. xxvi. 86 — 38. 

Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethseniane, 
and saith unto the Disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and 
pray yonder. And He took with Him Peter and the two 
sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy : 
and He saith unto them. My Soul is exceeding sorrowful, 
even unto death ; tarry ye here, and watch with Me. 

Because they clung to Him inseparably, therefore He 
saith, Tarry ye here, while I go away and pray. For it was 
usual with Him to pray apart from them. And this He did 
teaching us in our prayers, to prepare silence for ourselves 
and great retirement. 

And He takes with Him the three, and saith unto them. 
My Soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death. Where- 
fore doth He not take all with Him ? That they might not 
be cast down; but these He taketh that had been spectators of 
His glory. However, even these He dismisses : And He went on v.39-4i. 
a little farther, and prayelh, saying, Father, if it he possible, 
let this cup passfrotn Me; nevertheless not as I will, but as 
Thou wilt. And He cometh unto them, and findeth them 
sleeping, and saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch 
with Me one hour? Watch and pray, that ye enter not 
into temptation ; the spirit indeed is willing, hut the flesh is 

Not without reason doth He inveigh against Peter most, 
although the others also had slept ; but to make him feel by 
this also, for the cause which I mentioned before. Then 

1006 Pruvision against denial of Our Lord's real Manhood. 
HoMiL. because the others also said the same thing, (for when Peter 


J had said, (these are the words,) * lliough I must die with 

26,3(5. TJtec, I will not deny Thee ; likewise also, it is added, said 
nil the Disciples;) He addresses Himself to all, convicting 
their wiakness. For they who are desiring to die with 
Him, were not then able so much as to sorrow with Hira 
waliefuUy, but sleep overcame them. 

And He prays with earnestness, in order that the thing 
might not seem to be acting. And sweats flow over him for 
the same cause again, even that the heretics might not say 
this, that He acts the agony. Therefore there is a sweat 
like drops of blood, and an Angel appeared strengthening 
Him, and a thousand sure signs of fear, lest any one 
should affirm the words to be feigned. For this cause also 
was this prayer. By saving then, //" it he possible, let it 
pass from Me, He shewed His Humanity; but by saying. 
Nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt, He shewed His 
virtue and self-command, teaching us even when nature 
])ulls us back, to follow God. For since it was not enough 
for the foolish to shew His Face only, He uses words also. 
Again, words sufficed not alone, but deeds likewise were 
needed; these also He joins with the words, that even they 
who are in a high degree contentious may believe, that He 
both became man and died. For if, even when these things 
are so, this be still disbelieved by some, much more, if these 
had not been. See by how many things He shews the 
reality of the Incarnation : by what He speaks, by what 
He suffers. After that He cometh and saith to Peter, as it 
2 Coinp. is said, ^ What, couldest thou not watch one hour with Me ? 
37_ " 'All were sleeping, and He rebukes Peter, hinting at him, in 
what He spake. And the words, with Me, are not employed 
without reason ; it is as though He had said, Thou couldest 
not watch with Me one hour, and wilt thou lay down 
thy life ibr Me ^ and what follows also, intimates this self- 
same thing. For, IVatch, saith He, and pray not to enter 
into temptation. See how He is again instructing them not 
to be self-confident, but contrite in mind, and to be humble, 
and to refer all to God. 

And at one time He addresses Himself to Peter, at another 
to all in common. And to him He saith, Sivion, Simon, 

The Disciples taught the need of God's help. 1097 

Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as Matt. 
wheat; hut I have prayed for thee; and to all in common, 42.43/ 
Pray tliat ye enter not into temptation ; every way plucking ~~ 
up their self-will, and making them earnest-minded. Then, 
that He might not seem to make His language altogether 
condemnatory, He saith, The spirit indeed is ready, but the 
flesh is iceak. For even although thou dost desire to 
despise death, yet thou wilt not be able, until God stretch 
forth His hand, for the carnal mind draws down. 

And again He prayed in the same way, saying. Father, y. 42. 
if this cup cannot pass from Me except I drink it, Thy 
will be done, shewing here, that He fully harmonizes with 
God's will, and that we must always follow this, and seek 
after it. 

And He came and found them asleep. For besides that v. 43. 
it was late at night, their eyes also were weighed down by 
their despondency. And the third time He went and spake 
the same thing, establishing the fact, that He was become 
man. For the second and third time is in the Scriptures 
especially indicative of truth ; like as Joseph also said to 
Pharaoh, Did the dream appear to thee the second time? 
For^ truth was this done, and that thou mightest be assured^ Gren. 

. 41 32 

that this shall surely be. Therefore He too once, and twice, ' 

and three times spake the same thing, for the sake of proving 

the In carnation ^ ^oIkovo- 

And wherefore came He the second time ? In order 
to reprove them, for that they were so drowned in despond- 
ency, as not to have any sense even of His Presence. 
He did )iot however reprove them, but stood apart from them 
a little, shewing their unspeakable weakness, that not even 
when they had been rebuked, were they able to endure. But 
He doth not awake and rebuke them again, lest He should 
smite them that were already smitten, but He went away and 
prayed, and when He is come back again. He saith. Sleep 
on now, and take your rest. And yet then there was need to 
be wakeful, but to shew that they will not bear so much as 
the sight of the dangers, but will be put to flight and desert 
Him from their terror, and that He hath no need of their 
succour, and that Hemust by all means be delivered up, Sleep v. 43. 

1098 The Betrayal. Our Lord's free-will and power sheum. 

HoMii.. o/i now^ lie saith, and take your rest; behold the hour is at 
i.xxxin.^^^^^ ^^j^ ^j^^ g^^ of Man is betrayed into the hands of 


He shews again that what is done belongs to a Divine 

[2.] dispensation ; but He doth not this only, but also, by saying, 

into the hands of sintiers. He cheers up their minds, shewing 

it was the efTect of their wickedness, not of His being liable 

to any charge. 

V. 46. Rise, let us be going ; behold, he is at hand that doth betray 

Me. For by all means He taught them, that the matter was 
not of necessity, nor of weakness, but of some secret dispens- 
ation. For, as we see. He foreknew that Judas would come, 
and so far from flying, He even went to meet him. At any 

. 47. rate. While He yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, 
and tcilh hini a great multitude with swords and staves, from 
the chief priests and elders of the people. Seemly surely are 
the instruments of the priests! with swords and staves do 
they come against Him ! And Judas, it is said, with them, 
one of the twelve. Again he calleth him of the twelve, and 
is not ashamed. Now he that betrayed Him gave them a 

T. 48. sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is He, hold 
Him fast. Oh ! what depravity had the traitor's soul received. 
For with what kind of eyes did he then look at his Master ? 
with what mouth did he kiss Him ? Oh ! accursed purpose ; 
what did he devise.? What did he dare? What sort of 
sign of betrayal did he give ? W^homsoever I shall kiss, he 
saith. He was emboldened by his Master's gentleness, which 
more than all was sufficient to shame him, and to deprive 
him of all excuse, for that he was betraying One so meek. 

But wherefore doth He say this? Because often when 
seized by them He had gone out through the midst, without 
their knowing it. Nevertheless, then also this would have 
been done, if it had not been His own will that He should 
be taken. It was at least with a view to teach them this, that 

\g°4^ He then blinded their eyes, and Himself asked, ' Whom seek 
ye? And they knew Him not, though being with lanterns 
and torches, and liaving Judas with them. Afterwards, as 

'^'•^^' they had said, Jesus ; He saith, lam He Whom ye seek: 
and here again, Friend, tchercfore art thou come ? 

Judas resists all pleading . Snare of covetousness. 1099 

For after having shewn His own strength, then at once He Matt. 
yielded Himself. But John saith, that even to the very ^q 
moment He continued to reprove him, saying, ^ Judas, j' , 
hetrayesi thou the Son of Man with a kiss? Art thou not 22, 48. 
ashamed even of the form of the betrayal ? saith He. Never- 
theless, forasmuch as not even this checked him. He sub- 
mitted to be kissed, and gave Himself up willingly; and they 
laid their hands on Him, and seized Him that night on which 
they ate the Passover, to such a degree did they boil with 
rage, and were mad. However, they would have had no 
strength, unless He had Himself suffered it. Yet this de- 
livers not Judas from intolerable punishment, but even more 
exceedingly condemns him, for that though he had received 
such proof of His power, and lenity, and meekness, and 
gentleness, he became fiercer than any wild beast. 

Knowing then these things, let us flee from covetousness. 
For that, that it was, which then drove him to madness; that 
exercises them who are taken thereby in the most extreme 
cruelty and inhumanity. For, when it makes them to despair 
of their own salvation, much more doth it cause them 
to overlook that of the rest of mankind. And so tyrannical 
is the passion, as sometimes to prevail over the keenest lust. 
Wherefore indeed I am exceedingly ashamed, that to spare 
their money, may indeed have bridled their unchastity, but 
for the fear of Christ they were not willing to live chastely 
and with gravity. 

Wherefore I say, let us flee from it; for I will not cease for 
ever saying this. For why, O man, dost thou gather gold ? 
Why dost thou make thy bondage more bitter ? Why thy 
watching more grievous? Why thy anxiety more painful? 
Account for thine own the metals buried in the mines, those 
in the kings' courts. For indeed if thou hadst all that heap, 
thou wouldest keep it only, and wonkiest not use it. For if now 
thou hast not used the things thou possessest, but abstainest 
from them as though they belonged to others, much more 
would this be the case with thee, if thou hadst more. For it 
is the way of the covetous, the more they heap up around 
them, the more to be sparing of it. " But I know," sayest 
thou, " that these things are mine." The possession then is 
in supposition only, not in enjoyment. But I should be 

1 100 Greediness of gain never truly satisjied. 

HoMiL, an object of fear to men, sayest thou. Nay, but thou wouldest 

' by this become a more easy prey both to rich and poor, to 

robbers, and false accusers, and servants, and in general to 
all that are minded to plot against thee. For if thou art 
desirous to be an object of fear, cut off the occasions by 
which they are able to lay hold of thee and pain thee, who- 
ever have set their hearts thereon. Hearest thou not the 
parable that saith, that the poor and naked man, not even a 
hundred men gathered together are ever able to strip ? For 
he hath his poverty as his greatest protection, which not even 
[3.] the king shall ever be able to subdue and take. The covetous 
man indeed all join in vexing. And why do I say men, when 
moths and worms war against such a man? And why do I 
speak of moths? Length of time is enough alone, even when 
no one troubles him, to do the greatest injury to such a man. 

What then is the pleasure of wealth ? For I see its 
discomforts, but do thou tell me the pleasure of it. And 
what are its discomforts ? sayest thou : anxieties, plots, 
enmities, hatred, fear; to be ever thirsting and in pain. 

For if any one were to embrace a damsel he loves, but 
were not able to satisfy his desire, he undergoes the utmost 
torment. Even so also doth the rich man. For he hath 
plenty, and is with her, but cannot satisfy all his desire ; but 
the same result takes place as some wise man mentions ; 
•Eccius. TAe' lust of an eunuch to deflower a virgin; and. Like 
30 '20. ^^ eunuch embracing a virgin and groaning; so are all the 

Why should one speak of the other things ? how such a 
one is displeasing to all, to his servants, his labourers, his 
neighbours, to ihem that handle public affairs, to them that 
are injured, to them that are not injured, to his wife most 
of all, and to his children more than to any. For not 
as men does he bring them up, but more miserably than 
menials and purchased slaves. 

And countless occasions for anger, and vexation, and 
insult, and ridicule against himself, doth he bring about, being 
set forth as a common laughing stock to all. So the dis- 
comforts are these, and perhaps more than these; for one 
could never go through them all in discourse, but experience 
will be able to set them before us. 

Neither hoarding nor spending makes a man hap'py. 1101 

But tell me the pleasure from hence. " I appear to be Matt. 
rich," he saith, " and am reputed to be rich." And what kind ^q ' 
of pleasure to be so reputed? It is a very great name for 
envy. I say a name, for wealth is a name only void of 

"Yet he thatisrich," saith he,"indulges and delights himself 
with this notion." He delights himself in those things about 
which he ought to grieve. " To grieve ? wherefore ?" asks 
he. Because this renders him useless for all purposes, and 
cowardly and unmanly both with regard to banishment and 
to death, for he holds this double, longing more for money 
than for light. Such a one not even Heaven delights, 
because it beareth not gold ; nor the sun, forasmuch as it puts 
not forth golden beams. 

But there are some, saith he, who do enjoy what they 
possess, living in luxury, in gluttony, in drunkenness, spend- 
ing sumptuously. You are telling me of persons worse than 
the first. For the last above all are the men, who have no 
enjoyment. For the first at least abstains from other evils, 
being bound to one love ; but the others are worse than these, 
besides what we have said, bringing in upon themselves a crowd 
of cruel masters, and doing service every day to the belly, to 
lust, to drunkenness, to the other kinds of intemperance, as 
to so many cruel tyrants, keeping harlots, preparing expen- 
sive feasts, purchasing parasites, flatterers, turning aside after 
unnatural lusts, involving their body and their soul in a 
thousand diseases springing therefrom. 

For neither is it on what they want they spend their goods, 
but on ruining the body, and on ruining also the soul there- 
with ; and they do the same, as if any one, when adorning 
his person, was to think he was spending his money on his 
own wants. 

So that he alone enjoys pleasure and is master of 
his goods, who uses his wealth for a proper object; but 
these are slaves and captives, for they aggravate both the 
passions of the body and the diseases of the soul. What 
manner of enjoyment is this, where is siege and war, and 
a storm worse than all the raging of the sea ? For if wealth 
find men fools, it renders them more foolish ; if wanton, more 

1 102 Alost true dignity found in poverty. • 

HoMiL. And what is the use of understanding, thou wilt say, to the 

— ' — 'poor man? As miglit be expected thou art ignorant; for 

neither doth the blind man know what is the advantage of 

'Eccles. light. Listen to Solomon, saying, ^ As far as light excelleih 

darkness, so doth icisdom excel folly. 

But how shall we instruct him that is in darkness ? For 
the love of money is darkness permitting nothing that is to 
appear as it is, but otherwise. For much as one in darkness, 
though he should see a golden vessel, though a precious 
stone, though purple garments, supposes them to be nothing, 
for he sees not their beauty ; so also he that is in covet- 
ousness, knows not as he ought the beauty of those things 
that are worthy of our care. Disperse then I pray thee the 
mist that arises from this passion, and then wilt thou see the 
nature of things. 

But no where do these things so plainly appear as in 
poverty, no where are those things so disproved which seem 
to be, and are not, as in self-denial. 
[4.] But oh ! foolish men ; who do even curse the poor, 
and say that both houses and living are disgraced by 
poverty, confounding all things. For what is a disgrace to 
a house ? I pray thee. It hath no couch of ivory, nor 
silver vessels, but all of earthenware and wood. Nay, this 
is the greatest glory and distinction to a house. Yox to be 
indifferent about worldly things, often occasions all a man's 
leisure to be spent in the care of his soul. 

When therefore thou seest great care about outward 
things, then be ashamed at the great unseemliness. For 
the houses of them that are rich most of all want seem- 
liness. For when thou seest tables covered with hangings, 
and couches inlaid with silver, much as in the theatre, 
much as in the display of the stage, what can be equal 
to this unseemliness? For what kind of house is most 
like the stage, and the things on the stage ? The rich 
man's or the poor man's ? Is it not quite plain that it is the 
rich man's ? This therefore is full of unseemliness. What 
kind of house is most like Paul's, or Abraham's? It is quite 
evident that it is the poor man's. This therefore is most 
adorned, and to be approved. And that thou maycst learn 
that this is, above all, a house's adorning, enter into the house 

How a house must be adorned to entertain Christ. 1103 

of Zaccheus, and learn, when Christ was on the point of Matt. 
entering therein, how Zaccheus adorned it. For he did not " ^q * 
run to his neighbours begging curtains, and seats, and chairs 
made of ivory, neither did he bring forth from his closets 
Laconian hangings; but he adorned it with an adorning 
suitable to Christ. What was this ? ' The half of my goods^ Luke 
/ will give, lie saith, to the poor ; and whomsoever I have 
robbed, I will restore fourfold. On this wise let us too adorn 
our houses, that Christ may enter in unto us also. These 
are the fair curtains, these are wrought in Heaven, they are 
woven there. Where these are, there is also the King of 
Heaven. But if thou adorn it in another way, thou art 
inviting the devil and his company. 

He came also into the house of the publican Matthew. 
What then did this man also do ? He first adorned himself 
by his readiness, and by his leaving all, and following 

So also Cornelias adorned his house with prayers and 
alms; wherefore even unto this day it shines above the 
very palace. For the vile state of a house is not in vessels 
lying in disorder, nor in an untidy bed, nor in walls covered 
with smoke, but in the wickedness of them that dwell 
therein. And Christ sheweth it, for into such a house, if 
the inhabitant be virtuous. He is not ashamed to enter; but 
into that other, though it have a golden roof, He will never 
enter. So that while this one is more gorgeous than the 
palace, receiving the Lord of all, that with its golden roof 
and columns is like filthy drains and sewers, for it contains 
the vessels of the devil. 

But these things we have spoken not of those who are 
rich for a useful purpose, but of the grasping, and the 
covetous. For neither is there amongst these, diligence nor 
care about the things needful, but about pampering the 
belly, and drunkenness, and other like unseemliness ; but 
with the others about self-restraint. Therefore no where 
did Christ enter into a gorgeous house, but into that of the 
publican and chief publican, and fisherman, leaving the 
kings' palaces, and them that are clothed with soft raiment. 

If then thou also desirest to invite Him, deck thy house 
with alms, with prayers, with supplications, with vigils. 

1 104 A cottacfe adorned with good icorks is well furnished. 

HoMiL. These are llie decorations of Christ the King, but those of 
T.Tifxni. jyjgjjj^^Qjj^ ji,^. enemy of Christ. Let no one be ashamed 
then of a humble house, if it hath this furniture; let no rich 
man pride himself on having a costly house, but let him 
rather hide his face, and seek after this other, forsaking 
that, that both here he may receive Christ, and there enjoy 
the eternal tabernacles, by the grace and love towards man 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and might 
world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxvi. 51 — 54. 

And, behold, one of them which were with Jesics stretched forth 
his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high 
priest's, and smote off" his ear. 

Then said Jesics uJito him. Put up again thy sword unto his 
place, for all they that take the sword, shall perish by the 
sword, Thinkest thou that I cannot pray to My Father, and 
He shall presently give me more than twelve legions of 
angels ? How then should the Scriptures be fulfilled that thus 
it must be ? 

Who was this ' one,' who cut off' the ear' ? John saith that ' John 
it was Peter. For the act was of his fervour. ^^' ^^' 

But this other point is worth enquiry, wherefore they were 
bearing swords ? For that they bore them is evident not 
hence only, but from their saying when asked, here are two. 
But wherefore did Christ even permit them to have swords ? 
For Luke affirms this too, that He said unto them, rFAe/<--Luke 


I sent you witliout purse, and scrips and shoes, lacked ye so—sq, 
any thing ? And when they said, Nothing, He said unto them, 
But nou\ he that hath a purse, let him take it, and a scrip, 
and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy 
one. iVnd when they said, Here are two swords, He said 
inito tliem. It is enough. 

Wherefore then did He suff'er them to have them ? To 
assure them that He was to be betrayed. Therefore He 
saith unto them, Let him buy a sword, not that they should 

4 B 

110(> Swords, ivhy allowed. Malckus's ear healed. 
HoMiL. arm themselves, far from it ; but by this, indicating His being 

LXXXIV. , ^ , 


And wherefore doth He mention a scrip also ? He was 
teaching them henceforth to be sober, and wakeful, and to 
use much diligence on their own part. For at the beginning 
He cherished them (as being inexperienced) with much 
putting forth of His power, but afterwards bringing them forth 
as young birds out of the nest, He commands them to use 
their own Avings. Then, that they might not suppose that it 
was for weakness He is letting them alone, in commanding 
them also to work their part. He reminds them of the former 
things, saying, TF/ien I sent yon wifJionf purse, lacked ye 
any thing ? that by both they might learn His power, both 
wherein He protected them, and wherein He now leaveth 
them to themselves by degrees. 

But whence were the swords there ? They were come forth 
from the Supper, and from the Table. It was likely also 
there should be swords because of the lamb, and that the 
disciples, hearing that certain were coming forth against Him, 
took them for defence, as meaning to fight in behalf of their 
Master, which was of their thought only. Wherefore also 
Peter is rebuked for using it, and with a severe threat. For 
he was resisting the servant who came, warmly indeed, yet 
not defending himself, but doing this in behalf of his Master. 
Christ however suffered not any harm to ensue. For He 
healed him, and shewed forth a great miracle, enough to 
indicate at once both His forbearance and His power, and 
the affection and meekness of His disciple. For then he 
acted from affection, now with dutifulness. For when he 

'John heard. Put up thy sword nito its sheath\ he obeyed straight- 
' ■ w^ay, and afterwards no where doeth this. 

5 Luke But another saith,that they moreover askedy^Shallwe smite? 
' ' but that He forbad it, and healed the man, and rebuked His 
disciple, and threatened, that He might move him to obe- 
dience. For all they that take ike sword, He said, shall die 
with the sword. 

v.53.54. And he adds a reason, saying, Think ye that I cannot 
pray to My Father, and He shall presently give Me more 
than twelve legions of Angels ? But that the Scriptures 
might he fuljilled. By these words He quenched their anger, 

Why our Lord spoke of aid from Angels. 1 107 

indicating that to the Scriptures also, this seemed good. Matt. 
Wherefore there too He prayed, that they miglittake meekly g^ * 
what befel Him, when they had learnt that this again is done ~ ~~~ 
according to God's will. 

And by these two things. He comforted them, both by the 
punishment of them that ai"e plotting against Him, For all 
they, He saith, that take the sword shall perish with the sword; 
and by His not undergoing these things against His Will, 
For I can pray, He saith, to My Father. 

And wherefore did He not say, "Think ye that I cannot 
destroy them all?" Because He was more likely to be believed 
in saying what He did say; for not yet had they the right 
belief concerning Him. And a little while before He had 
said, My soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death, and, "/-SS-Sd. 
Father, let the cup pass from Me; and He had appeared in 
an agony and sweating, and strengthened by an Angel. 

Since then He had shewn forth many tokens of human 
nature, He did not seem likely to speak so as to be believed, 
if He had said^ " Think ye that T cannot destroy them." 
Therefore He saith, What, think ye that I cannot pray to 
My Father ? And again He speaks it humbly, in saying, He 
will presently give Me ticelve legions of Angels. For if one 
Angel * slew one hundred and eighty-five armed thousands, •2Kings 
what need of twelve legions against a thousand men ? But 

19, 35. 


He frames His language with a view to their terror and 
weakness, for indeed they were clead with fear. Wherefore 
also He brings against them the Scriptures, saying, How 
then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled? alarming them by this 
also. For if this be approved by the Scripture, do ye oppose 
and fight against them ? 

[2,] And to His disciples He saith these things; but to 
the others. Are ye come out as against a thief ivith swords x. 55. 
and staves for to take Me ? I sat daily teaching in the 
temple, and ye laid no hold on Me. 

See how many things He doeth that might awaken them. 
He cast them to the ground, He healed the servant's ear. 
He threatened them with being slain ; For they shall perish 
icith the sword. He saith, who take the sword. By the 
healing of the ear. He gave assurance of these things also ; 
from every quarter, both from the things present, and from 

4 B 2 

1 108 Our Lord tciUinyly delivered Himself up. 

IIowiL. the things to coiiic, manifesting Ilis power, and shewing 
Lxixiv. j^i^^j. jj ^,j^g ^^^j. ^ yfoxli of their strength to seize Hira. 
Wherefore He also adds, / was daihj ivith you, and sat 
teaching, and ye laid no hold on Me; by this also making it 
manifest, that the seizure was of His permission. He passed 
over the miracles, and mentions the teaching, that He might 
not seem to boast. 

When I taught, ye laid no hold on Me ; when 1 held My 
peace, did ye come against Me .? I was in the temple, and 
no one seized Me, and now do ye come upon INIe late and 
at rflidnight with swords and staves .? What need was there 
of these w^eapons against Him, Who was with you always ? 
by these things teaching them, that unless He had volun- 
tarily yielded, not even then would they have succeeded. 
For neither could they (who were not able to hold Him 
when in their hands, and who, when they had got Plim in the 
midst of them, had not prevailed) even then have succeeded, 
unless He had been willing. 

After this, He solves also the difficulty why He willed it 
V. 56. then. For this was done. He saith, that the Scriptures of 
the Prophets miylil be Juljilled. See how even up to the 
last hour, and in the very act of being betrayed, He did all 
things for their amendment, healing, prophesying, threaten- 
ing. For, He saith, they shall perish by the sword. To 
shew that He is suffering voluntarily. He saith, / was 
daily with you teaching ; to manifest His accordance with 
the Father, He adds. That the Scriptures might he Jul- 

But wherefore did they not lay hold on Him in the 
temple? Because they would not have dared in the temple, 
on account of the people. Wherefore also He went forth 
without, both by the place and by the time giving them 
security, and even to the last hour taking away their excuse. 
For He Who, in order that He might obey the Prophets, 
gave up even Himself, how did He teach things contrary to 
them ? 

Then all His disciples, it is ?>d\(\, Jorsook Him, and Jied. 
For when He was seized, they remained ; but when He had 
said these things to the multitudes, they fled. For thence- 
forth they saw that escajic was no longer possible, when He 

The Jews' hypocrisy iti perverting justice. 1109 

was eivinar Himself up to them volmitarilv, and sayinff, that Matt. 

. . ' . u' XXVI 

this was done according to the Scriptures. 57— 6i. 

And when these were fled, they lead Him away to Caiaphas; v. 67.58. 
but Peter foUoued, and entered in to see what the end 
shoidd be. 

Great was the fervour of the disciple ; neither did he fly 
when he saw thera flying, but stood his ground, and went in 
with Him. And if John did so too, yet he was knoivn^ to the^ John 
high priest. 

And why did they lead Him away there, wheVe they were 
all assembled? That they might do all things with consent 
of the chief priests. For he was then high priest, and all 
were waiting for Christ there, to such a degree did they 
spend the whole night, and give up their sleep for this 
object. For neither did they then eat the Passover, but 
watched for this other jjurpose. For John, when he had 
said that if^ ?cas early, added, they entered into the judg-^ ^ohn 
ment hall, lest they should he defiled, but that they might ' 
eat the Passover. 

What must we say then } Ti)at they ate it on another 
day, and broke the Law, on account of their eager desire 
about this murder. For Christ would not have transgressed 
as to the time of the Passover, but they who were daring all 
things, and trampling under foot a thousand laws. For 
since they were exceedingly boiling with rage, and having 
often attempted to seize Him, had not been able ; having 
then taken Him unexpectedly, they chose even to pass by 
the Passover, for the sake of satiating their murderous lust. 

Wherefore also they were all assembled together, and it 
was a council of pestilent men^, and they ask some questions, ^ o-we- 
wishing to invest this plot with the appearance of a court of^^'"'^^ 
justice. For neither did their testimonies agree together*; '^f- P^- 
so feigned was the court of justice, and all things full of 4 Mark 
confusion and disorder. ]^' ^^• 

. 59, 

But false witnesses came, and said, This felloio said,^,6(,.6i. 
I will destroy this Temple, and in three days I will raise if. 
And indeed He had said, /// three days, but He said not, 
I will destroy, but, Destroy, and not about that temple, but ^ see 
about His own Body. {^'^2^ 

What then doth the high priest? Willing to press Him 

1110 The Hentence precipitated for fear of the Truth. 
HoMiL. to a defence, that by that he might take Him, he saith, 



^—^ Hearest Thou not what these witness against Thee? But 

He held His peace. 

For the attempts at defence vvei'c unprofitable, no man 
hearing. For this was a shew only of a court of justice, 
but in truth an onset of robbers, assailing Him without 
cause, as in a cave, or on a road. 

Wherefore He held His peace, but the other continued, 

V. 63-66. saying, I adjure TJtee by the living God, that Tliou tell us 

whether Thou be the Christ, the Son of the living God. 

But He said, TIiou hast said. Nevertheless I say unto you. 

Hereafter shall ye see the Son of Man sitting at the right 

hand of power, and coming in the clouds. Then the high priest 

rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy. And 

this lie did to add force to the accusation, and to aggravate 

what He said, by the act. For since what had been said 

' Acts moved the hearers to fear, what they did about Stephen^, 

'' ' stopping their ears, this high priest doth here also. 

[3.] And yet what kind of blasphemy was this ? For 
indeed before He had said, when they were gathered 
3 Matt, together, The^ Lord said unto My Lord, Sit Thou on My 
4g] "" Right Hand, and interpreted the saying, and they dared say 
nothing, but held their peace, and fi'om that time forth gain- 
said Him no more. Why then did they now call the 
saying a blasphemy ? And wherefore also did Christ thus 
answer them ? To take away all their excuse, because unto 
the last day He taught, that He was Christ, and that He 
sitteth at the Right Hand of the Father, and that He will 
come again to judge the world, which was the language of 
One manifesting His full accordance with the Father. 
V. G6. Having rent therefore his clothes, he saith, What think 
ye? He gives not the sentence from himself, but invites 
it from them, as in a case of confessed sins, and manifest 
blasphemy. For, inasmuch as they knew that if the thing 
came to be enquired into, and carefully decided, it would 
free Him from all blame, they condemn Him amongst 
themselves, and anticipate the hearers by saying. Ye have 
heard the blasphemy ; all but necessitating and forcing them 
to deliver the sentence. What then say they? He is guilty 
of death; that having taken Him as condemned, they should 

Aim of the Jews to disgrace as loell as to slay Him. 1111 

thus work upon Pilate thereupon to pass sentence. In Matt. 
whicli matter those others also being accomplices say, He gg ' 
is guilty of death; themselves accusing, themselves judging, 
themselves passing sentence, themselves being every thing 

But wherefore did they not bring forward the sabbaths ? 
Because He had often stopped their mouths ; and moreover 
they wanted to take Him, and condemn Him by the things 
then said. And [the high priest] anticipated them, and 
gave the sentence as from them, and drew them all on by 
rending his vestments, and having led Him away as now 
condemned unto Pilate, thus did all. 

Before Pilate at any rate they said nothing of this kind, 
but what? I/^ this 3Ian were not a malefactor^ we would ^ John 
not have delivered Him up unto thee ; attempting to put ' 
Him to death by political accusations. And wherefore did 
they not slay Him secretly? They were desirous also to 
bring up an evil report against His fame. For since many 
had now heard Him, and were admiring Him, and amazed 
at Him, therefore they endeavoured that He should be jmt 
to death publicly, and in the presence of all. 

But Christ hindered it not, but made full use of their 
wickedness for the establishment of the truth, so that His 
death should be manifest. And the result was the contrary 
to what they wished. For they wished to make a shew of 
it, as in this way disgracing Him, but He even by these 
very things shone forth the more. And much as they said, 
J^t^ us put Him to death, lest the Romans come and take^ John 
away our place and nation; and after they had put Him^^'^ " 
to death, this came to pass; so also here; their object was 
to crucify Him publicly, that they might injure His fame, 
and the contrary result took place. 

For in proof that indeed they had power to have put Him 
to death, even amongst themselves, hear what Pilate saith; 
Take^ ye Him, and judge Him according to your Law. But^ John 
they would not, that He might seem to have been put to ' 
death as a transgressor, as an usurper, as a mover of 
sedition. Therefore also they crucified thieves with Him; 
therefore also they said, Write* not that this Man is King* John 
of the Jews; hut that He said it. ' 

1112 Tlie beat victory is in patient endurance. 

HoMiL. But all tliese things arc done for the Trutb, so that tliey 
^'^^^^^'' might not have so much as any shadow of a defence that 
is surely shameless. And at the Sepulchre loo, in the like 
manner, the seals and the watches made the truth to be 
the more conspicuous; and the mockings, and the jeerings, 
and the revilings, wrought again this self-same effect. 

For such is the nature of error : it is destroyed by those 
things whereby it plots; thus at least it fell out even here, 
for tliey that seemed to have conquered, these most of all 
were put to shame, and defeated, and ruined ; but He that 
seemed to be defeated, this Man above all hath both shone 
forth, and conquered mightily. 

Let us not then every where seek victory, nor every where 
shun defeat. There is an occasion when victory brings hurt, 
but defeat profit. For, for instance, in the case oftliem that 
are angry ; he that hath been very outrageous seems to have 
prevailed; but this man above all is the one subdued and 
hurt by the most grievous passion; but he that hath endured 
nobly, this man hath got the better and conquered. And 
while the one hath not had strength to overcome so much as 
his own disease; the otlier hath removed another man's; 
this hath been subdued by his own, that hath got the better 
even of another's passion ; and so far from being burnt up, 
he quenched the flame of another when raised to a height. 
But if he had minded to gain what seems to be victory, both 
he himself would have been overcome; and having inflamed 
the other, lie would have occasioned him to have sufl'ered this 
more grievously; and, like women, both the one and the 
other would have been disgracefully and miserably overthrown 
by their anger. But now he that hath exercised self-control 
is both freed from this disgrace, and liath erected a glorious 
trophy over anger both in himself and in his neighbour, 
through his honourable defeat. 

[4.] Let us not then every where seek victory. For lie 
that hath overreached hath conquered the person wronged, 
but witli an evil victory, and one that brings destruction to 
him that has won it; but he that is wronged, and seems to 
have been conquered, if he have borne it with self-command, 
this above all is the one that hath the crown. For often to 
be defeated is better, and this is the best mode of victory. 

The Martyr cunquers. Joseph overcame his Mistress. 1113 

For whether one overreaches, or smites, or envies, he that is (Matt. 
defeated, and enters not into the conflict, this is he who hath ^^^^' 
the victory. 

And why do I speak of overreaching and envy ? For he 
also that is dragged to martyrdom, thus conquers by being 
bound, and beaten, and maimed, and slain. And what is 
in wars defeat, namely, for the combatant to fall ; this with 
us is victory. For no where do we overcome by doing 
wrongfully, but every where by suffering wrongfully. Thus 
also doth the victory become more glorious, when we suf- 
ferers get the better of the doers. Hereby it is shewn that 
the victory is of God. For indeed it hath an opposite nature 
to outward conquest, which fact is again above all an in- 
fallible sign of strength. Thus also the rocks in the sea, bv 
being struck, break the waves ; thus also all the Saints were 
proclaimed, and crowned, and set up their glorious trophies, 
winning this tranquil victory. " For stir not thyself," He 
saith, " neither weary thyself. God hath given thee this 
might, to conquer not by conflict, but by endurance alone. 
Do not oppose thyself also as he does, and thou hast con- 
quered; conflict not, and thou hast gained the crown. Why 
dost thou disgrace thyself? Allow him not to say that by 
conflicting thou hast got the better, but suffer him to be 
amazed and to marvel at thy invincible power ; and to say to 
all, that even without entering into conflict thou hast con- 

Thus also the blessed Joseph obtained a good report, 
every where by suffering wrong getting the better of them 
who were doing it. For his brethren and the Egyptian 
woman were amongst those that were plotting against him, 
but over all did this man prevail. For tell me not of the 
prison, wherein this man dwelt, nor of the king's courts 
where she abode, but shew me who it is that is conquered, 
who it is that is defeated, who that is in despondency, who 
that is in pleasure. For she, so far from being able to 
prevail over the righteous man, could not master so much as 
her own passion ; but this man prevailed both over her and 
over that grievous disease. But if thou wilt, hear her very 
words, and thou shalt see the trophy. Tltou ' broughtest in ' Gen. 
nnto tis here an Hebrew servant to moek us. It was not ' '* 

1114 Virtue preserved, better than outward success. 

HoMtL. this man that mocked thee, O wretched and unhappy woman, 
"^^yy* - but the devil that told thee that thou couldest break down 
the adamant. This [thy husband] brought not in unto thee 
an Hebrew servant to plot against thee, but the wicked 
spirit that unclean lasciviousness ; he it was that mocked 

What then did Joseph ? He held his peace, and thus is 
condemned, even as Christ is also. For all those things are 
types of these. And he indeed was in bonds, and she in 
royal courts. Yet what is this ? For he was more glorious 
than any crowned victor, even while continuing in his bonds, 
but she was in a more wretched condition than any prisoner, 
while abiding in royal chambers. 

But not hence alone may one see the victory, and the 
defeat, but by the end itself. For which accomplislied his 
desired object ? The prisoner, not the high born lady? For 
he strove to keep his chastity, but she to destroy it. Which 
then accomplished what he desired? he who suffered wrong, 
or she who did the wrong. It is quite plain, that it is he 
who suffered. Surely then this is the one who hath con- 

Knowing then these things, let us follow after this victory, 
which is obtained by suffering wrong, let us flee from that 
which is got by doing wrong. For so shall we both live this 
present life in all tranquillity, and great quietness, and shall 
attain unto the good things to come, by the grace and love 
towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory 
and might world without end. Amen. 


Matt. xxvi. 67, 68. 

Then did they spit in His Face, and buffeted Him, and others 
smote Him with the palms of their hands, saying, Prophesy 
unto us, Thou Christ, who is he that smote Thee ? 

Wherefore did they these things, when they were to put 
Him to death ? What need of this mockery ? That thou 
mightest learn their intemperate spirit by all things, and that 
having taken Him like a prey, they thus shewed forth their 
intoxication, and gave full swing to their madness ; making 
this a festival, and assaulting Him with pleasure, and shewing 
forth their murderous disposition. 

But admire, I pray thee, the self-command of the disciples, 
with what exactness they relate these things. Hereby is 
clearly shewn their disposition to love the truth, because 
they relate with all truthfulness the things that seem to be 
opprobrious, disguising nothing, nor being ashamed thereof, 
but rather accounting it very great glory, as indeed it was, 
that the Lord of the universe should endure to suffer 
such things for us. This shews both His unutterable 
tenderness, and the inexcusable wickedness of those men, 
who had the heart to do such things to Him that was so 
mild and meek, and was charming them with such words, as 
were enough to change a lion into a lamb. For neither did 
He fail in any thing of gentleness, nor they of insolence and 
cruelty, in what they did, in what they said. All which 
things the prophet Isaiah foretold, thus proclaiming before- 
hand, and by one word intimating all this insolence. ' For^ is. 52, 


1110 Our Lord (jhr'iOKs in bearimj hisuUs. 

HoMiL. like as many were astonislted at Tltee, be saith, so shall 

'- Thy form he held inglorious of men, and Thy glory of the 

sons of men. 

For wliat could be equal to this iiisoleucu ? On that Face 
wbich the sea, when it saw it, had reverenced, from which 
the sun, when it beheld it on the cross, turned away his 
rays, they did spit, and struck it with the palms of their 
hands, and smote upon the Head ; giving full swing in every 
way to their own madness. For indeed they inflicted the 
blows that are most insulting of all, buffeting, smiting with 
the palms of their hands, and to these blows adding the 
insult of spitting at Him. And words again teeming with 
much derision did they speak, saying. Prophesy unto its, 
Thou Christ, who is he that smote Thee ? because the mul- 
titude called Him a Prophet. 
'Luke But another' saith, that thev covered His face with His 

22 64. 

' * own garment, and did these things, as though they had got 
in the midst of them some vile and worthless fellow. And 

2 Mark not freemen only, but slaves - also were intemperate with this 

' * intemperance towards Him at that time. 

These things let us read continually, these things let us 
hear aright, these things let us write in our mind; for these 
are our honours. Tn these things do I take a pride, not 
only in the thousands of dead which He raised, but also in 
the sufferings which He endured. These things Paul puts 
forward in every way, the cross, the death, the sufferings, 

3 Heb. the revilings, the insults, the scoffs. And now he saith, Lel^ 

131 3. 

^ Heb." ^f' go forth unto Him hearing His reproach ; and now, JVho* 
12, 2. j'fjf. f/ig jf^.y fjifj^i ^^.^5 ggi Ipfore Him endured the cross, 

despising the shame. 
V. 69-75. Now Peter sat in the court without ; and a damsel came 
■unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. 
But he denied h(f ore them all, saying, I know not what thou 
say est. And when he was gone out into the porch, another 
maid saio him, and saith. This man also was there ivith 
Jesus of Nazareth. And again he denied with an oath. 
And after a ivhile came unto him they that stood hy, and 
said unto Peter, Surely thou also art one of them, for thy 
speech hewrayeth thee. Then hegan he to curse and to 
swear, I know not the man. And immediately the cock 

The different accounts of St. Peters denial. 1117 

crew. And Feler remembered the words of Jesus, which Matt. 

said, Before the cock crotv, thou shalt deny Me thrice. And qq^i^' 

he tvent out, and tcept bitterly. 

Oh strange and wonderful acts ! When indeed he saw 
his Master seized only, he was so fervent as both to draw his 
sword, and to cut off the man's ear; but when it was natural for 
him to be more indignant, and to be inflamed and to burn, 
hearing such revilings, then he becomes a denier. For 
who would not have been inflamed to madness by the 
things that were then done ? yet the disciple, overcome by 
fears, so far from shewing indignation, even denies, and 
endures not the threat of a miserable and mean girl, and not 
once only, but a second and third time doth he deny 
Him; and in a short period, and not so much as before 
judges, for it was without ; for when he had gone out into 
the porch, they asked him, and he did not even readily come 
to a sense of his lall. And this Luke saith', namely, that' Luke 
Christ looked on him, shewing that he not only denied Him, "' 
but was not even brought to remembrance from within, and 
this though the cock had crowed; but he needed a further 
remembrance from his Master, and His look was to him 
instead of a voice ; so exceedingly was he full of fear. 

But Mark saith^, that when he had once denied, then 2 Mark 
first the cock crew, but when thrice, then for the second Ip ^^' 
time ; for he declares more particularly the weakness of the 
disciple, and that he was utterly dead with fear; having 
learnt these things of his master^ himself, for he was a follower 3 1 Pet. 
of Peter. In which respect one would most marvel at him, ' 
that so far from hiding his teacher's faults, he declared it 
more distinctly than the rest, on this very account, that he 
was his disciple. 

[2.] How then is what is said true, when Matthew affirms 
that Christ said. Verily* I say unto thee, that before the cock * Matt. 
crow thou shalt deny 3Ie thrice; and Mark declares after the ' 
third denial, that ^The cock crew the second time? Nav,^ Mark 

14 72 

most certainly is it both true and in harmony. For because ' 
at each crowing the cock is wont to crow both a third and 
a fourth time, Mark, to shew that not even the sound 
checked him, and brought him to recollection, saith this. 
So that both things are true. For before the cock had 

1118 Sin blinds men till it is accomplished. 

HoMiL. finished the one crowing, he had denied a lliird time. And 

~ ■ not even when reminded of his sin by Christ did he dare to 

weep ojjenly, lest he should be betrayed by his tearSj but he 
ivent out, and wept bitterly. 

c. 27. Atid when it was day, they led away Jesus from Caiaphas 
' ' ' to Pilate. For because they were desirous to put Hira to 
death, but were not able themselves because of the feast, 
they lead Him to the governor. 

But mark, I pray thee, how the act was forced on, so as 
to take place at the feast. For so was it typified from the 

^■3. Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saic that 

He was condemned, repented, and brought again the thirty 
pieces of silver. 

This was a charge both against him, and against these 
men ; against him, not because ho repented, but because he 
did so, late, and slowly, and became self-condemned; (for 
that he delivered Him up, he himself confessed ;) and 
against them, for that having the power to reverse it, they 
repented not. 

But mark, when it is that he feels remorse. When his 
sin was completed, and had received an accomplishment. 
For the devil is like this ; he suffers not tliose that are not 
watchful to see the evil before this, lest he whom he has 
taken, should repent. At least, when Jesus was saying so 
many things, he was not influenced, but when his offence 
was completed, then repentance came upon him ; and not 
then profitably. For to condemn it, and to throw down the 
pieces of silver, and not to regard the Jewish people, were 
all acceptable things ; but to hang himself, this again was 
unpardonable, and a work of an evil spirit. For the devil led 
him out of his repentance too soon, so that he should reap 
no fruit from thence; and carries him off", by a most dis- 
graceful death, and one manifest to all, having persuaded 
him to destroy himself. 

But mark, I pray thee, the truth shining forth on every 
side, even by what the adversaries both do and suffer. For 
indeed even the very end of the traitor stops the mouths of 
them that had condemned Him, and suffers them not to have 
so much as any shadow of an excuse, that is surely shame- 

The Jews strove to resist conviction. 1119 

less. For what could they have to say, when the traitor is Matt. 
shewn to pass such a sentence on himself. ^ 3_g ' 

But let us see also the words, what is said ; He brought y. 3—5. 
again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief friests, and 
saiih, I have sinned in that I have betrayed innocent blood. 
And they said, What is that to us ? see thou to that. And he 
cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, 
and tcent and hanged himself. 

For neither could he bear his conscience scourging him. 
But mark, I pray thee, the Jews too suffering the same 
things. For these men also, when they ought to have been 
amended by what they suffered, do not stop, until they 
have completed their sin. For his sin had been completed, 
for it was a betrayal ; but theirs not yet. But when they 
too had accomplished theirs, and had nailed Him to the Cross ; 
then they also are troubled ; at one time saying, Write^ not, ' John 
TJiis is the King of the Jews ; (and yet why are ye afraid ? ' ^'* 
why are ye troubled at a dead body that is nailed upon the 
Cross?) at another time they guard over Him, saying, Zes^^^ Matt. 
His disciples steal Him away, and say that He is risen ' 
again ; so the last error shall be worse than the first. And 
yet if they do it, the thing is refuted, if it be not true. But 
how should they say so, which did not dare so much as to 
stand their ground, when He was seized; and the chiefs oi^bKopv 
them even thrice denied Him, not bearing a damsel's threat, 'f"""^" 
But, as I said, the chief priests were now troubled ; for that 
they knew the act was a transgression of the law is mani- 
fest, from their saying, See thou to that. 

Hear, ye covetous, consider what befel him ; how he at the 
same time lost the money, and committed the sin, and 
destroyed his own soul. Such is the tyranny of covetous- 
ness. He enjoyed not the money, neither the present life, 
nor that to come, but lost all at once, and having got a bad 
character even with those very men, so hanged himself. 

But, as I said, after the act, then some see clearly. See 
at any rate these men too for a time not willing to have a 
clear perception of the fact, but saying, See thou to tliat : 
which thing of itself is a most heavy charge against them. 
For this is the language of men bearing witness to their 
daring and their transgression, but intoxicated by their" 

1120 Judas's warning yiven in vain to the Priests. 

HoMiL. passion, and not willing to forbear their satanical attempts, 
li^Eli but senselessly wrapping themselves up in a veil of feigned 

For if indeed these things had been said after the cruci- 
fixion, and His being slain, of a truth even then the saying 
would have had no reasonable meaning, nevertheless it 
would not have condemned them so much ; but now having 
Him yet in your own hands, and having power to release 
Tlim, how could ye be able to say these things? For this 
defence would be a most heavy accusation against you. 
How ? and in what way ? Because while throwing the 
whole blame upon the traitor, (for they say, See thou to 
that,) being able to have set themselves free from this mur- 
der of Christ, they left the traitor, and even pressed the 
crime further, addhig the cross to the betrayal. For what 
hindered them, when they said to him, See thou to that, 
themselves to forbear the criminal act? But now they 
even do the contrary, adding to it the murder, and in every 
thing, both by what they do, and by what they say, entan- 
o-hng themselves in inevitable ills. For indeed after these 
things, when Pilate left it to them, they chose the robber to 
be released rather than Jesus; but Him that had done no 
wrong, but had even conferred on them so many benefits, 
they slew. 

[3.] What then did that man ? When he saw that he 
was labouring to no profit, and that they would not consent 
V.5— 10. to receive the pieces of silver, he cast them down in the 
temple, and went and hanc/ed himself. And the chief 
priests took the pieces of silver, and said, It is not lawful for 
to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of 
blood. And they took counsel, and bouyht tcilh tliem the 
potter's field to bury stranyers in. Wherefore that field 
was called, The field of blood, unto this day. Then teas 
fulfilled that which teas spoken by Jeremy the prophet, 
sofjiny, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of 
Him that was valued, and yare them for the potter's field, 
as the Lord appointed me. 

Seest thou them again self-condemned by their con- 
science ? For because they knew that they had been 
buying the murder, they jnit them not into the treasury. 

Tlie land bought, a ivitness against the Jews. 1121 

but bought a field to bury strangers in. And this also Matt. 
became a witness against them, and a proof of their treason, jq^ 
For the name of the place more clearly than a trumpet 
proclaimed their bloodguiltiness. Neither did they it at 
random, but having taken counsel, and in every case in like 
manner, so that no one should be clear of the deed, but all 
guilty. But these things the prophecy foretold from of old. 
Seest thou not the Apostles only, but the Prophets also 
declaring exactly those things which were matters of reproach, 
and every way proclaiming the Passion, and indicating it 
beforehand ? 

This was the case with the Jews without their being con- 
scious of it. For if they had cast it into the treasury, the 
thing would not have been so clearly discovered ; but now 
having bought a piece of ground, they made it all manifest 
even to subsequent generations. 

Hear ye as many as think to do good works out of 
murders, and take a reward for the lives of men. These 
almsgivings are Judaical, or rather they are Satanical. For 
there are, there are now also they, that take by violence 
countless things belonging to others, and think that an 
excuse is made for all, if they cast in some ten or a 
hundred gold pieces. 

Touching whom also the Prophet saith, • Ye covered Mg^M^l. 
altar with tears. Christ is not willing to be fed by covet- ' 
ousness. He accepts not this food. Why dost thou insult 
thy Lord, offering Him unclean things ? It is better to leave 
men to pine with hunger, than to feed them from these 
sources. That was the conduct of a cruel man, this of one 
both cruel and insolent. It is better to give nothing, than 
to give the things of one set of persons to others. For tell 
me, if you saw any two persons, one naked, one having a 
garment, and then having stripped the one that had the 
garment, thou wert to clothe the naked, wouldest thou not 
have committed an injustice ? It is surely plain to every 
one. But if when thou hast given all that thou hast taken to 
another, thou hast committed an injustice, and not shewn 
mercy ; when thou givest not even a small portion of what 
thou robbest, and callest the deed alms, what manner of 
punishment wilt thou not undergo ? For if men offering 

4 c 

1 \2'2 Alms cannot sanctify unjust gams. 

HoMiL.lame brutes were blamed, what favour wilt thou obtain doing 
Lxxxv. ^j^jj^gg ^Q^.g gi-ievous ? For if the thief, making restitution 
to the owner himself, still doeth an injustice, and so doeth 
an injustice, as by adding fourfold scarcely to do away the 
lExodus charge against himself, and this under the old covenant^; he 
^^' ^' that is not stealing, but taking by violence, and not even 
giving to him that is robbed, but instead of him to another ; 
nor yet giving fourfold, but not so much as the half; 
and moreover not living under the old dispensation, but 
under the new ; consider how much fire he is heaping to- 
gether upon his own head. And if he do not as yet suffer 
his punishment, for this selfsame thing I say bewail him, for 
he is treasuring up against himself a greater wrath, unless he 
'Luke repent. For what? Think ye\ saith He, i/iat they alone 
^^' ^'^'were sinners upon whom the tower fell down? Nay, I say 
unto you, hut except ye repent, ye also shall suffer the same 

Let us repent then, and give alms pure from covetousness, 
and in great abundance. Consider that the Jews used to 
feed eight thousand Levites, and together with the Levites, 
widows also and orphans, and they bore many other public 
charges, and together with these things also served as 
soldiers ; but now there are fields, and houses, and hirings of 
lodgings, and carriages, and muleteers, and mules, and a 
great array of this kind in the church on account of you, and 
your hardness of heart. For this store of the Church ought 
to be with you, and your readiness of mind ought to be a 
revenue to her ; but now two wrong things come to pass, 
both you continue unfruitful, and God's priests do not 
practise their proper duties. 

Was it not possible for the houses and the lands to have 
remained in the time of the Apostles ? Wherefore then did 
they sell them and give away } Because this was a better 

[4.] But now a fear seized our fathers, (when you were 
so mad after worldly things, and because of your gathering, 
and not dispersing abroad,) lest the companies of the widows 
and orphans, and of the virgins, should perish of famine ; 
therefore were they constrained to provide these things. 
For it was not their wish to thrust themselves unto wliat was 

The Church cumbered with business for lack of alms. 1123 

so unbecominof ; but their desire was that your eroocl will Matt. 

should have been a supply for them, and that they should jq. 

gather their fruits from thence, and that they themselves 

should give heed to prayers only. 

But now ye have constrained them to imitate the houses 
of them that manage public affairs; whereby all things are 
turned upside down. For when both you and we are 
entangled in the same things, vvho is there to joropitiate 
God ? Therefore it is not possible for us to open our 
mouths, when the state of the Church is no better than that 
of worldly men. Have ye not heard, that the Apostles 
would not consent so much as to distribute the money that 
was collected without any trouble ? But now our Bishops 
have gone beyond agents, and stewards, and hucksters in 
their care about these things ; and when they ought to be 
careful and thoughtful about your souls, they are vexing them- 
selves every day about these things, for which the inn- 
keepers, and tax-gatherers, and accountants, and stewards 
are careful. 

These things I do not mention for nought in the way of 
complaint, but in order that there may be some amend- 
ment aud change, in order that we may be pitied for serving 
a grievous servitude, in order that you may become a revenue 
and store for the Church. 

But if ye are not willing, behold the poor before your 
eyes; as many as it is possible for us to suffice, we will not 
cease to feed ; but those, whom it is not possible, we will 
leave to you, that ye may not hear those words on the awful 
Day, which shall be spoken to the unmerciful and cruel. 
Ye^ saw Me an Jiungered, and fed Me not. \ Matt. 

For together with you this inhumanity makes us laughing- ^^' ^^' 
stocks, because leaving our prayers, and our teaching, and 
the other parts of holiness, we are fighting all our time, 
some with wine merchants, some with corn factors, others 
with them that retail other provisions. 

Hence come battles, and slrilts, and daily revilings, and 
reproaches, and jeers, and on each of the priests names are 
imposed more suitable for houses of secular men ; when 
it would have been fit to take other names in the place of 

4 c -> 

1 124 The 'peoples good will should be the Church's store. 

HoMiL. these, and to be named from those things, from which also 

the Apostles ordained, from the feeding of the hungry, from 

the protection of the injured, from the care of strangers, 
from succouring them that are despitefully used, from pro- 
viding for the orphans, from taking part with the widows, 
from presiding over the virgins; and these offices should 
be distributed amongst us instead of the care of the lands 
and houses. 

These are the stores of the Church, these the treasures 
that become her, and that afford in great degree both ease 
to us, and profit to you; or rather to you ease with the 
profit. For I suppose that by the grace of God they that 
assemble themselves here amount to the number of one 
hundred thousand"; and if each bestowed one loaf to some 
one of the poor, all would be in plenty ; but if one farthing 
only, no one would be poor; and we should not undergo so 
many revilings and jeers, in consequence of our care about 
1 Matt, the money. For indeed the saying, SelP thy goods, and 
' ' give to the poor, and come and follow Me, might be season- 
ably addressed to the prelates of the Church with respect to 
the property of the Church. For in any other way it is not 
possible to follow Him as we ought, not being freed from all 
grosser and more worldly care. 

But now the priests of God attend at the vintage and 
harvest, and at the sale and purchase of the produce ; and 
whereas they that served the shadow had an entire immu- 
nity from such matters, although entrusted with a more 
carnal service ; we, who are invited to the very inmost 
shrines of the Heavens, and who enter into the true Holy of 
Holies, take upon ourselves the cares of tradesmen and 
retail dealers. 

Hence great neglect of the Scriptures, and remissness in 
prayers, and indifference about all the other duties ; for it is 
not possible to be split into the two things with due zeal. 
Where I pray and beseech you that many fountains may 
spring up to us from all quarters, and that your forwai'dness 
may be to us the threshing floor and the wine press. 

For in this way both the poor will more easily be sup- 

* i. e. the .sum of all the cnngregations in Antioch. 

The reward of bountifulness. 1 125 

ported, and God will be glorified, and ye will advance unto Matt. 


a greater degree of love to mankind, and will enjoy the ■^^^^^• 

good things eternal ; unto which God grant we may all 
attain, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory world without end. 


Matt, xxvii. 11, 12. 

And Jesus stood before the f/overnor ; and the governor asked 
Him, saying. Art Thou the Kim/ of the Jews ? And Jesus said 
unto him, Thou say est. And when He was accused of the 
chief priests and elders, He answered nothing. 

Seest thou what He is first asked? which thing most of 
all they were continually bringing forward in every way? 
For since they saw Pilate making no account of the matters 
of the Law, they direct their accusation to the state charges. 
So likewise did they in the case of the Apostles, ever bring- 
ing forward these things, and saying that they were going 
» Acts about proclaiming King one Jesus', speaking as of a mere 

17 7 • • • 

' man, and investing them with a suspicion of usurpation. 

Whence it is manliest, that both the rending the garment 
and the amazement were a pretence. But all things they 
got up, and plied, in order to bring Him to death. 

This at any rate Pilate then asked. What then said Christ ? 
Thou sayest. He confessed that He was a King, but a 
heavenly King, which elsewhere also He spake more clearly, 

a John replying to Pilate, My^ Kingdom is not of this world; that 

^^' ^^' neither they nor this man should have an excuse for 
accusing Him of such things. And He gives a reason that 
cannot be gainsaid, saying. If I ivere of this world. My 
servants would fight, that I should not be delivered. For this 
purpose 1 say, in order to refute this suspicion, He both paid 

» Matt, tribute'', and commanded others to pay it, and when they 

4 j'oIjq would make Him a King, He fled *. 

6, 15. Wherefore then did He not bring forward these things, it 
may be said, at that time, when accused of usurpation ? 

Pilate's endeavour to release our Lord. 1 127 

Because having the proofs from His acts, of His power, His Matt. 
meekness. His gentleness, beyond number, they were wilfully ^3 * 

blind, and dealt unfairly, and the tribunal was corrupt. For 
these reasons then He replies to nothing, but holds His peace, 
yet answering briefly (so as not to get the reputation of 
arrogauce from continual silence) when the High Priest 
adjured Him, when the governor asked, but in reply to 
their accusations He no longer saith any thing; for He was 
not now likely to persuade them. Even as the prophet 
declaring this self-same thing from of old, said, In His 
humiliation His judgment was taken away^. 

At these things the governor marvelled, and indeed it was 
worthy of admiration to see Him shewing such great for- 
bearance, and holding His peace. Him that had countless 
things to say. For neither did they accuse Him from know- 
ing of any evil thing in Him, but from jealousy and envy 
only. At least when they had set false witnesses, wherefore, 
having nothing to say, did they still urge their point ? and 
when they saw Judas was dead, and that Pilate had washed 
his hands of it, why were they not pricked with remorse? For 
indeed He did many things even at the very time, that they 
might recover theraselv es, but by none were they amended. 

What then saith Pilate? Hearest Thou not how many\.\3. 
things these witness against Thee? He wished that He 
should defend Himself and be acquitted, wherefore also he 
said these things; but since He answered nothing, he de- 
vises another thing again. 

Of what nature was this? It was a custon for them to 
release one of the condemned, and by this means he 
attempted to deliver Him. For if you are not willing to 
release Him as innocent, yet as guilty pardon Him for the 
feast's sake. 

Seest thou order reversed? For the petition in behalf of 
the condemned it was customary to be with the people, and 
the granting it with the rulers; but now the contrary hath 
come to pass, and the ruler petitions the peoj^le; and not 
even so do they become gentle, but grow more savage and 
bloodthirsty, driven to frenzy by the passion of envy. For 
neither had they whereof they should accuse Him, and this 

» Isaiah 53, 8. LXX. see margin of our version. 

1128 Pilate's wife's dream. His weakness. 

HoMiL. though He was silent, but tliey were refuted even then by 
'— — ^reason of the abundance of His righteous deeds, and being 
silent He overcame them that say ten thousand things, and 
are maddened. 
▼• 19- And U'hen he was set down on the judgment seat,, his wife 

sent unto him, saying. Have thou nothing to do ivith this just 
Man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream 
because of Him. See what a thing takes j)lace again, suffi- 
cient to recal them all. For together with the proof from the 
things done, the dream too was no small thing. And where- 
fore doth he not see it himself.? Either because she was more 
worthy, or because he, if he had seen it, would not have 
been equally believed ; or would not so much as have told it. 
Therefore it was ordered that the wife should see it, so that 
it might be manifest to all. And she doth not merely see it, 
but also suffers many things, that from his feeling towards 
his wife the man maybe made more reluctant to the murder. 
And the time too contributed not a little, for on the very night 
she saw it. 

But it was not safe, it may be said, for him to let Him go, 
because they said He made Himself a King. He ought 
then to have sought for proofs, and a conviction, and for all 
the things that are infallible signs of an usurpation, as, for 
instance, wliether He levied forces, whether He collected 
money, whether he forged arms, whether He attempted any 
other such thing. But he is led away at random, therefore 
' John neither doth Christ acquit him of the blame, in saying, ^ He 
' ' tJtat betrayeih Me nnto thee hath greater sin. So that it 
was from weakness that he yielded and scourged Him, 
and delivered Him up. 

He then was unmardy and weak; but the chief priests 
wicked and criminal. For since he had found out a device, 
namely, the law of the feast requiring him to release a 
condennied person, what do they contrive in opposition to 
V. 20. that.' They fcrsnaded the multitude, it is said, tJiat they 
[2.] should ask Bar abbas. See how much care he taketh for 
them to relieve them from blame, and how much diligence 
they employed, so as not to leave to themselves so much as 
a shadow of an excuse ? For which was right ? to let go the 
acknowledged criminal, or Him about Whose guilt there 

Barahbas preferred. Pilate and Lysias compared. 1129 

was a question ? For, if in the case of acknowledged Matt. 


offenders it was fit there should be liberation, much raoreo2_ 

in those of whom there was a doubt. For surely this Man 
did not seem to them worse than acknowledged murderers. 
For on this account, it is not merely said they had a 
robber; but one noted, that is, who was infamous in wicked- 
ness, who had perpetrated countless murders. But never- 
theless even him did they prefer to the Saviour of the world, 
and neither did they reverence the season because it was 
holy, nor the laws of humanity, nor any other thing of the 
kind, but envy had once for all blinded them. And besides 
their own wickedness, they corrupt the people also, that 
for deceiving them too they might suffer the most extreme 

Since therefore they ask for the other, He saith. What v. 22. 
shall I do then with the Christ, in this way desiring to put 
them to the blush, by giving them the power to choose, that 
at least out of shame they might ask for Him, and the whole 
should be of their bountifulness. For though to say, He 
had not done wrong, made them more contentious, yet 
to require that He should be saved out of humanity, 
carries with it persuasion and entreaty that cannot be gain- 

But even then they said, Crucify Him. But he said, Why, v.22.24. 
what evil hath He done ? hut they cried out exceedingly. 
Let Him he crucified. But he, when he saic that he projiied 
notliing, Hashed his hands, saying, I am innocent. Why 
then didst thou deliver Him up? Wh}' didst thou not rescue 
Him, as the centurion did Paul. For that man too was Acts 21. 
aware that he would please the Jews ; and a sedition had 
taken place on his account, and a tumult, nevertheless he 
stood firm against all. But not so this man, but he was 
extremely unmanly and weak, and all were corrupt together. 
For neither did this man stand firm against the multitude, 
nor the multitude against the Jews'"; and in every way their 
excuse vvas taken away. For they cried out exceedingly, 
that is, cried out the more, Let Him he crucijied. For they 
desired not only to put Him to death, but also that it should 

^ i. e. the Jewish rulers; Mr. Field that ol 'lovSaToi is thus used, especially 
has observed in his note on this passage, in St. John's Gospel. 

1130 The Jews' imprecation. All who repent escape it. on a cliavge of wickedness, and though the judge was 

— 'contradicting them, tliey continued to cry out the same 


Seest thou how many things Christ did in order to recover 
them ? For like as He oftentimes checked Judas, so likewise 
did He restrain these men too, both throughout all His 
Gospel, and at the very time of His condemnation. For 
surely when they saw the ruler and the judge washing his 
hands of it, and saying, / am innocent of This Blood, they 
should have been moved to compunction both by what was 
said, and by what was done, as well when they saw Judas 
had hanged himself, as when they saw Pilate himself entreat- 
ing them to take another in the place of Him. For when 
the accuser and traitor condemns himself, and he who gives 
sentence puts off from himself the guilt, and such a vision 
appears the very night, and even as condemoed he begs 
Him off, what kind of plea will they have ? For if they were 
not willing that He should be innocent, yet they should not 
have preferred to him even a robber, one that was acknow- 
ledged to be such, and very notorious. 

What then did they ? When they saw the judge washing 

V. 25. his hands, and saying, / am innocent, they cried out. His 
Blood be on us, and on' our children. Then at length 
when they had given sentence against themselves, he yielded 
that all should be done. 

See here too their great madness. For passion and wicked 
desii'e are like this. They suffer not men to see any thing 
of what is right. For be it that ye curse yourselves; why do 
you draw down the curse upon your children also ? 

Nevertheless, the Lover of man, though they acted with so 
much madness, both against themselves, and against their 
children, so far from confirming their sentence upon their 
children, confirmed it not even on them, but from the one 
and from the other received those that repented, and counts 
them worthy of good things beyond number. For indeed 
even Paul was of them, and the thousands that believed in 

I Acts Jerusalem ; For thou seest ', it is said, brother, how many 

21 20. . . . 

' thousands of Jews there are which believe. And if some 
continued [in their sin], to themselves let them impute their 

Many ■warnings given in vain to ub&tinate sinners. 1131 

Then released he Barabbas unto them, but Jesus, when Matt. 

he had scourged Him, he delivered to be crucijied. 26. 

And wherefore did he scourge Him. Either as one con- 
demned, or willing to invest the judgment with due form, or v. 26. 
to please them. And yet he ought to have resisted them. 

For indeed even before this he had said, ' Take ye Him, and\^'^^^'^ 

' -^ ' 18, 31. 

judge Him according to your law. And there were many 

things that might have held back him and those men, the 

signs and the miracles, and the great patience of Him, Who 

was suffering these things, and above all His untold silence. 

For since both by His defence of Himself, and by His 

prayers, He had shewn His humanity, again He sheweth 

His exaltedness and the greatness of His nature, both by 

His silence, and by His contemning what is said; by all 

leading them on to marvel at Himself «. But to none of 

these things did they give way. For when once the reason- [3.] 

ing powers are overwhelmed as it were by intoxication or 

some wild insanity, it would be hard for the sinking soul to 

rise again, if it be not very noble. 

For it is fearful, it is fearful to give place to these wicked 
passions, wherefore it were fit in every way to ward off and 
repel their entering in. For when they have laid hold of the 
soul, and got the dominion over it, like as fire lighting upon 
a wood, so do they kindle the flame to a blaze. 

Wherefore 1 entreat you to do all things so as to fence off 
their entrance ; and not by comforting yourselves with this 
heartless reasoning to bring in upon yourselves all wicked- 
ness, saying, What of this? What of that? For countless 
ills have their birth from hence. For the devil, being 
depraved, makes use of much craft, and exertion, and self- 
abasement for the ruin of men, and begins his attack on 
them with things of a more trifling nature. 

And mark it, he desired to bring Saul into the superstition 
of witchcraft. But if he had counselled this at the begin- 
ning, the other would not have given heed ; for how should 
he, who was even driving them out ? Therefore gently and 
by little and little he leads him on to it. For when he had 
disobeyed Samuel, and had caused the burnt-ofi'ering to 
be offered, when he was not present, being blamed for it, 

' TTpbs rh oIkhov Oav/xa. 

1132 Satan leads us through little sins to greater, 
HoMiL. he says, The^ compulsion from the etiemy teas too great, and 


when he out^ht to have bewailed, he felt as though he had 

> cf. . ^ 

1 Sam. done nothing. 

^^d 28* Again God gave him the commands about the Amalekites, 
15. but he transgressed these too. Thence he proceeded to his 
crimes about David, and thus slipping easily and by little 
and little he stayed not, until he came unto the very pit 
of destruction, and cast himself in. So likewise in the case 
of Cain, he did not at once urge him to slay his brother, 
since he would not have persuaded him, but first wrought 
upon him to offer things more or less vile, saying, " This is 
no sin:" in the second place he kindled envy and jealousy, 
saying, Neither is there any thing in this; thirdly, he persuaded 
him to slay and to deny his murder ; and did not leave him 
before he had put on him the crowning act of evil. 

Wherefore it is necessary for us to resist the beginnings. 
For at any rate, even if the first sins stopped at themselves, 
not even so were it right to despise the first sins ; but now 
they go on also to what is greater, when the mind is careless. 
Wherefore we ought to do all things to remove the begin- 
nings of them. 

For look not now at the nature of the sin, that it is little, 
but that it becomes a root of great sin, when neglected. 
For if one may say something marvellous, great sins need 
not so much earnestness, as such as are little, and of small 
account. For the former the very nature of the sin causes 
us to abhor, but the little sins by this very thing cast us into 
remissness; and allow us not to rouse ourselves heartily for 
their removal. Wherefore also they quickly become great, 
while wc sleep. This one may see happening in bodies also. 

So likewise in the instance of Judas, that great wickedness 
had its birth. For if it had not seemed to him a little thing 
to steal the money of the poor, he would not have been led 
on to this treachery. Unless it had seemed to the Jews a 
little thing to be taken captive by vainglory, they would not 
have run on the rock of becoming Christ's murderers. And 
indeed all evils we may see arise from this. 

For no one quickly and at once rusheth out into vices. 
For the soul hath, yea it hath a shame implanted in us, and 
a reverence for right things ; and it would not at once become 

and so to despair. He uses pretexts of devotion. 1133 

so shameless as in one act to cast away every thing, but Matt. 
slowly, and by little and little doth it perish, when it is care- 26. 
less. Thus also did idolatry enter in, men being honoured 
beyond measure, both the living and the departed ; thus also 
were idols worshipped ; thus too did whoredom prevail, and 
the other evils. 

And see. One man laughed unseasonably ; another 
blamed him ; a third took away the fear, by saying, Nothing 
comes of this. " For what is laughing .-' What can come of 
it ?" Of this is bred foolish jesting ; from that filthy talking; 
then filthy doings. 

Again, another being blamed for slandering his neighbours, 
and reviling, and calumniating, despised it, saying, evil- 
speaking is nothing. By this he begets hatred unspeakable, 
revilings without end ; by the revilings blows, and by the 
blows oftentimes murder. 

[4.] From these little things then that wicked spirit thus 
brings in the great sins; and from the great despair; having 
invented this other wile not less mischievous than the former. 
For to sin destroys not so much as to despair. For he that hath 
offended, if he be vigilant, speedily by repentance amends 
what hath been done ; but he that hath learnt to despond, 
and doth not repent, by reason thereof fails of this amend- 
ment by not applying the remedies from repentance. 

And he hath a third grievous snare ; as when he invests 
the sin with a show of devotion. And where hath the devil 
so far prevailed as to deceive to this degree ? Hear, and 
beware of his devices. Christ by Paul commanded ' that a 1 1 Cor. 
woman depart not from her husband, and ^not to defraud\\}^' 
one another, except by consent; but some from a love of 
continence forsooth, having withdrawn from their own 
husbands, as though they were doing something devout, 
have driven them to adultery. Consider now what an evil 
it is that they, undergoing so much toil, should be blamed as 
having committed the greatest injustice, and should suffer 
extreme punishment, and drive their husbands into the pit 
of destruction. 

Others again, abstaining from meats by a rule of fasting, 
have by degrees gone so far as to abhor them ; which even 
of itself brings a very great pimishment. 

1134 Warnings of Holy Writ against Jj'rst sieps in evil. 

HoMiL. But this comes to pass, when any hold fast their own 

prejudices contrary to what is approved by the Scriptures. 

Those also among the Corinthians thought it was a part of 
perfection, to eat of all things without distinction, even of 
things forbidden, but nevertheless this was not of perfection, 
but of the utmost lawlessness. Wherefore also Paul 
earnestly reproves them, and pronounces them to be worthy 
of extreme punishment. Others again think it a sign of 
piety to wear long hair. And yet this is amongst the things 
forbidden, and carries with it much disgrace. 

Again, others follow after excessive sorrow for their sins 
as a profitable thing ; yet it also comes of the devil's 
wiles, and Judas shewed it ; at least in consequence thereof 
he even hanged himself. Therefore Paul again was in fear 
about him that had committed fornication, lest any such 
thing should befal him, and persuaded the Corinthians 

• 2 Cor. speedily to deliver him, lest^ perhaps such a one should he 
' ' swaUoH-ed up with overmuch sorrow. Then, indicating that 

such a result coraeth of the snares of that [wicked] one, he 

' saith, ^ Lest Satan should get an advantage over us, for ue 

are not ignorant of his devices, meaning that he assails us 

with much craft. Since if he fought against us plainly and 

openly, the victory would be ready and easy ; or rather 

even now, if we be vigilant, victory will be ready. For 

indeed against each one of those ways God hath armed us. 

For to persuade us not to desjiise even these little things, 

'Mat.s, hear what warning He gives us, saying, ^ He that saith to 

his brother y Thou fool, shall he in danger of hell ; and he 

<ib.5.28. that hath looked with unchaste eyes is a complete adulterer*. 

And on them that laugh he pronounces a woe, and every 

where Fie removes the beginnings and the seeds of evil, and 

* Matt, saith we have to give an account of an idle word^. Therefore 

' ■ also Job applied a remedy even for the thouglits of his 
6Jobi,6. children^. 

' Jer. 8, But about not despairing, it is said, 'Z>o/// he fall, and 
"Ezek. '^^^ arise? Doth he turn away, and not return ? and, ^ I do 
18, 23. fiot will the death of the sijiner, so much as that he should 
9 Ps. 9o, be converted and live: and, " To-day if ye will hear His voice: 
and many other such things, both sayings and examples are 
set in the Scripture. And in order not to be ruined under 

Lust and coveting to he eschewed even in tJiouyht. 1135 

the guise of godly fear, hear Paul saying, Lest perhaps such Matt. 
a one be swallowed up hy overmuch sorrow. " 2f 

Knowing therefore these things, let us set for a barrier in 
all the ways that pervert the unwary the wisdom which is 
drawn from the Scriptures. Neither say, Why, what is it, if 
1 gaze curiously at a beautiful woman? For if thou shouldest 
commit the adultery in the heart, soon thou wilt venture on 
that in the flesh. Say not. Why, what is it if I should pass 
by this poor man ? For if thou pass this man by, thou wilt 
also the next; if him, then the third. 

Neither again say, Why, what is it, if T should desire 
my neighbour's goods. For this, this caused Ahab's ruin ; 
although he would have paid a price, yet he took it from one 
unwilling. For a man ought not to buy by force, but on 
persuasion. But if he, who would have paid the fair price, 
was so punished, because he took from one unwilling, he 
who doeth not so much as this, and taketh by violence from 
the unwilling, and that when living under grace, of what 
punishment will he not be worthy ? 

In order therefore that we be not punished, keeping 
ourselves quite pure from all violence and rapine, and 
guarding against the sources of sins together with the sins 
themselves, let us with much diligence give heed to virtue ; 
for thus shall we also enjoy the good things eternal by the 
grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
AVhora be glory world without end. Amen. 


Matt, xxvii. 27 — 29. 

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common 
hall, and gathered unto him the tvhole hand of soldiers ; 
and they stripped Him, and put on Him a purple robe ; and 
tvhen they had platted a croivn of thoriis, they put it on His 
Head, and a reed in His Right Hand; and they bowed the 
knee before Him, and mocked Him, saying, Hail, King of 
the Jews. 

> ^x*^- As though on some signal the devil then 'was entering in 
^^^^*'' triumph into all. For, be it that Jews pining with envy and 
jealousy were mad against Him, as to the soldiers, whence 
was it, and from what sort of cause ? Is it not quite clear 
that it was the devil who was then entering in fury into the 
hearts of all ? For indeed they made a pleasure of their 
insults against Him, being a savage and ruthless set. I 
mean, that, when they ought to have been awestruck, when 
they ought to have wept, which even the people did, this 
they did not, but, on the contrary, were despiteful, and 
insolent ; perhaps themselves also seeldng to please the 
Jews, or it may be doing all in conformity to their own evil 

And the insults were different, and varied. For that 
Divine Head at one time they buffeted, at another they 
insulted with the crown of thorns, at another they smote 
with the reed, men unholy and accursed ! 

What pica shall we have after this for being moved by 
injuries, after Christ suffered these things? For what was 
done was the utmost limit of insolence. For not one mem- 

Extreme insults. The Church not ashamed of them. 1137 

ber, but the whole entire Body thvouo-hout was made an Matt. 

object of insolence; the Head through the crown, and the" '25. 

reed, and the buffeting ; the Face, being spit upon ; the 
Cheeks, being smitten with the palms of the hands ; the 
whole Body by the stripes, by being wrapped in the robe, 
and by the pi-etended worship ; the Hand by the reed, which 
they gave Him to hold instead of a sceptre; the Mouth again 
by the offering of the vinegar. What could be more grievous 
than these things? What more insulting ? 

For the things that were done go beyond all language. 
For as though they were afraid lest they should seem to fall 
short at all in the crime, having killed the Prophets with 
their own hands, but This Man with the sentence of a judge, 
so they do in every deed ; and make it the work of their 
own hands, and condemn and sentence both among them- 
selves and before Pilate, saying, His Blood he on us and^-'^^. 
upon our children, and insult Him, and do despite unto Him 
themselves, binding Him, leading Him away, and render 
themselves authors of the spiteful acts done by the soldiers, 
and nail Him to the Cross, and revile Him, and spit at Him, 
and deride Him, For Pilate contributed nothing in this 
matter, but they themselves did every thing, becoming 
accusers, and judges, and executioners, and all. 

And these things are read amongst us, when all meet 
together. For that the heathens may not say, that ye dis- 
play to people and nations the things that are glorious and 
illustrious, such as the signs and the miracles, but that ye 
hide these which are matters of reproach ; the grace of the 
Spirit hath brought it to pass, that in the full festival, when 
men in niultitude and women are present, and all, as one 
may say, at the great Eve of the Passover, then all these 
things should be read ; when the whole world is present, 
then are all these acts proclaimed with a clear voice. And 
these being read, and made known to all, Christ is believed 
to be God, and, besides all the rest, is worshipped, even 
because of this, that He vouchsafed to stoop so much for us 
as actually to suffer these things, and to teach us all virtue. 

These things then let us read continually; for indeed 
great is the gain, great the advantage to be thence obtained. 
For when thou seest Him, both by gestures and by deeds, 

4 D 

1138 The Jeivs used all means to dishonour our Lord. 

HoMiL. mocked and worshipped with so much derision, and beaten 

— '■ ^"and suffering the utmost insults, though thou be very stone, 

thou wilt become softer than any wax, and wilt cast out of 
thy soul all haughtiness. 

V. 31. Hear therefore also what follows. For after they had 
mocked Him, iliey led Him to crucifij Him, it is said, and 
when they had stripped Him, they took His garments, and 
sat down and watched Him, when He should die. And 
they divide His garments amongst them, which sort of thing 
is done in the case of very vile and abject criminals, and 
such as have no one belonging to them, and are in utter 

They parted the garments, by which such great miracles 
were done. But they wrought none now, Christ restraining 
His unspeakable power. And this was no small addition 
of insult. For as to one base and abject, as I said, and the 
vilest of all men ; so do they dare to do all things. To 
the thieves at any rate they did nothing of the kind, but to 
Christ they dare it all. And they crucified Him in the 
midst of them, that He might share in their reputation. 

And they gave Him gall to drink, and this to insult Him, 
but He would not. But another saith, that having tasted it, 

' John He said, ^ It is finished. And what meaneth. It is finished ? 

19 30. 7 1/ . . 

2Ps.69 The prophecy was fulfilled concerning Him. ^ For they gave 

^'- 3Ie, it is said, gall for My meat, and for My thirst they 

gave Me vinegar to drink. But neither doth that Evangelist 

indicate that He drank, for merely to taste, differs not from 

not drinking, but hath one and the same signification. 

But nevertheless not even here doth their contumely stop, 
but after having stripped and crucified Him, and offered 
Him vinegar, they proceed still further, and beholding Him 
impaled upon the cross, they revile Him, both they them- 
selves and the passers by ; and this was more grievous than 
all, that on the charge of being an impostor and deceiver He 
suffered these things, and as a boaster, and vainly pretending 
what He said. Therefore they both crucified Him publicly, 
that they might make a show of it in the sight of all ; and 
therefore also they did it by the hands of the soldiers, that 
these things being perpetrated even by a public tribimal, 
the insult might be the greater. 

Truth prevailed in (he Thief, and the mourning multitude. 1 139 

[2.] And yet who would not have been moved by the Matt. 
multitude that was following Him, and lamenting Him ? 4q_43* 
Nay, not these wild beasts. Wherefore also He to the 
multitude vouchsafes an answer, but to these men not so. 
For after having done what they would, they endeavour also 
to injure His honour, fearing His Resurrection. Therefore 
they say these things publicly, and crucified thieves with 
Him, and wishing to prove Him a deceiver, they say, Thou'v.'^o. 
Thai destroijest the temple, and biiildest it in three days, 
come do7vn from the cross. For since on telling Pilate to 
remove the accusation (this was the writing. The King of tlie 
Jews) they prevailed not, but he persevered in saying, ' fVhat^ John 

19 22 

I have written, I have written, they then endeavoured by ' 
their derision of Him to shew that He is not a King. 

Wherefore they said those things, and also these. 7/"//ev. 42. 
is the King of Israel, let Him come down now from the 
cross. He saved others, Himself He cannot save, aiming 
hereby to bring discredit even on His former miracles. And 
again, If He be Son of God, and He will have Him, ^e/v. 43. 
Him save Him. 

O execrable ; most execrable ! What, were not the pro- 
phets prophets, nor the righteous men righteous, because 
God rescued them not out of their dangers. Nay surely 
they were, though sufFeiing these things. What then could 
be equal to your folly ? For if the coming of the dangers 
upon them did not injure their honour with you, how much 
more in the case of This Man, was it wrong for you to be 
offended, when both by what He did, by what He said, He 
was ever correcting beforehand this suspicion of yours. 

Yet nevertheless, even when these things were said and 
done, they prevailed nothing, not even at the very time. At 
any rate, he, who was depraved in such great wickedness, 
and who had spent his whole life in murders and house- 
breakings, when these things were being said, then con- 
fessed Him, and made mention of a kingdom, and the people 
bewailed Him. And yet the things that were done seemed 
to testify the contrary in the eyes of those who knew not the 
mysterious dispensations, that He was weak and of no 
power, nevertheless truth prevailed even by the contrary 

4 D 2 

1140 Aggravating circumsta?ices of our Lord's Passion, 

HoMiL. Healing then these things, let us arm ourselves against all 

-55^ — 'rage, against all anger. Shouldest thou perceive thy heart 
swelling, seal thy breast setting upon it the Cross. Call to 
mind some one of the things that then took place, and thou 
wilt cast out as dust all rage by the recollection of the 
things that were done. Consider the words, the actions; 
consider that He is Lord, and thou servant. He is suffering 
for thee, thou for thyself; He in behalf of them who had 
been benefited by Him and had crucified Him, thou in 
behalf of thyself ; He in behalf of them who had used Him 
despitefully, thou oftentimes at the hands of them who have 
been injured. He in the sight of the whole city, or rather 
of the whole people of the Jews, both strangers, and those 
of the country, before whom He spake those merciful words, 
but thou in the presence of few ; and what was more insult- 
ing to Him, that even His disciples forsook Him. For those, 
who before paid Him attention, had deserted Him, but His 
enemies and foes, having got Him in the midst of themselves 
on the Cross, insulted, reviled, mocked, derided, scofied at 
Him, Jews and soldiers from below, from above thieves on 
either side : for indeed the thieves insulted, and upbraided 

1 Luke Him both of them. How then saith Luke that one rebuked^? 

23, 40. jjq^i^ things were done, for at first both upbraided Him, but 
afterwards one did so no more. For that thou mightest not 
think the thing had been done by any agreement, or that 
the thief was not a thief, by his insolence he sheweth thee, 
that up on the Cross he was a thief and an enemy, and at once 
was changed. 

Considering then all these things, control thyself. For 
what sufferest thou like what thy liord suffered .? Wast thou 
publicly insulted ? But not like these things. Art thou 
mocked ? yet not thy whole body, nor being thus scourged, 
and stripped. And even if thou wast buffeted, yet not like 
r.3.] this. And add to this, I pray thee, by whom, and wherefore, 
and when, and Who it was; and (the most grievous matter) 
that these things being done, no one found fault, no one 
blamed what was done, but on the contrary all rather ap- 
proved, and joined in mocking Him and in jeering at Him ; 
and as a boaster, impostor, and deceiver, and not able to 
prove in His works the things that He said, so did they 

a lesson of patient endurance to tis. 1141 

revile Him. But He held His peace to all, preparing for us Ma it. 
the most powerful incentives to long suffering. 43. 

But we, though hearing such things, are not patient so 
much as to servants, but we rush and kick worse than wild 
asses, with respect to injuries against ourselves, being savage 
and inhuman ; but of those against God not making much 
account. And with respect to friends too we have the same 
disposition; should any one vex us, we bear it not; should 
he insult us, we are savage more than wild beasts, we who 
are reading these things every day. A disciple betrayed 
Him, the rest forsook Ilim and fled ; they that had been 
benefited by Him spat at Him ; the servants of the high 
priest smote Him with the palm of the hand, the soldiers 
buffeted Him; they that passed by jeered Him and reviled 
Hihi, the thieves accused Him ; and to no man did He 
utter a word, but by silence overcame all ; instructing thee 
by His actions, that the more meekly thou shalt endure, the 
more wilt thou prevail over them that do thee evil, and wilt 
be an object of admiration before all. For who will not 
admire him that endures with forbearance the insults he 
receives from them that are using him despitefully ? For 
even as, though any man suffer justly, yet enduring the evil 
meekly, he is considered by the more part to suffer unjustly; 
so though one suffer unjustly, yet if he be violent, he will 
get the suspicion of suffering justly, and will be an object of 
ridicule, as being dragged captive by his anger, and losing his 
own nobility. For such a one, we must not call so nmch as 
a freeman, though he be lord over ten thousand servants. 

But did some person exceedingly provoke thee ? And 
what of that? For then should self-control be shewn, since 
when there is no one to vex, we see even the wild beasts 
gentle; for neither are they always savage, but when any 
one rouses them. And we therefore, if we are only then 
quiet, when there is no one provoking us, what advantage 
have we over them. For they are both oftentimes justly 
indignant, and have much excuse, for by being stirred and 
goaded arc they roused, and besides these things they are 
devoid of reason, and have savageness in their nature. 

But whence, I pray thee, canst thou find a plea for being 
savage and fierce? What hardship hast thou suffered? Hast 

1142 Better to be insulted than jlattered. 

HoMiL. thou been robbed ? For this self-same reason shouldest 

— '• ^thou endure it, so as to gain more amply. But wast thou 

deprived of character? And what is this? Thy condition is 
in no way worsened by this, if thou practise self-command. 
But if thou sufferest no grievance, whence art thou angry 
with him that hath done thee no harm, but hath even bene- 
fited thee ? For they who honour, make tliem that are not 
watchful the more vain ; but they who insult and despise, 
render those that take heed to themselves more stedfast. 
For the careless are more injured by being honoured, than 
by being insulted. And the one set of persons, if we be 
sober, become to us authors of self-control, but the others 
excite our pride, they fill us with boastfulness, vainglory, 
folly, they make our soul the feebler. 

And to this fathers bear witness, who do not flatter their 
own children so much as they chide them, fearing lest from 
the praise they should receive any harm, and their teachers 
use the same remedy to them. So that if we are to avoid 
any one, it should be those that flatter us rather than those 
that insult us ; for this bait brings greater mischief than 
insult to them, who do not take heed, and it is more difficult 
to control this feeling tlian that. And the reward too is far 
more abundant from thence, and the admiration greater. For 
indeed it is more worthy of admiration to see a man insulted, 
and not moved, than beaten and smitten, and not falling. 

And how is it possible not to be moved ? one may say. 
Hath any one insulted thee ? Place the Sign upon thy 
breast, call to mind all the things that were then done ; and 
all is quenched. Consider not the insults only, but if also 
any good hath been ever done unto thee, by him that hath 
insulted thee, and straightway thou wilt become meek, or 
rather consider before all things the fear of God, and soon 
[4.] thou wilt be mild and gentle. Together with these things 
even from thine own servants take a lesson concerning these 
matters ; and when thou seest thyself insulting, but thy 
servant holding his peace, consider that it is possible to 
practise self-control, and condemn thyself for being violent; 
and in the very time of offering insults learn not to insult; 
and thus not even when insulted, wilt thou be vexed. Con- 
sider that he who is insolent is beside himself and mad, and 

The violent get the real harm to themselves. 1143 

thou wilt not feel indignant, when insulted, since the Matt. 
possessed strike us, and we, so far from being provoked, do ' '44 

rather pity them. This do thou also ; pity him that is in- 
Solent to thee, for he is held in subjection by a dreadful 
monster, rage, by a grievous demon, anger. Set him free as 
he is wrought upon by a grievous demon, and going quickly 
to ruin. For so great is this disease as not to need even 
time for the destruction of him that is seized with it. 
Wherefore also one said, ' The sway of liis fury shall be /«<"6''Eccius. 
fall ; by this most of all shewing its tyranny, that in a short ' 
time it works great ills, and needs not to continue long with 
us, so that if in addition to its strength it were apt to last, 
it would indeed be hard to strive against. 

1 should like to shew what the man is who insulteth, what 
he that practises self-control, and to bring nakedly before 
you the soul of the one and the other. For thou shouldest 
see the one like a sea tost with a temjjest, but the other like 
a harbour free from disturbance. F'or it is not disturbed by 
these evil blasts, but puts them to rest easily. For indeed 
they who are insulting, do every thing in order to make it 
sting. When then they fail of that hope, even they are 
thenceforth at peace, and go away amended. For it is im- 
possible that a man, who is angry, should not utterly con- 
demn himself; even as on the other hand it is impossible 
for one who is not angry to be self-condemned. For though 
it be necessary to retaliate, it is possible to do this without 
anger, (and it were more easy and more wise than with 
anger,) and to have no painful feeling. For if we be willing, 
the good things will be from ourselves, and we shall be with 
the Grace of God sufficient for our own safety and honour. 

For why seekest thou the glory that cometh from another? 
Do thou honour thyself, and no one will be able to insult 
thee; but if thou dishonour thyself, though all should honour 
thee, thou wilt not be honoured. For like as, unless we put 
ourselves in an evil state, no one else puts us in such a state; 
even so unless we insult ourselves, no one else can put us to 

For let any man be great and worthy of admiration, and 
let all men call him an adulterer, a thief, a violater of tombs, 
a murderer, a robber, and let him be neither provoked or 

1 144 A yoodnavie worse for a bud inuti than a bad for a (joodman. 

HoMiL. indignant, nor be conscious to himself of any of these 

1 crimes; what disgrace will he thence undergo? None. 

What then, you may say, if many have such an opinion of 
him ? Not even so is he disgraced, but they bring shame 
upon themselves, by accounting one, who is not such, to be 
such. For tell me, if any one think the sun to be daiii, doth 
he bring an ill name on that heavenly body, or on himself? 
Surely on himself, getting himself the character of being 
blind or mad. So also they that account wicked men good, 
and they that make tlie opposite error, disgrace themselves. 

Wherefore we ought to give the greater diligence, to keep 
our conscience clear, and to give no handle against ourselves, 
nor matter for evil suspicion ; but if others will be mad, even 
when this is our disposition, not to care very much: nor to 
grieve. For he that hath got the character of a wicked man, 
being a good man, is in no degree thereby hurt as regards 
his being such as he is ; but he that hath been suspecting 
another vainly and causelessly, receives the utmost harm ; 
as, on the other hand, the wicked man, if he be supposed to 
be the contrary, will gain nothing thence, but will both have 
a heavier judgment, and be led into greater carelessness. 
For he that is such and is suspected thereof, may perhaps be 
humbled, and acknowledge his sins; but when he escapes 
detection, he falls into a state past feeling. For if, while all 
are accusing them, offenders are hardly stirred up to com- 
punction; when so far from accusing them, some even praise 
them, at what time will they who are living in vice be able to 
open their eyes? Hearest thou that Paul also blames for this, 
that the Corinthians, (so far from permitting him that had 
been guilty of fornication, to acknowledge his own sin,) 
applauding and honouring him, did on the contrary urge 
him on in vice thereby ? Wherefore, I pray, let us leave 
the suspicions of the multitude, their insults and their 
honours, and let us be diligent about one thing only, that 
we be conscious to ourselves of no evil thing, nor insult 
our own selves. For so, both here, and in the world to 
come, we shall enjoy much glory, unto which God grant we 
all may attain, by tlie grace and love towards man of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory world without end. 


Matt, xxvii, 45 — 48. 

Now from the sixth hour there ivas darkness over all the earth 
until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried 
with a loud voice, and said, Eli, Eli, lima sahachthani? 
that is to say, My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken 
Me ? Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, 
said. This Man calleth for Elias. And straightway one of 
them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and 
put it on a reed, and gave Him to dri?ik. 

This is the sign which before He had promised to give 
them when they asked it, saying, ^yi* evil and adulterous i Matt, 
generation seeketh after a sign, and there shall no sign he ^^' ^^' 
given to it, hut the sign of the prophet Jonas; meaning His 
Cross, and His Death, His Burial, and His Kesurrection. 
And again declaring in another way the virtue of the Cross, 
He said. When- ye have lifted up the Son of Man, then ^ J obaS, 
shall ye know that I am He- And what He saith is to this 
purport; "When ye have crucified Me, and think ye have 
overcome Me, then, above all, shall ye know My might." 

For after the Crucifixion, the city was destroyed, and the 
Jewish state came to an end, they fell away from their 
polity and their freedom, the Gospel flourished, the Word 
was spread abroad to the ends of the world ; both sea and 
land, both the inhabited earth and the desert perpetually 
proclaim its^ power. These things then He meaneth, cUid^or, 
those which took place at the very time of the Crucifixion. ^'^■' 

I14U Christ's 2iOwer token crucified. The Darkwiss. 

HoMiL. For indeed it was much more marvellous that these things 

should be done, when He was nailed to the Cross, than 

when He was walking on earth. And not in this respect 
only was the wonder, but because from Heaven also was 
that done which they had sought, and it was over all the 
world, which had never before happened, but in Egypt only, 
when the Passover was to be fulfilled. For indeed those 
events were a type of these. 

And observe when it took place. At mid-day, that all 
that dwell on the earth may know it, when it was day all over 
the world ; which was enough to convert them, not by the 
greatness of the miracle onl}', but also by its taking place in 
due season. For after all their insulting, and their lawless 
derision, this is done, when they had let go their anger, 
when they had ceased mocking, when they were satiated 
with their jeerings, and had spoken all that they were 
minded ; then He shews the darkness, in order that at least 
so (having vented their anger) they may profit by the 
miracle. For this was more marvellous than to come down 
from the Cross, that being on the Cross He should work 
these things. For whether they thought He Himself had 
done it, they ought to have believed and to have feared ; 
or whether not He, but the Father, yet thereby ought they 
to have been moved to compunction, for that darkness was a 
token of His anger at their crime. For that it was not an 
eclipse, but both wrath and indignation, is not hence alone 
manifest, but also by the time, for it continued three hours, 
but an eclipse takes place in one moment of time, and they 
know it, who have seen this; and indeed it hath taken 
place even in our generation. 

And how, you may say, did not all marvel, and account 
Him to be God ? Because the race of man was then held 
in a stale of great carelessness and vice. And tliis miracle 
was but one, and when it had taken place, immediately 
passed away ; and no one was concerned to enquire into 
the cause of it, and great was the prejudice and the habit 
of ungodliness. And they knew not what w^as the cause 
of that which took place, and they thought perhaps this 
happened so, in the way of an eclipse or some natural 
effect. And why dost thou marvel about them that arc 

Our Lord's Words u])on the Cross. 1147 

without, that knew nothing, neither enquired by reason of Matt. 
great indifference, when even those that were in Judaea ^^p^^" 
itself, after so many miracles, yet continued using Him 
despitefully, although He plainly shewed them that He 
Himself wrought this thing. 

And for this reason, even after this He speaks, that they 
might learn that He was still alive, and that He Himself 
did this, and that they might become by this also more 
gentle, and He sailh, Eli, Eli, lima sahachthani ? that v. 46. 
unto His last breath they might see that He honours His 
Father, and is no adversary of God. Wherefore also He 
uttered a certain cry from the Prophet', even to His last hour ' Ps. 22, 
bearing witness to the Old Testament, and not simply a cry ' 
from the Prophet, but also in Hebrew, so as to be plain and 
intelligible to them, and by all things He shews how He 
is of one mind with Him That begat Him. 

But mark herein also their wantonness, and intemperance, 
and folly. They thought (it is said) that it was Elias whom 
He called, and straightway they gave Him vinegar to drink, v. 48. 
But another came unto Him, and pierced^ His side wit h^ John 
a spear. What could be more lawless, what more brutal, ' ' 
than these men ; who carried their madness to so great 
a length, offering insult at last even to a dead Body } 

But mark thou, I pray thee, how He made use of their 
wickednesses for our salvation. For after the blow the 
Fountains of our salvation gushed forth from thence. 

And Jesus, when He had cried with a loud voice, yielded"- ^^• 
up the Ghost. This is what He said, P have power to lay^ John 
down My life, and I have power to take it again, and, / lay ' 
it down of Myself. So fur this cause He cried with the 
voice, that it might be shewn that the act is done by power. 
Mark at any rate saith, that Pilate* marvelled, if He werc^ M^xl. 
already dead: and that the Centurion for this cause above ^' '^^' 
all believed, because He died with power ^ ^ '^- ^^- 

This cry rent the veil, and opened the tombs, and made 
the House desolate. And He did this, not as offering insult 
to the Temple, (for how should He, Who saith, Make^ ;2o/'*Jo'in2, 
My Father''s House a house of merchandise,) but declaring 
them to be unworthy even of His abiding there; like as 
also when He delivered it over to the Babylonians. But 

1148 The Jews lyerversely resist many signs. 

HoMiL. not for this only were these things (lone, but what took 
~~ — place was a prophecy of the coming desolation, and of the 

change into the greater and higher stale ; and [a sign] of 

His Might. 

And together with these things He shewed Himself also 

by what followed after these things, by the raising of the 

i2Kings dead. For in the instance of Elislia' ; one on touching a 
13 21. . . . 

' ' dead bod}' rose again, but now by a voice He raised them, 

His Body continuing up there, on the Cross. And besides, 
those things were a type of this. For that this might be 
believed, therefore is that all done. And they are not merely 
raised, but also rocks are rent, and the earth shaken, that they 
might learn, that He was able to strike themselves blind, and 
to rend them in pieces. For He that cleft rocks asunder, 
and darkened the world, much more could have done these 
things to them, had it been His will. But He would not, 
but having discharged His wrath upon the elements, them it 
was His will to save by clemency. But they abated not 
their madness. Such is envy, such is jealousy, it is not 
easily stayed. At that time then they were impudent in 
setting themselves against the actual appearances; and after- 
wards even against the things themselves, when a seal being 
put upon Him, and soldiers watching Him, He rose again, 
and they heard these things from the very guards; they even 
gave money, in order both to corrupt others, and to steal 
away the history of the Resurrection. 

Marvel not therefore if at this time also they were perverse, 
being thus altogether prepared to set themselves impudently 
against all things ; but observe this other point, how great 
signs He had wrought, some from Heaven, some on earth, 
some in the very Temple, at once marking His indignation, 
and at the same time shewing that what were unapproachable 
are now to be entered, and that Heaven shall be opened; 
and the work removed to the true Holy of Holies. And 

V. 42. they indeed said. If He he the King of Israel, let Him come 
dotiu HOW from the Cross, but He shews that He is King of 

V. 40. all the world. And whereas those men said, Thou That 
destroyest this temple, and buildest il in three days. He shews 
that it shall be made for ever desolate. Again they said, 

V. 42. fie saved others, Himself He cannot save, but He while 

7%/? ivorneii boldest at the time of the Passion. 1149 

abiding on the Cross proved this most abundantly on the Matt. 
bodies of His servants. For if for Lazarus to rise on the?j^^^J- 

fourth day was a great thing, how much for all those, who 

had long ago fallen asleep, at once to appear alive, which 
was a sign of the future Resurrection. For manij bodies of v. 52.52. 
the saints ivJiich slept, arose, it is said, and went into the 
holy city, and appeared to many. For in order that what 
was done might not be accounted to be an imagination, they 
appear, even to many, in the city. And the Centurion too 
then glorified God, saying, ' Trnly this iras a righteous man. ' Luke 
And the multitudes that came together to that sight, returned ^g] 
beating their breasts. So great was the power of the Cruci- 
fied, that after so many mockings, and scoffs, and jeers, both 
the centurion was moved to compunction, and the people. 
And some say that there is also a martyrdom of this centu- 
rion, who after these things grew to manliood in the faith. 

And many women ircre there beholding from afar qff,v.55.5G. 
ivhich had followed Him, ministering unto Him, Mary 
Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Joses, and 
the mother of Zebedee's sons. 

These things the women see done, these who were most 
inclined to feel for Him, who were most of all bewailing 
Him. And mark how great their assiduity. They had 
followed Him ministering to Him, and were present even 
unto the time of the dangers. Wherefore also they saw all ; 
how He cried, how He gave up the Ghost, how the rocks 
were rent, and all the rest. 

And these first see Jesus ; and the sex that was most 
condemned, this first enjoys the sight of the blessings, this 
most shevvs its courage. And when the disciples had fled, 
these were present. But who were these ? His mother, for 
she is called [mother] of .Tames", and the rest. But another 
Evangelist^ saith, that many also lamented over the things 2 Luke 
that were done, and smote their breasts, which above all^^''*^* 
shews the cruelty of the Jews, for that they gloried in 

'^ In Horn. V. he maintains her per- spuriousHomilies'on theAnnuneiation,' 

petual virginity ; " bow then, joa will Ben. t. ii. p. 797. And ' on the women 

say, are James and others called His hearing; spices,' t. ii. p. 159, Appen- 

brethren P In the same way as Joseph dix, that she was _the step-mother of 

himself too was considered the Husband James. Theodoret, on Gal.i. 19. rejects 

of Mary." This is at least consistent this view, and makes them sons of 

with the explanation given in the Cleopas by her sister. 

1150 Zeal of Joseph, and of Ike women at the Burial. 
HoMiL. things for which others were laraentine;, and were neither 

I.XXXVIII ° . ° 

moved by pity, nor checked by fear. For indeed the things 
that were done were of great wrath, and were not merely 
signs, bnt signs of anger all of tliem, the darkness, the cloven 
rocks; the veil rent in the midst, the shaking of the earth, 
and great was the excess of the indignation. 

V. 67.58. But Joseph itent, and be(j(jed the Body. This was Joseph, 
who was concealing his discipleship of late ; now however 
he had become very bold after the Death of Christ. For 
neither was he an obscure person, nor of the unnoticed ; 
but one of the Council, and highly distinguished ; from 
which circumstance especially one may see his courage. 
For he exposed himself to death, taking upon him enmity 
with all, by his affection to Jesus, both having dared to beg 
the Body, and not having desisted until he obtained It. 
But not by taking It only, nor by burying It in a costly 
manner, but also by laying It in his own new tomb, he 
sheweth his love, and his courage. And this was not so 
ordered without purpose, but so there should not be any 
bare suspicion, that one had risen instead of another. 

V. 61. And there laas Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, 
sitting over against the sepulchre. For what purpose do 
these wait by it? As yet they knew nothing great, as was 
meet, and high about Him, wherefore also they had brought 
ointments, and were waiting at the tomb, so that if the mad- 
ness of the Jews should relax, they might go and embrace 
the Body. Scest thou women's courage.? seest thou their 
affection.'' seest thou their noble spirit in money? their 
noble spirit even unto death ? 

Let us men imitate the women ; let us not forsake Jesus 
in temptations. For they for Him even dead spent so much 
and exposed their lives, but we (for again I say the same 
things) neither feed Him when hungry, nor clothe Him 
when naked, but seeing Him begging, we pass Him by. 
And yet if ye saw Himself, every one would strijD himself 
of all his goods. But even now it is the same. For He 
Himself has said, 1 am he. Wherefore then dost thou not 
strip thyself of all ? For indeed even now thou hearest Him 
say, Thou doest it unto Me ; and there is no difference 
whether thou givest to this man or to Him ; thou hast 

Blessing of ministering to Christ in His poor. 1151 
nothing less than these women that then fed Him, but ev^en Matt. 


much more. But be not perplexed ! For it is not so much 

to have fed Him appearing in His own Person, which would 
be enough to prevail with a heart of stone, as (because of His 
mere word) to wait upon the poor, the maimed, him that is 
bent down. For in the former case, the look and the dignity 
of Him Who appears divides with thee that which is done ; 
but here the reward is entire for thy benevolence ; and there 
is the proof of the greater reverence towards Him, when at 
His mere word waiting upon thy fellow-servant thou refresh- 
est him in all things. Refresh him, and believe Him, Who 
receiveth it, and saith, Thou givest to Me. For unless thou 
hadst given to Him, He would not have counted thee worthy 
of a kingdom. If thou hadst not turned away from Him, 
He would not have sent thee to hell, if thou hadst over- 
looked a chance person ; but because it is He Himself that 
is despised, therefore great is the blame. 

Thus also Paul persecuted Him, in persecuting them that 
are His; wherefore too He said, Why^ persecutest thou Me?^ Acts 
Thus therefore let us feel, as bestowing on Christ Himself ' * 
when we bestow. For indeed His words are more sure than 
our sight. When therefore thou seest a poor man, remember 
His words, by which He declared, that it is He Himself 
Who is fed. For though that which appears be not 
Christ, yet in this man's form Christ Himself receiveth and 

But art thou ashamed to hear that Christ beggeth ? 
Rather be ashamed when thou dost not give to Him begging 
of thee. F'or this is shame, this is vengeance and punish- 
ment. Since for Him to beg is of His goodness, wherefore 
we ought even to glory therein ; but for thee not to give, is 
of thy inhumanity. But if thou believe not now, that in 
passing by a poor man that is a believer, thou passest by 
Him, thou wilt believe it then, when He v^ill bring thee into 
the midst and say, Inasmuch^ as ye did it not to these, ye'^ Matt. 
did it not to Me. But God forbid that we should so learn ^'^' ^^' 
it, and grant rather that we may believe now, and bring forth 
fruit, and hear that most blessed Voice that bringeth us into 
the Kingdom. 

But perhaps some one will say, " Thou art every day 

1 152 Lesson of giving, not yet learned, must he repeated. 
HoMiL. discoursing to us of almsgiving and humanity." Neither will 

I.XXXVIII ^ 1/>1- !-!•/• 11 •! •• 

1 cease to speak ot this, l^or ii ye had attained to it, in 

the first place, not even so ought I to desist, for fear of 
making you the more remiss; yet had ye attained, I might 
have relaxed a little ; but if ye have not arrived even at the 
half; say not these things to me, but to yourselves. For 
indeed thou doest the same in blaming me, as if a little 
child, hearing often of the letter Alpha, and not learning it, 
were to blame its teacher, because he is continually and for 
ever reminding him about it. 

For who from these discourses has become more forward 

in the giving of alms .'' Who has cast down his money ? 

AVho has given the half of his substance ? Who the third 

part.? No one. How then should it be other than absurd, 

when ye do not learn, to require us to desist from teaching? 

Ye ought to do the contrary. Though we were minded to 

desist, ye ought to stop us and to say, we have not yet learnt 

these things, and how is it ye have desisted from reminding 

us of them .? If it befel any one to suffer from his eye, and 

T happened to be a physician, and then having covered it 

up and anointed it, and having applied other treatment, I 

had not benefited it much, and so had desisted; would he 

not have come to the doors of my surgery and cried out 

against me, accusing me of great remissness, for that I had 

of myself withdrawn, while the disease remained ; and if, on 

being blamed, T had said in rcyily to these things, that I had 

covered it up, and anointed it, would he have endured it.' 

By no means, but would immediately have said; "And 

what is the advantage, if I still suffer pain." Reason thus 

also with respect to thy soul. But what if after having often 

fomented a hand that was lifeless and shrunk, I had not 

succeeded in mollifying it ? Should 1 not have heard the 

same thing.? And even now a hand that is shrunk and 

withered we bathe, and for this reason, until wc can stretch 

it out perfectly, we will not desist. Would that you too 

were to discourse of nothing else, at home and at market, at 

table and at night, and as a dream. For if we were always 

careful about these things by day, even in our dreams we 

should be engaged in then). 

What sayest thou? Am I for ever speaking of almsgiving? 

Unsound Christians cannot meet the enemy. 1153 

I would wish myself that there were not great need for me Matt. 
to address this advice to you, but that I were to speak of the "^^i^^^* 
battle against the Jews, and heathens, and heretics ; but 
when ye are not yet sound, how can any one arm you for the 
fight? How should he lead you to the array, yet having 
wounds and gashes. Since if indeed I saw you thoroughly 
sound in health, 1 should lead you forth to that battle array, 
and ye would see by the grace of Christ ten thousands lying 
dead, and their heads cast one upon another. In other 
books at any rate, many discourses have been spoken by us 
touching these tilings, but not even so are we able thoroughly 
to triumph in the victory, because of the remissness of the 
multitude. For when we conquer them ten thousand times 
over in doctrines, they reproach us with the lives of the 
multitude of those who join our congregations, their wounds, 
their diseases in their soul. 

How then shall we with confidence shew you in the 
battle array, when ye rather do us mischief, being straight- 
way wounded by our enemies, and made a mock of? For 
one man's hand is diseased, and shrunk so as not to be able 
to give away. How then should such a one hold a shield, 
and thrust it before him, and avoid being wounded by the 
jeers of cruelty. With others the feet halt, as many as go 
up to the theatres, and to the resorts of the harlot women. 
How shall these then be able to stand in the battle, and 
not to be wounded with the accusation of wantonness? 
Another suffers and is maimed in his eyes, not looking 
straight, but being full of lasciviousness, and assailing 
women's chastity, and overthrowing marriages. How then 
should this man be able to look in the face of the enemy, 
and brandish a spear, and throw his dart, being goaded on 
all sides with jeers. We may see also many suffering with 
the belly not less than the dropsical, when they are held in 
subjection by gluttony and drunkenness. How then shall I 
be able to lead forth these drunken men to war? With 
others the mouth is rotten ; such are the passionate, and 
revilers, and blasphemers. How then shall this man ever 
shout in battle, and achieve any thing great and noble, he 
too being drunk with another drunkenness, and affording 
much laughter to the enemy ? 

4 E 

1 154 The lives of Christians should confound gainsayers. 

HoMiL. Therefore each day I go about this camp, dressing your 
Lxxxvm ^^j^yjjjjg^ healing your sores. But if ye ever rouse yourselves 
up, and become fit even to wound others, T will both teach 
you this art of war, and instruct you how to handle these 
weapons, or rather your works themselves will be weapons to 
you, and all men will immediately submit, if ye would be- 
come merciful, if forbearing, if mild and patient, if ye would 
shew forth all other virtue. But if any gainsay, then we will 
>Ta Trap' also add the proof of what we can shew on our part*, bring- 
tavTwv. ^^^^ ^^^^ forward, since now we rather are hindered (at least as 
to your part) in this race. 

And mark. We say that Christ hath done great things, 
having made angels of men; then, when we are called upon 
to give account, and required to furnish a proof out of this 
flock, our mouths are stopped. For I am afraid, lest in the 
place of angels, 1 bring forth swine as from a stye, and 
horses mad with lust. 

I know ye are pained, but not against you all are these 
things spoken, but against the guilty, or rather not even 
against them if they awake, but for them. Since now indeed 
all is lost and ruined, and the Church is become nothing 
better than a stable of oxen, and a fold for asses and camels, 
and I go round seeking for a sheep, and am not able to see 
it. So much are all kicking, like horses, and an}' wild asses, 
and they fill the place here with much dung, for like this is 
their discourse. And if indeed one could see the things 
* o-iW- spoken at each assemblage -, by men, by women, thou 
*'"' wouldest see their words more unclean than that dung. 

Wherefore I entreat you to change this evil custom, that 
the Church may smell of ointment. But now, while we 
lay up in it perfumes for the senses, the uncleanness of the 
mind we use no great diligence to purge out, and drive away. 
What then is the advantage ? For we do not so much dis- 
grace the Church by bringing dung into it, as we disgrace 
it by speaking such things one to another, about gains, 
about merchandise, about petty tradings, about things that 
are nothing to us, when there ought to be choirs of Angels 
here, and we ought to make the Church a heaven, and to 
know nothing else but earnest prayers, and silence with 

The Pastor's desire to purify his Flock. 1 155 

This then let us do at any rate, liom the present time. Matt. 
that we may both purify our hves, and attain unto the^^^^^- 

promised blessings, by the grace and love towards man of '~ 

our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory world without 
end. Amen. 

4 E 2 


Matt, xxvii. 62 — 64. 

Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, 
the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, 
saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, u'hile He 
was yet alive. After three days I will rise again. Command 
therefore that the sejmlchre be made sure until the third day, 
lest His Discijyles come and steal Him away, and say to the 
people, He is risen from the dead : so the last error should 
be worse than the first. 

Every where deceit recoils upon itself, and against its 
will supports the truth. xAnd observe. It was necessary for 
it to be believed that He died, and that He rose again, and 
that He was buried, and all these things are brought to pass 
by His enemies. See, at any rate, these words bearing wit- 
ness to every one of these facts. We remember, these are 
the words, Hint thai deceiver said, when He was yet alive, 
(He was therefore now dead,) After three days I will rise 
again. Command therefore that the sepulchre be sealed, 
(He was therefore buried,) lest His Disciples come and steal 
Him a way. So that if the sepulchre be sealed, there will 
be no unfair dealing. For there could not be. So then the 
proof of His Resurrection has become incontrovertible by 
what ye have put forward. For because it was sealed, there 
was no unfair dealing. But if there was no unfair dealing, 
and the sepulchre was found empty, it is manifest that He 
is risen, plainly and incontrovertibly. Seest thou, how even 
against their will they contend for the proof of the truth ? 

Precautions of the Jews esfahlish the Resurrection. 1157 

But mark ihou, I pray thee, the disciples' love of truth, Matt. 
how they conceal from us none of the things that are said'j^t gg* 
by His enemies, though they use op])robrious language. 
Behold, at any rate, they even call Him a deceiver, and 
these men are not silent about that. 

But these things shew also their savageness, (that not even 
at His death did they let go their anger,) and these men's 
simple and truthful disposition. 

But it were worth while to enquire concerning that point 
also, where He said. After three days I will rise again '^ 
For one would not find this thus distinctly stated*, but 
rather the example of Jonah. So that they understood His 
saying, and of their own will dealt unfairly. 

What then saith Pilate? Ye have a watch, make it rtsv.65.66. 
sure as ye can. And tJiey made it sure, sealing the stone, 
and setting the watch. He suffers not the soldiers alone to 
seal ; for as having learnt the things concerning Christ, he 
was no longer willing to cooperate with them. But in order 
to be rid of them, he endures tliis also, and saith, " Do ye 
seal it as ye will, that ye may not have it in your power 
to blaiue others." For if the soldiers only had sealed, they 
might have said, (although the saying would have been 
improbable and false, yet nevertheless as in the rest they 
cast aside shame, so in this too they might have been able 
to say,) that the soldiers, having given up the Body to be 
stolen, gave His disciples opportunity to feign the history 
concerning His Resurrection, but now having themselves 
made it sure, they are not able to say so much as this. 

Seest thou how they labour for the truth against their 
will ? For they themselves came to Pilate, themselves 
asked, themselves sealed, setting the watch, so as to be 
accusers, and refuters one of another. And indeed when 
should they have stolen Him? on the Sabbath? And how? 
for it was not lawful so much as to go out'. And even ' Exod. 
if they transgressed the Law, how should they have dared, ' 
who were so timid, to come forth ? And how could they 
also have been able to persuade the multitude ? By saying 
what? By doing what? And from what sort of zeal could 

» Not to the Jews, for it was often St. Chrysostom himself observes a little 
plainly declared to the Disciples, as further on. 

1 158 ImprohahiUty of a pretended Resurrection. 

HoMTtthey have stood in behalf of the dead? expecting what 
i^^^^' recompense ? what requital? Seeing Him yet alive and 
merely seized, they had fled; and after His death were 
they likely to speak boldly in His behalf, unless He had 
risen again ? And how should these things be reasonable ? 
For that they were neither willing nor able to feign a resur- 
rection, that did not take place, is plain from hence. He 
discoursed to them much of a Resurrection, and continually 
said, as indeed these very men have stated, After three days 
I will rise again. If therefore He rose not again, it is 
quite clear that these men (having been deceived and made 
enemies to an entire nation for His sake, and come to be 
without home and without city) would have abhorred Him, and 
would not have been willing to invest Him with such glory; 
as having been deceived, and having fallen into the utmost 
dangers on His account. For that they would not even 
have been able, unless the Resurrection had been true, to 
feign it, this does not so much as need reasoning. 

For in what were they confident? In the shrewdness of their 
reasonings ? Nay of all men they were the most unlearned. 
But in the abundance of their possessions? Nay, they had 
neither staff nor shoes. But in the distinction of their race? 
Nay, they were mean, and of mean ancestors. But in the 
greatness of their country ? Nay, they w^ere of obscure 
places. But in their own numbers? Nay, they were not 
more than eleven, and they were scattered abroad. But in 
their Master's promises ? What kind of promises ? For if 
He were not risen again, neither would those be likely to 
be trusted by them. And how should they endui-e a frantic 
people. For if the chief of them endured not the speech of 
a woman, keeping the door, and if all the rest too, on seeing 
Him bound, were scattered abroad, how should they have 
thought to run to tlie ends of the earth, and plant a feigned 
tale of a Resurrection ? For if he stood not a woman's 
threat, and they not so much as the sight of bonds, how 
were they able to stand against kings, and rulers, and nations, 
where were swords, and gridirons, and furnaces, and ten 
thousand deaths day by day, unless they had the benefit of 
' /iojT^s the Power and Grace' of Him Who rose again? Such 
miracles and so many were done, and none of these things 

Why Gur Lord roue withi?i the appointed time. I ] 59 

did the Jews regard, but crucified Him, Who had done them, Matt. 
and were tliey likely to believe these men at their mere word' qq ' 
about a Resurrection ? These things are not, they are not 
so, but the might of Him, Who rose again, brought them 
to pass. 

[2.] But mark, I pray thee, their craft, how ridiculous it is. 
We remember, these are their words, that That Deceiver 
said, while He was yet alive, After three days I will rise 
again. Yet if He were a deceiver, and boastfully uttered 
falsehoods, why are ye afraid and run to and fro, and use so 
much diligence ? We are afraid, it is replied, lest perchance 
the Disciples steal Him away, and deceive the multitude. 
And yet this has been proved to have no probability at all. 
Malice, however, is a thing contentious and shameless, and 
attempts what is unreasonable. 

And they command it to be made sure for three days, as 
contending for doctrines, and being minded to prove that 
before that time also He was a deceiver, and they extend 
their malice even to Hi tomb. For this reason then He rose 
sooner, that they might not say, that He spake falsely, and 
was stolen. For this. His rising sooner, was open to no 
charge, but to be later would have been full of suspicion. 
For indeed if He had not risen then, when they were sitting 
there, and watching, but when they had withdrawn after the 
three days, they would have had something to say, and to 
speak against it, although foolishly. For this reason then 
He anticipated the time. For it was meet the Resurrection 
should take place, while they were sitting by and watching. 
Therefore also it was fit it should take place within the three 
days, since if it had been when they were passed, and the 
men had withdrawn, the matter would have been regarded * 
with suspicion. Wherefore also He allowed them to seal it, 
as they were minded, and soldiers sat around it. 

And they cared not about doing these things, and working 
on a Sabbath day, but they looked to one object only, their 
own wicked purpose, as though by that they were to 
succeed; which was a mark of extreme folly, and of fear 
now greatly dismaying them. For they who seized Him, 
when living, are afraid of Him when dead. And yet if He 
had been a mere man, they had reason to have takeu courage. 

1160 Why the Angel rolled atony the stojie, ^c. 

HoMTL.But that they mij^ht learn, thai wlien living also He endured 

Lxxxix. ^^- jjjjg ^^^^^ w'\]\, what He did endure ; behold, botli a seal, 

a stone, and a watch, and they were not able to hold Him. 

But there was one result only, that the burial was published, 

and the Resurrection thereby proved. For indeed soldiers 

sat by it, and Jews are on the watch. 

chap. But in the end of the Sahhnth, an it f)egan to dawn 

1L3, ' towards the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene 

and the other Blary to see the sepulchre. And behold there 

was a great earthquake. For an Angel of the Lord, descended 

from Hearen, and came and rolled hack the stone from the 

door of the tomh, and sat upon it. His countenance was 

like lightning, and his raiment white as stiow. 

After the Resurrection came the Angel. Wherefore then 
came he, and took away the stone ? Because of the women, 
for they themselves had seen Him then in the sepulchre. 
Therefore that they might believe that He was risen again, 
they see the sepulchre void of the Body. For this cause he 
removed the stone, for this cause also an earthquake took 
place, that they might be thoroughly aroused and awakened. 
For they were come to pour oil on Him, and these 
things were done at night, and it is likely that some also 
had become drowsy. And for what intent and cause doth 
"■• 5- he say, Fear not ye ? First lie delivers them from the dread, 
and then tells them of the Resurrection. And the ye is of 
one shewing them great honour, and indicating, that extreme 
punishment awaits them that had dared to do, what the 
others had dared, except ihey repented. For to be afraid is 
not for you, he means, but for them that crucified Him. 

Having delivered them then from the fear both by his 
words, and by his appearance, (for his form he shewed 
bright, as bearing such good tidings,) he went on to say, 
/ know that ye seek Jesus the Crucified. And he is not 
ashamed to call Him crucified; for this is the chief ol the 
V. C. He is risen. Whence is it evident ? As He said. So that 

if ye refuse to believe me, he would say, remember His 
words, and neither will. ye disbelieve me. Then also another 
proof, Come and see the place ichere He lay. For this he 
had lifted uj) the stone, in order that from this too they might 

How we may yet see our Lord and hold His Feet. 1161 

receive the proof. And tell His disciples, that ye shall spe Matt. 
Him in Galilee. And he prepares them to bear good '7—10. 
tidings to others, wliich thing most of all made them believe. 
And He said well in Galilee, freeing them from troubles 
and dangers, so that fear should not hinder their faith. 

And tJtey departed from the sepulclire ivith fear and joy. v. 8. 
Why could this be ? They had seen a thing amazing, and 
beyond expectation, a tomb empty, where tliey had before 
seen Him laid. Wherefore also He had led them to the 
sight, that they might become witnesses of both things, both 
of His tomb, and of His Resurrection. For they considered 
that no man could have taken Him, when so many soldiers 
were sitting by Him, unless He raised up Himself. For 
this cause also they rejoice and wonder, and receive the 
reward of so much continuance with Him, that they should 
first see and gladly declare, not what had been said only, 
but also what they beheld. Thei'efore after then they had [3.] 
departed with fear and joy, Behold, Jesus met them, saying, v. Q. 
All hail. But they held Him by the Feet, and with exceed- 
ing joy and gladness ran unto Him, and received by the touch 
also, an infallible ])roof, and full assurance of the Resurrec- 
tion. Wliat then suith He? Be not afraid. Again, He v. 10. 
Himself casts out their fear, making way for faith. But go, 
tell My brethren, that they go into Galilee, and there shall 
they sec 3Ie. Mark how He Himself sends good tidings to 
His disciples by these women, bringing to honour, as I have 
often said, that sex, which was most dishonoured, and to 
good hopes; and healing that which was diseased. 

Perchance some one of you would wish to be like them, 
to hold the feet of Jesus ; ye can even now, and not His 
Feet and His Hands only, but even lay hold on that sacred 
Head, receiving the awful mysteries with a pure conscience. 
But not here only, but also in that Day, ye shall see Him, 
coming with that unspeakable glory, and the multitude of the 
Angels, if ye are disposed to be humane ; and ye shall hear 
not these words only. All hail I but also those others, ^Come,^ Matt. 
ye blessed of My Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for'^''^^^' 
you before the foundation of the tvorld. 

Be ye therefore humane, that ye may hear these things ; 
and ye women, that wear gold, who have looked on the 

1 162 Vain women challenged to shew the use of ornaments. 

HoMiL. running of these women, at last, thougyi late, lay aside the 
^^^^^^' disease of the desire for golden ornaments. So that if ye 
are emulous of these women, change the ornaments which 
ye wear, and clothe yourselves instead with almsgiving. 
AVhat is the use, I pray you, of these precious stones, 
and of the garments spangled with gold ? " My soul," you 
say, " is glad, and is pleased with these things." 1 asked 
thee the profit, but thou tellest me the hurt. For nothing 
is worse than being taken up with these things, and delight- 
ing in them, and being riveted to them. For more bitter is 
this grievous slavery, when any one finds delight even in 
being a slave. For in what spiritual matter will she ever be 
diligent as she ought; when will she laugh to scorn, as she 
should, the things of this world, who thinks it a worthy matter 
for joy, that she hath been chained in gold } For he that 
continues in prison, and is pleased, will never desire to be 
set free ; as indeed neither will this woman ; but as having 
become a kind of captive to this wicked desire, she will not 
endure so much as to hear spiritual language with becoming 
desire and diligence, much less to engage in such work. 

What then is the profit of these ornaments and this 
luxury ? I pray thee. " I am pleased with them," thou 
sayest. Again thou hast told of the hurt and the ruin. 
" But I enjoy also," thou sayest, " much honour from the 
beholders." And what is this ? This is the occasion of 
another destruction, when thou art lifted up to haughtiness, 
to arrogance. Come now, since thou hast not told me of 
the profit, bear witli me while I tell thee of the mischiefs. 
What then are the mischiefs resulting therefrom } Anxiety, 
which is greater than the pleasure. Wherefore many of the 
beholders, these I mean of the grosser sort, derive more 
pleasure from it, than she who wears the gold. For thou 
indeed deckest thyself with anxiety, but they, without this, 
feast their eyes. 

Moreover, there are other things again, the debasing 
of the soul, the being looked upon with envy on all 
sides. For the neighbouring women stung by it, arm 
themselves against their own husbands, and stir up against 
thee grievous wars. Together with these things, the fact 
that all one's leisure and anxiety are spent on this object ; 

Pride encouraged, charity enfeebled. 1103 

that one doth not apply one's self earnestly to spiritual Matt. 
. 1 • , 1 1 • xxvm. 

achievements; that one is filled with haughtiness, arrogance, lo. 

and vain-glory ; that one is riveted to the earth, and loses one's 

wings, and instead of an eagle, becometh a dog or a swine. 

For Laving given up looking up into Heaven, and flying 

thither, thou bendest down to the earth like the swine, being 

curious about mines and caverns, and having an unmanly and 

base soul. But dost thou, when thou appearest, turn towards 

thee the eyes of thein at the market-place ? Well then ; for 

this very reason, thou shouldest not wear gold, that thou 

mayest not become a common gazing stock, and open the 

mouths of many accusers. For none of those whose eyes 

are toward thee admireth thee, but they jeer at thee, as 

fond of dress, as boastful, as a carnal woman. And shouldest 

thou enter into a church, thou goest forth, without getting 

any thing but countless jeers, and revilings, and curses, not 

from the beholders only, but also from the Prophet. For 

straightway Isaiah', that hath the fullest voice of all, as soon i see 

as he hath seen thee, will cry out, T/wse things saith ihe^Q^^ 

Lord against the princely daughters of Si on; because they 

tvalked witli a lofty neck, and with winkings of the eyes, 

and in tJteir nalking, trailing their garments, and mincing 

at the same time with their feet; the Lord shall take off 

their bravery, and instead of a sweet smell there shall he 

dust, and instead of a stomacher, thou shalt gird thyself 

with a cord. 

These things for thy gorgeous array. For not to them 

only are these words addressed, but to every woman that 

doeth like them. And Paul again with him stands as an 

accuser, telling Timothy to charge the women, '^not to adorn- 1 Tim. 

themselves with broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly ' 

array. So that every where the wearing of gold is hurtful, 

but especially when thou art entering into a church, when 

thou passest through the poor. For if thou wert exceedingly 

anxious to bring an accusation against thyself, thou couldest 

not put on any other array than this visage of cruelty and 

inhumanity. Consider at any rate how many hungry bellies [4.] 

thou passest by with this array, how many naked bodies 

with this satanical display. How much better to feed 

hungry souls, than to bore through the lobes of thy ears, and 

1164 Jeioels bring much care, and estrange from Christ. 
HoMiL. to hang from them the food of countless poor for no purpose 

liXXXlX. . Ill 

— '- — ^"or profit. What is to be rich a commendation ? What is to 
wear gold a praise ? Though it be from honest earnings 
that these things are put on you, even so what thou hast 
done is a very heavy charge against thee ; but when it is 
moreover from dishonesty, consider the exceeding greatness 
of it. 

But dost thou love praises and honour ? Strip thyself 
therefore of this ridiculous clothing, and then all will admire 
thee ; then shalt thou enjoy both honour and pure pleasure ; 
since now at any rate thou art overwhelmed with jeers, 
working for thyself many causes of vexation arising out of 
these things. For should any of these things be missing, 
consider how many are the evils that have their birth there- 
from ; how many maidservants are beaten, how many men 
put to trouble, how many led to execution, how many cast 
^e'urayw-inio prison. And trials arise hence, and actions, and count- 
''"* less curses and accusations against the wife from the husband, 
against the husband from her friends, against the soul from 
itself. " But it will not be lost." In the first place, this is 
not easy to secure, but even if it be kept safe constantly, yet 
by being kept, it occasions much anxiety and care, and dis- 
comfort, and no advantage. 

For what kind of profit arises from hence to the house? 
What advantage to the woman herself who wears it? No 
advantage indeed, but much unseemliness, and accusation 
from every quarter ? How wilt thou be able to kiss Christ's 
Feet, and cling to thera, when thus dressed ? From this 
adorning He turneth away. For this cause He vouchsafed 
to be born in the house of the carpenter, or rather not even 
in that house, but in a shed, and a manger. How then wilt 
thou be able to behold Him, not having beauty that is 
desirable in His eyes, not wearing the array that is lovely 
before Him, but what is hateful. For he that cometh unto 
Him must not deck himself out with such garments, but 
be clothed with virtue. 

Consider what after all these jewels are. Nothing else 
than earth and ashes. Mix water with them, and they are 
clay. Consider and be ashamed to make clay thy master, 
forsaking all, and abiding by it, and carrying and bearing it 

Jewels absurdly fref erred to the good of so^ils. 11G5 
about, even when thou enterest into a church, when most of" Matt. 


all thou oughtest to flee from it. For neither for this cause lo. 
was the church built, that thou shouldest display therein 
these riches, but spiritual riches. But thou, as though thou 
wert entering into a pompous procession, thus deckest thy- 
self out on every side, imitating the women on the stage, 
even so dost thou carry about in profusion that ridiculous 

Therefore, I tell thee, thou coraest for mischief to many, 
and when the congregation is dismissed, in their houses, at 
their tables, one may hear the more part describing these 
things. For they have left of}' sa}ing, thus and thus said 
the Prophet and the Apostle, and they describe the costliness 
of your garments, the size of your precious stones, and all 
the other unseemliness of them that wear these things. 

This makes you backward in almsgiving, and your 
husbands. For one of you would not readily consent to 
break up one of these ornaments to feed a poor man. For 
when thou wonkiest choose even thyself to be in distress 
rather than to behold these things broken to pieces, how 
shouldest thou feed another at the cost of them ? 

For most women feel towards these things, as to some 
living beings, and nol less than towards their children. 
" God forbid," thou sayest. Prove me this then, prove it by 
your works, as now at least I see the contrary. For who 
ever of those that are completely taken captive, by melting 
down these things, would rescue a child's soul from death ? 
And why do I say a child's ? Who hath redeemed his 
own soul thereby, when perishing.? Nay, on the contrary, 
the more part even set it to sale for these things every day. 
And should any bodily infirmity take place, they do every 
thing, but if they see their soul depraved, they take no such 
pains, but are careless both about their children's soul, and 
their own soul, in order that these things may remain to rust 
with time. 

And whilst thou art wearing jewels worth ten thousand 
talents, the member of Christ hath not the enjoyment so 
much as of necessary food. And whereas the common Lord 
of all hath imparted to all alike of heaven, and of the things 
in Heaven, and of the Spiritual Table, thou dost not impart 

1 UK) Wives should not teach husbands to admire vanity. Him even of perishing things, on purpose that thou 

^~ '- mayest continue perpetually bound with these grievous 


Hence the countless evils, hence the jealousies, hence the 
fornications of the men, when ye prepare them to cast off 
self-restruint, when ye teach them to take delight in these 
things with which the harlot women deck themselves. For 
this cause they are so quickly taken captive. For if thou 
hadst instructed him to look down upon these things, and 
to take delight in chastity, godly fear and humility, he 
'TrTepoty would uot have been so easily taken by the shafts' of for- 
nication. For the harlot is able to adorn herself in this way 
even to a greater degree than this, but with those other 
ornaments not so. Accustom him then to take delight in 
these ornaments, which he cannot see placed on the harlot. 
And how wilt thou bring him into this habit? If thou take 
off these, and put on those others, so shall both thy hus- 
band be in safety, and thou in honour, and God will be 
propitious to you, and all men will admire you, and ye will 
attain unto the good things to come, by the grace and love 
towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory 
and might, world without end. Amen. 


Matt, xxviii, 11 — 14. 

Now when they ivere going, behold, some of the tvatch came 
into the city, and declared unto the chief priests all the 
things that were done. And when they had assembled with 
the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money 
unto the soldiers, saying, Say ye. His disciples came by 
7iight, and stole Him away while we slept, and if this come 
to the governor'' s ears, we will persuade him, and secure you. 

For the sake of these soldiers that earthquake took place, 
in order to dismay them, and that the testimony might 
come from them, which accordingly was the result. For the 
report was thus free from suspicion, as proceeding from the 
guards themselves. For of the signs some were displayed 
publicly to the world, others privately to those present on 
the spot ; publicly for the world was the darkness, privately 
the appearance of the Angel, the earthquake. When 
then they came and shewed it, (for truth shines forth, being 
proclaimed by its adversaries,) they again gave money, that 
they might say, as it is expressed, that His disciples came 
and stole Him. 

How did they steal Him ? O most foolish of all men ! 
For because of the clearness and conspicuousness of the 
truth, they are not even able to make up a falsehood. For 
indeed what they said was highly incredible, and the false- 
hood had not even speciousness. For how, I ask, did the 
disciples steal Him, men poor and unleai'ned, and not 
ventnrhig so much as to shew themselves ? What ? was 
not a seal put u}>ou it? What? were there not so many 

1 1()8 The Resurrectwn proved by vieans of the guard. 

HoMTL. watchmen, and soldiers, and Jews stationed round it? 
■ What? did not those men suspect this very thing, and 

take thought, and break their rest, and are in anxiety about 
it? And wherefore moreover did they steal It? That they 
might feign the doctrine of the Resurrection ? And how 
should it enter their minds to feign such a thing, men who 
were well content to be hidden and to live ? And how could 
they remove the stone that was made sure ? how could they 
have escaped the observation of so many ? Nay, though 
they had despised death, they would not ha\e attempted 
without purpose, and fruitlessly to venture in defiance of so 
many who. were on the watch. And that moreover they 
were timorous, what they had done before shewed clearly ; 
at least, when they saw Him seized, all rushed away from 
Him. If then at that lime they did not dare so much as to 
stand iheir ground when they saw Him alive, how when He 
was dead could they but have feared such a number of 
soldiers? What? was it to burst open a door? Was it that 
one should escape notice ? A great stone lay upon it, need- 
ing many hands to move it. 
I Matt. They were right in saying, '^ So the last error shall he 
' worse thaii the Jirst, making this declaration against them- 
selves, for that, when after so much mad conduct they ought 
to have repented, they rather strive to outdo their former 
acts, feigning absurd fictions; and as, when He was alive, 
they purchased His Blood, so when He was dead and risen 
again, they again by money were striving to undermine the 
evidence of His Resurrection. J3ut do thou mark, I pray 
thee, how by their own doings they are caught every where. 
For if they had not come to Pilate, nor asked for the guard, 
they would have been more able to act thus impudently, but 
as it was, not so. For indeed, as though they were labouring 
to stop their own moullis, even so did they all things. For if 
the disciples had not strength to watch with Him, and that, 
though upbraided by Him, how could they have ventured upon 
these things? And wherefore did they not steal Him before 
this, but when ye were come? For if they had been minded 
to do this, they would have done it, when the Tomb was not 
yet guarded on the first night, when it was to be done 
without danger, and in security. For it was on the Sabbath 

The story of the soldiers incredible. 1169 

that they came and begged of Pilate to have the watch, and Matt. 


kept guard, but during the first night none of tliese was 15. 
present by the sepulchre. 

[2.] And what mean also the napkins that were stuck on 
with the myrrh ; for Peter saw these lying. For if they had 
been disposed to steal, they would not have stolen the Body 
naked, not because of dishonouring It only, but in order not 
to delay and lose time in stripping It, and not to give them 
that were so disposed opportunity to awake and seize 
them. Especially when it was myrrh, a drug that adheres 
so to the body, and cleaves to the clothes, whence it was 
not easy to take the clothes off the Body, but they that did 
this needed much time, so that from this again, the tale 
of the theft is improbable. 

What? did they not know the rage of the Jews? and that 
they would vent their anger on them ? And what profit was 
it at all to them, if He had not risen again ? 

So these men, being conscious that they had made up all 
this tale, gave money, and said, Say ye these things, and we 
will persuade the governor. For they desire that the report 
should be published, fighting in vain against the truth ; 
and by their endeavours to obscure it, by these even against 
their will they occasioned it to appear clearly. For indeed 
even this establishes the Resurrection, the fact I mean 
of their saying, that the Disciples stole Him. For this 
is the language of men confessing, that the Body was not 
there. When therefore they confess the Body was not there, 
but the stealing It is shewn to be false and incredible, by 
their watching by It, and by the seals, and by the timidity 
of the Disciples, the proof of the Resurrection even hence 
appears incontrovertible. 

Nevertheless, these shameless and audacious men, although 
there were so many things to stop their mouths, 8ay ye, 
these are their words, and ive will persuade, and will secure 
you. Seest thou all depraved? Pilate, for he was persuaded? 
the soldiers ? the Jewish people ? But marvel not, ii' mone}' 
prevailed over soldiers. For if with His disciple it shewed 
its might to be so great, much more with these. 

And this saying is commonly reported, it is said, until s.\b. 
this day. Seest thou again the Disciples' love of truth, how 

4 F 

1 170 Ovr Lorcfs commission and promise to the Apostles. 

HoMu.lbey are not ashamed of saying even this, that such a report 

— prevailed against them. 

V. 16.17. Then the eleven Disciples went away into Galilee, and 
some xvorshippecU ^'^'^ some when they saw Him, doubted. 

This seems to me to be the last appearance in Galilee, 
when He sent them forth to bajHize. And if some doubted, 
herein again admire their truthfulness, how they conceal not 
even their shortcomings up to the last day. Nevertheless, 
even these are assured by their sight. 

What then saith He unto them, when He seeth them? 
V. 18. All p>ower is given unto Me in heaven and in earth. Again 
He speaketh to them more after the manner of man, for they 
had not yet received the Spirit, Which was able to raise 
V 18.19. them on high. Go ye, make disciples of all nations, bap)tizing 
them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever 
I have commanded you ; giving the one charge with a view 
to doctrine, the other concerning commandments. And of 
the Jews He makes no mention, neither brings forward what 
had been done, nor upbraids Peter with his denial, nor any 
one of the others with their flight, but having put into their 
hands a summary of the doctrine, that expressed by the 
form of Baptism, commands them to pour forth over the 
whole world. 

After that, because he had enjoined on them great things, 

V. 20. to raise their courage, He says, Lo ! I am with you always, 

even unto the end of the world. Seest thou His own proper 

power again ? Seest thou how those other things also -were 

spoken for condescension } And not with those men onl}^ 

did He promise to be, but also with all that believe after 

them. For plainly the Apostles were not to remain here 

unto tlie end of the world; but he speaks to the believers as 

to one body. For tell me not, saith He, of the difficulty of 

the things ; for / am with you, Who make all things easy. 

This He said to the Prophets also in the Old Testament 

Jer. 1, continually, as well to Jeremiah objecting his youth, as to 

jr'xoii. 4, Closes and Ezekiel shrinking from the office, I am with you, 

10. 12 tijig \iQXQ also to these men. And mark, I pray thee, the 

and 3. excellence of these, for the others, when sent to one nation, 

often excused them.selves, but these said nothing of the 

Oii7- Lord's commands are not grievous. 1171 

sort, thous;li sent to the world. And He reminds them also Matt. 
' ^ xxvm. 

of the consummation, that He may draw them on more, and 20. 

that they may look not at the present dangers only, but also 

at the good things to come that are without end. 

" For the irksome things, saith He, that ye will undergo 
are finished together with the present life, since at least even 
this world itself shall come to an end, but the good things 
which ye shall enjoy remain immortal, as I have often told 
you before." Thus having invigorated and roused their 
minds, by the remembrance of that Day, He sent them forth. 
For that Day to them that live in good works is to be 
desired, even as on the other hand to those in sin, it is 
terrible as to the condemned. 

But let us not fear only, and shudder, but let us change 
too, while there is opportunity, and let us rise out of our 
wickedness, for we can, if we be willing. For if before 
grace many did this, much more after grace. For what L^-J 
grievous thing are we enjoined ? to cleave mountains asunder.'' 
to fly into the air? or to cross the Tuscan sea ? By no means, 
but a way of life so easy, as not so much as to want any 
instruments, but a soul and purpose only. For what instru- 
ments had these Apostles, who effected such things } Did 
they not go about with one vestment, and unshod ? and they 
got the better of all. 

For what is difficult of the injunctions .? Have no enemy. 
Hate no man. Speak ill of no man. Nay, the opposites 
of these things are the greater hardships. But He said, 
you reply. Throw away thy money. Is this then the 
grievous thing ? In the first place. He did not command, 
but advised it. Yet even if it were a command, what is it 
grievous not to carry about burthens and unseasonable cares? 

But oh covetousness ! All things are become money; for 
this cause all things are turned upside down. If any one 
declares another happy, he mentions this; should he pro- 
nounce him wretched, hence is derived the description of 
wretchedness. And all reckonings are made on this account, 
how such an one gets rich, how such an one gets poor. 
Should it be military service, should it be marriage, should 
it be a trade, should it be what you will that any man takes 
in hand, he does not apply to what is proposed, until he see 

4 F 2 

1172 Most men still slaves to the desire of money. 

HoMiL. these riches are coining in rapidly upon him. After this 

- — ^ shall wo not meet together and consult how we shall drive 

away this pest ? Shall we not regard with shame the good 

deeds of our fiithers ? of the three thousand, of the five 

thousand, who had all things common ? 

What is the profit of this present life, when we do not 
use it for our future gain ? How long do ye not enslave the 
Mammon that hath enslaved you? How long are ye slaves 
of money ? How long have ye no love for liberty, and do 
not rend in pieces the bargains of covetousness ? But while, 
if ye should have become slaves of men, you do all things, 
if any one should promise you liberty ; yet being captives of 
covetousness, ye do not so much as consider how ye may 
be delivered from this bitter bondage. And yet the one 
were nothing terrible, the other is the most bitter tyranny. 

Consider how great a price Christ paid for us. He shed 
His own Blood; He gave up Himself. But ye, even after 
all this, are grown supine ; and the most grievous thing of 
all is, that ye even take delight in the slavery, ye luxuriate 
in the dishonour, and that, from which ye ought to flee, is 
become an object of desire to you. 

But since it is right not only to lament and to blame, 
but also to correct, let us see from what cause this passion 
and this evil have become an object of desire to you. 
Whence then, whence hath this come to be an object of 
desire ? Because, thou sayest, it makes me to be in honour 
and in security. In what kind of security, I pray thee? 
In the confidence, not to suffer hunger, nor cold, not to 
be harmed, not to be despised. Wilt thou then, if we 
promise thee this security, refrain from being rich ? For 
if it is for this that riches are an object of desire, if it be 
in your power to have security without these, what need 
hast thou of these any more ? " And how is it possible," 
thou sayest, " for one who is not rich to attain to this?" 
Nay, how is it possible (for I say the opposite thing) if one 
is rich ? For it is necessary to flatter many, both rulers and 
subjects, and to entreat countless numbers, and to be a base 
slave, and to be in fear and trembling, and to regard with 
fiuspicion the eyes of the envious, and to fear the tongues of 
false accusers, and the desires of other covetous men. But 

Poverty is nobler and happier than riches. 1 173 

poverty is not like this, but altogether the contrary. It is a Matt. 
place of refuge and security, a calm harbour, a wrestling 20. 
ground, and school of exercise to learn self-command, an 
imitation of the life of angels. 

Hear these things, as many as are poor; or rather also, 
as many as desire to be rich. It is not poverty that is the 
thing to be feared, but the not being willing to be poor. 
Account poverty to be nothing to fear, and it will not be 
to thee a matter for fear. For neither is this fear in the 
nature of the thing, but in the judgment of feeble-minded 
men. Or rather, I am even ashamed that I have occasion 
to say so much concerning jjoverty, to shew that it is nothing 
to be feared. For if thou practise self-command, it is even 
a fountain to thee of countless blessings. And if any one 
were to offer thee sovereignty, and political power, and 
wealth, and luxury, and then having set against them 
poverty, were to give thee thy choice to take which thou 
wouldest, thou wouldest straightway seize upon poverty, if 
indeed thou knewest the beauty thereof. 

[4.] And I know that many laugh, when these things are 
said ; but we are not troubled ; but we require you to stay, 
and soon ye will give judgment with us. For to me poverty 
seems like some comely, fair, and well-favoured damsel, but 
covetousness like some monster-shaped woman, some Scylla 
or Hydra, or some other like prodigies feigned by fabulous 

For bring not forward, I pray thee, them that accuse 
povert}^, but them that have shone thereby. Nurtured in 
this, Elias was caught up in that blessed assumption. With 
this Eliseus shone; with this John; with this all the Apostles; 
but with the other, Ahab, Jezebel, Gehazi, Judas, Nero, 
Caiaphas, were condemned. 

But if it please you, let us not look to those onlj^ that 
have been glorious in poverty, but let us observe the beauty 
itself of this damsel. For indeed her eye is clear and 
piercing, having nothing turbid in it, like the eye of covet- 
ousness, which is at one time full of anger, at another sated 
with pleasure, at another troubled by incontinence. But the 
eye of poverty is not like this, but mild, calm, looking kindly 
on all, meek, gentle, hating no man, shunning no man. 

1174 The Apostles' poverty more blessed than their jjoiver. 

HoMiL. For where there are riches, tlierc is matter for enmity, awd for 
~ — 1— countless wars. The mouth auain of the other is full of 

insults, of a certain haughtiness, of much boasting, cursing, 
deceit ; but the mouth and the tongue of this are sound, 
filled with continual thanksgiving, blessing, words of gentle- 
ness; of affection, of courtesy, of praise, of commendation. 
And if thou wouldest see also the proportion of her members, 
she is of a goodly height, and far loftier than wealth. And 
if many flee from her, marvel not at it, for indeed so do fools 
from the rest of virtue. 

But the poor man, thou wilt say, is insulted by him that 
is rich. Again thou art declaring to me the praise of poverty. 
For who, I pray thee, is blessed, the insulter, or the insulted; 
It is manifest that it is the insulted person. But then, the 
one, covetousness, urges to insult the other; poverty per- 
suades to endure. " But the poor man suffers hunger," thou 

' 1 Cor. wilt say. Paul also suffered hunger, and was in famine'. 

2'cor. " ^^^^t he has no rest." Neither ^ had the So?i 0/ Man where 

11,. 27. to lay His Head. 

12. ' Seest thou how far the praises of poverty have proceeded, 

8^20'*" ^"^ where it places thee, to what men it leads thee on, and 
how it makes thee a follower of the Lord ? If it were good 
to have gold, Christ, Who gave the unutterable blessings, 
would have given this to His disciples. But now so far 
from giving it them, he forbad them to have it. Wherefore 
Peter also, so far from being ashamed of poverty, even 

3Acts3, glories in it, saying, ''Silver and gold have I none; but what 

®" / have yive I thee. And who of you would not have 

desired to utter this saying ? Nay, we all would extremely, 
perhaps some one may say. Then throw auay thy silver, 
throw away thy gold. " And if I throw it away, thou wilt 
say, shall I receive the power of Peter ?" Why, what made 
Peter blessed, tell me ? Was it indeed to have lifted up the 
lame man ? By no means, but the not having these riches, 
this i)rocured him Heaven. For of those that wrought these 
miracles, many fell into hell, but they, who did those good 
things, attained a Kingdom. And this you may learn even 
of Peter himself. For there were two things that he said. 
Silver and yold have I none; and, In the Name of Jesus 
Christ rise up and walk. 

Judgment of Christ in favour of almsgiving. 1 175 

Which sort of thine; then made Him glorious and blessed, Matt. 

... , , 1 . , . „ XXVIII. 

the raising up the lame man, or the casting away his money : 20. 

And this you may learn from the Master of the conflicts 
Himself. What then doth He Himself say to the rich man 
seeking eternal life ? He said not, " raise up the lame," but, 
SelV thy goods, and give to the poor, and come and folloiv^ Matt. 
Me, and thou shall have treasure in Heaven. And Peter ' 
ag'ain said not, '' Behold, in Thy Name we cast out devils ;" 
although he was casting them out, but, ^ BeJiold, we have'^\h.\.'2T. 
forsaken all and folloived Thee, uhat shall we have? And 
Christ again, in answering this Apostle, said not, " If any 
man raise up the lame," hut, ^Whosoever hath forsa'ien houses ^\b.\,2i). 
or lands, shall receive an hu/tdredfold in this world, and shall 
inherit everlasting life. 

Let us also then emulate this man, that we may not he 
confounded, but may with confidence stand at the Judgment- 
seat of Christ; that we may win Him to be with us, even as 
He was with His Disciples. For He will be with us, like as 
He was with them, if we are willing to follow them, and to 
be imitators of their life and conversation. For in con- 
sequence of these things God crowns, and commends men, 
not requiring of thee to raise the dead, or to cure the lame. 
For not these things make one to be like Peter, but the 
casting away one's goods, for this was the Apostle's achieve- 

But dost thou not find it possible to cast them away ? In 
the first place, I say, it is possible ; but 1 compel thee not, 
if thou art not willing, nor constrain you to it ; but this 
I entreat, to spend at least a part on the needy, and to seek 
for yourselves nothing more than is necessary. For ihns 
shall we both live our life here without trouble, and in 
security, and enjoy eternal life ; unto which God grant we 
all may attain, by the grace and love towards man of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and might, together 
with the Father and the Holy Ghost, now and always, and 
world without end. Amen. 




Ahel, wherefore slain, 985, 

Abraham, humility of, 383, 969 ; 
heartiness of, 619; varied life of, 
724 ; craft of, 769. 

Aceldama, how a witness of The 
Truth, 1121. 

Adam, temptation of, 174-7, 200; life 
of described, 920. 

Adoption, may be useless, 127; inti- 
mated by J. C, 205. 

Adultery, the Jews' law of, 60; 
Christ's law of, 253-8; evils of, 057. 

Advent, the first, 81 ; the second, 988, 
1011-12; will be in the night, 1026, 
1037; is not near, 1037. 

Agony, the, how ordered and why, 
1095 6. 

Almtgiving, merit of, 04, 74, 158, 685, 
686-7, 710-12, 898, 1031-2, 1062, 
1107; dutvof, 645, 870, 898, 973, 
1093, 1152, 1175; rule of, 217, 285, 
515-19, 713, 956 9, 1121-22; ex- 
amples of, 870. (See Charity.) 

Andrew, St. 190-1. 

Angels, ministry of, 64, 180, 810, 1107, 

Anger, how to he tamed, 50 ; when 
right, 240; evils of, 278, 699, 1057, 
1143; how caused, 947. 

Anointing, cures effected by, 473. 

Antichrist, coming of, 1012, 1024. 

Antioch, people of, ceremonious, 282 ; 
riotous, 474 ; profane, 541 ; given to 
theatricals, 542; worldly, 814; un- 
grateful to God, 829; uncharitable, 
859, 1123, 1162; luxurious, 948, 
population of, 1 124. 

Antony, St. praise of, 1 16. 

Apostles, the, inspiration of, 3, 485; 
how victorious, 8, 29, 124; how 
rulers of the kingdom, 11 ; teachers 
in the Church, 159; reward of, sure, 
186, 497, 501; call of, 191, 436; 
represented all Christians, 199; 
above the Prophets, 211 ; slow to 
understand the truth, 227, 416, 696, 
718, 876, 1107; firmness of, 369; 
how trained by J. C, 415, 464, 471, 
496; mission of, how seasonable, 
465; list of, 466; why not sent to 
Samaritans, 467; why to be pro- 
vided for, 469; to bid Peace, 472 ; 
first mission of, prophetic, 479; how 
like sheep and doves, 480 ; how 
proved in the Acts, 483 ; aids and 
trials of, 484 ; above heathen heroes, 
486; case of, worse than ours, 489; 
when to flee, 496; will be justified, 
497 ; boldness of, 498 ; how to con- 
fess Christ, 601 ; how to hate life, 
&c., 510; how encouraged by J. C, 
513; how humbled, 550; kindness 
of, 621 ; how leavened the Church, 
633; why employed in the Miracle 
of Loaves, 668; why washed not, 
689 ; why sharply rebuked, 696 ; 
begin to believe, 718; varied life of, 
724 ; why questioned at Ca^sarea 
Philippi, 729 ; confession of, inferior 
to Peter's, 730 ; leaders of, who, 
757; lovers of mankind, 856; how 
to be judges, 864; how warned of 
the Passion, and why, 875; when 
first perfect, 882 ; reconciled by 
J. C, 883; how all equal, 966; 
deaths of, predicted, 984 ; phy- 
sicians of the soul, 990; eager for 
the Advent, 9.96; why warned of 



the Jews' troubles, 996-7; triumph 
of, 1000; encouraged against trou- 
bles, 1010; how prepared for the 
Passion, 1051, 1105-8; whv against 
Mary of Bethany, 1500; 'flight of, 
predicteil, lii86; what taught, at the 
Agony, 1097, what, at the Betrayal, 
] 105-8; commission of, 1170; blessed 
in poverty, 1174. 

Arisdppiis, censure of, 466. 

AscoisioH, a proof of Christ's equality 
%vith the Father, 96. 

Astrology, condemned, 77, 1002. 

Axe, moral of the, 150. 


Babylonish captivity, why mentioned 

in The Genealogy, 45, 85. 
Baptism [of Christ], twofold, 20; a 

second beginning of the Gospel, 94 ; 

virtue of the, 153 ; humiliation of, 

163; reasons for, 133, 104. 
Baptism (of John), how for remission 

of sins, 134; prepared for Christ's, 

135; effect of, on the Jews, 136; of 

what value, 152-3. 
Baptism, sin after, dangerous, 56, 

127-8, 170; how to be recovered, 

103] ; followed by temptation, 173; 

makes men brothers, 1048. 
Beatitinles, the, connexion of, 209 ; the 

seeds of Christian doctrine, 229. 
Beauty, what it is, and where, 505. 
Bethlehem, the glory of, 84, 95, 101 ; 

the slaughter at, 122 4. 
Blessing, frequent use of, in the early 

Church, 472 (note). 
Bli)id men at Jericho, praise of, 889. 
Boihi, the, decay of, how a benefit, 

Brethren, of J. C, 71, 1149 (note); 

vanity of the, 509. 
British Isles, 1001. - 

Cain, sin of, what, 398, 1132. 

Canaan, woman of, why praised, 706. 

Carefulness, reasons against, 324, 335. 

Centurion, the, faith of, 385-90. 

Charity, of timely interference, 220 ; 
which the greatest, 276 ; extent of, 
277; contrasted with riches, 362; 
the root of all good, 636 ; true motive 
of, what, 823-4 ; how to be shewn, 
1033; easiness of, 1050. (See Alms- 

Children, wherein our example, 847. 

Children^ the Three, humble confes- 
sion of, 39, 199; glory of, 62, 215, 
494; temperance of, 117. 

Christ, law of, simple, 10; twofold 
birth of, 19; why called Jesus, 21, 
54; why traced up to David, 22; 
why to Thamar, 33 ; reserved in 
teaching the Incarnation, 32, 94; 
birth of, full of mysteries, 48 ; how 
to be called Immanuel,69; brethren 
of, why so called, 71 ; witnessed by 
His enemies, 93; revealed Himself 
gradually, 94 ; favoured the .Jews 
first, 96; why sent into Egypt, 108; 
why settled at Nazareth, 126; why 
came to John's Baptism, 133; His 
Baptism far greater than John's, 
153 ; why taught by natural em- 
blems, 157; indwelling of, my.s- 
terious, 157; why humbled Himself 
to be baptized, 163; why went into 
the desert, 174; why fasted, 175; 
temptation of, contrasted with Eve's, 
177; in temptation represented us, 
180; why went into Galilee, 188; 
why waited for John's imprisonment, 
189; reserved His doctrine at first, 
190; preached to all, through His 
disciples, 198; why referred some- 
times to His Father's Power only, 
225; how fulfilled the law. 228, and 
enlarged it, 230, 235 ; legislates 
with authority, 234; uses temporal 
sanctions, 248; why begins with the 
second table, 252 ; straitened the 
law of marriage, 260; how far for- 
bids display, 286 ; what most loves 
and hates, 299; prepares to teach 
greater strictness, 323 ; why teaches 
from the lower creatures, 325, why 
from the lilies, 330 ; why referred 
often to the Father, 331 ; acted 
what He taught, 336 ; why enjoins 
reserve, 349 ; law of, how easy, 
354 ; why repeated John's threat, 
358 ; forbearing, even in judgment, 
360 ; often enforces oheriience, 368, 
371 ; joined miracles with doctrine, 
376; intimates I-lis Divinity to the 
leper, 377; His care to keep Him- 
self in our minds, 382 ; draws out 
men's faith, 384, 450, 890 ; en- 
courages high thoughts of Himself, 
387; v^hy repeated His miracles, 
405 ; rejects some, invites others, 
407-9 ; answers to men's thoughts, 
408, 430, 576, 722, 852 ; intimates 
His Divinity in healing the Demo- 
niacs, 417 ; in the cure of the Para- 
lytic, 430 ; careful to prove His 
miracles, 431 ; why sat with sinners, 
438 ; reproved ignorance of Holy 



Scripture, 439 ; teaches reserve and 
caution, 443-4; how prepared for 
His miracles, 452 ; merciful accord- 
ing to faith, 461 ; why went on 
circuit, 4(33 ; why sent out The 
Twelve, 464 ; His mercilul care for 
them, 469 ; how much worked in 
them, 488; will own His Saints, 
501 ; how sent war, 50S; encourages 
His ministers, 513; His Mercy con- 
trasted with ours, 514; His answer 
to John's message, 624; His ac- 
count of John, 536 ; how superior to 
John, 538; His joy in the Gospel, 
549 : declares His Divinity, 551 ; 
His yoke, how easy, 554; straitened 
the law of the sabbath, 562 ; His 
reserve and its end foretold, 568 ; 
defends His miracles, 576 ; foresaw 
the Jews' unbelief, 598 ; how like 
Jonah, 599; why rebuked His kin- 
dred, 610; His treatment of His 
Mother, 612; willed the Jews' sal- 
vation, 622; His Mercy, a reason 
for ours, 625 ; His cure for His 
countrymen, 650; why prayed in 
some miracles only, 666; His Di- 
vinity recognised, on the sea, 682; 
how far condemned tradition, 691 ; 
prepares to abrogate Judaism, 692 ; 
His doctrine of meats, 697 ; what 
favoured, in the woman of Canaan, 
708; why refused a sign, 721; 
why reproved His disciples, and in 
what spirit, 722-3 ; how asserted 
His Divinity to St. Peter, 731 ; how 
long reserved as to His Pa'^sion, 
753; what teaches by St. Peter, 
725; extent of His promises, 739; 
would have willing service, 743 ; 
how to be followed, 745 ; Merciful 
in severity, 7^6; loss of, how great, 
747; why Transfigured, 756; always 
spake of His Passion after His mira- 
cles, 775 ; His care of the possessed, 
778 ; shewed His Sonship by the 
tribute money, 787; His care tor 
little ones, 810; aims wholly at re- 
pentance, 820; who "gathered in 
His Name," 823; His love, the 
source of ours, 825 ; our pattern of 
forgiveness, 837 ; His law of mar- 
riage, 843; recommended what in 
children, 847 ; reproved what, in the 
rich young man, 855 ; His promises 
conditional, 862 ; prepared the twelve 
for His Passion, 873 ; why gives not 
Heaven Himself, 881 ; His care to 
reconcile the twelve, 883 ; His care 
to shew the faith cf those whom He 
healed, 890; His power shewn in 
entering the city, 892 ; His Self- 
denial, 893 ; His wisdom in answer- 

ing the elders, 905; His severity to 
the Pharisees, 942 ; draws men on 
to own His Godhead, 953; why re- 
ferred to David, 954 ; respects au- 
thority even in the bad, 962 ; pre- 
dicts His Passion, 983, His Judg- 
ment, 9S8 ; His grief for Jerusalem, 
987; why warned the Jews, 958; 
His power shewn in the time of 
preaching the Gospel, 999 ; how to 
come to Judgment, 1013 ; would be 
followed of choice, 1016; is all in all 
to Christ/ans, 101 7 ; forbids curiosity, 
1022; why spoke as if ignorant of 
The Day, 1024-6; how overcame 
Satan, 1043; is in His poor, 1048 ; 
how declared His Passion, 1051 ; 
how loved His enemies, 1053; His 
considerateness, 1061 ; why kept the 
Passover, 1070; His Mercy to Judas, 
1071, 1082, 1098, to the Jews, 
1108, 1130, 1148; why partook of 
the Supper, 1084; why ate and drank 
after His rising, 1085 ; why went 
into Galilee, 1087; why needed to 
pray, 1088 ; yielded Himself freely, 
yet shewed His Power, 1099, 1108 ; 
how to' be entertained, 1103 ; glori- 
ous under insult, 1110; why silent 
before Pilate, 1127; suffered in all 
His members, 1137; why spake 
aloud on the Cross, 1147 ; is in 
His poor, 1151 ; how to be em- 
braced, 1161 ; how always present 
with His Church, 1170. {See Di- 
vini/i/, Humanity, Economij,Pnssion, 

Christians, must be more righteous 
than Jews, 563, more than the 
Pharisees, 870 ; to fight for one 
another, 812; to act rightly, without 
respect to others, 872; guilt of, ex- 
treme, 1004; should obey Christ of 
choice, 1016; vanquished because of 
their own unsoundness, 1150; arms 
of, 1154. 

Chitrch, the, in the Patriarchs, 34 ; 
fidelity of, shewn in Ruth, 37 ; is the 
" Salt, of the earth," the " Light," 
the " City," the " Candle," 211— 
213; how increased, 633; the last 
appeal, 821 ; charity of, 896; trials 
of, 997 ; triumph of, 999 ; whereon 
built, 1088. (See Kingdom, Gospel.) 

Church Offerings, how far commend- 
able, 685, 1062. 

Chitrch Service, God speaks in, 14 ; 
how to be improved, 159; a spiritual 
school, 267; sin of irreverence in, 
303, 473; preparation for, 698; 
lewd looks in, reproved, 977. 

Circumcision, law of, how far, and 
when, repealed, 693. 



City of God, its glories, 16, 17, 20, 
169, 171. 

Commandment, the eighth, how implied 
in the ninth, 261. 

Comminiioii, Huh/, how to be improved, 
66 ; deserted for the stage, 102-3 ; 
why private, 349 ; how a sacrifice of 
thanksgiving, 381 ; intended for a 
bond of brotherly love, 476 ; sin of 
profaning, 530; dignity of, 684; 
could not soften Judas, 1082; the 
profane not to be received at, 268, 
1094. (See Sacraments.) 

Concord, blessedness of, 822. 

Confession, the truest tlianksgiving, 

Consolation, whence to be sought by 
mourners, 457 ; sources of, in death, 

Continence, a gift, but attainable, 846. 

Corinthians, sin of, 88 ; repentance of, 

Covetoitsness, how punished here, 129; 
akin to sensuality, 130; blinds the 
soul, 312; dangerous, 315; unnatural, 
316,424; heathenish, 332; a mad- 
ness, 423, 701 ; how wasteful, 425; 
in feasts, reproved, 659; exhortation 
against, 939 ; how to be cured, 991 ; 
extreme guilt of, 1048; in Judas, 
1064; description of, 1065; naked- 
ness of, 1077; self-wounded, 1078; 
the worst vice, 1079; ensnaring, 
1099; insatiable, 1100; miserable, 
1101 ; forbidden even in thought, 
1138; a slavery, 1172. 

Courtiers, life of, a slavery, 794. 

Craftsmeii, sinful ingratitude of, 830. 

Creatures, the, not evil, 753, 782, 790, 
805,845. (,^eti Manichees.) 

Cross, the, the beginning of remission, 
133 ; predicted by John, 525, 
Isaiah, and David, 626; offence of, 
when removed, 733; must be borne 
as a Crown, 736 ; sign of, its use 
and power, 736, 1142; glory of, 
shewn at the Transfiguration, 769 ; 
the beginning of Grace, 962 ; will be 
seen at the Judgment, 1112: power 
of, 1145-8. 

Cyrus, moved by God, 84. 


David, why first in the genealogy, 22, 
45; repentance of, 29, 397-402; 
humility of, 41, 121, 209, 326, 383, 
969 ; Son of, a title of honour, 460 ; 
profaneness of, why defended by 
J. C, 659; strong in virtue, f90, 
weak in jiin, 691; pleased God 
without miracles, 634 ; forbearance 

of, 849; true judgment of, 872; his 
testimony to J. C, 956; sin of, 
heinous, 1004. 

Death-bed, full of comfort to the good, 

Demoniac, the relapsed, a type of the 
Jews, 600. 

Despair, danger of, 1 133. 

Devil, the, not sensual, 57 ; encourages 
})lay, 89; his craft in ' The Tempt- 
ation,' 1 76; hi"* activity for our ruin, 
181; how believes, 183; how fell, 
199; being defeated, departs, 216; 
how to be resisted, 271 ; how ' The 
wicked One,' 298 ; power of, limited, 
481 ; ought to mourn, 455 ; a Prince, 
462 ; why cannot stand divided, 
577; cast out by the Disciples, 579; 
his fall prophesied, 6e0 ; strives to 
bring reproach on nature, 778 ; how 
to be cast out, 780 ; devised self- 
mutilation, 845 ; an example of 
pride, 886; more obeyed than Christ, 
895 ; loves lewd company, 949 ; 
tempts by vain glory, 958; his mode 
of attack, 1074, 1132. 

Diogenes, censure of, 486. 

Disciples, why from Galilee, 196; 
distinguished from the multitudes, 
197; why sent on circuit, 464. (See 

Dispensation. (See Tncarnation.) 

Disposition, in men's own power, 616. 

Dives, why damned, 128, 183, 949, 
1003, 1005, 1008. 

Divinity of Christ, declared by John, 
6 (note) ; concealed at first, 95-6, 
164, 226; in the Epiphany, 100; 
tokens of, 100; first declared by the 
Spirit, 154; doubted by Satan, 176; 
intimated in words of J. C, 208, 
216; hid from the Jews, 225,252, 
277, 331, 365; confessed by the 
leper, 375, by the Centurion, 392 ; in 
two miracles, 407 ; by His answering 
to men's thoughts, 428, 943 ; by the 
two blind men, 461 ; in His answer 
to John, 524 ; in His sayings of 
John, 536, 538; in His thanks- 
giving, 550; in His revealing The 
Father, 551 ; in Isaiah's prophecy, 
568-9; in His acts of authority, 
666 ; by Peter and others, 729-30 ; 
in His charge to Peter, 731 ; by 
His Coming in Glory, 748 ; in the 
Transfiguration, 753; in the miracle 
of the Tribute, 787; in His answer 
to the rich young man, 863; in His 
Entry into Jerusalem, 891-2 ; by 
the children in the Temple, 902 ; in 
the Parable of the Marriage Feast, 
928 ; to the Lawyer, 963 ; in the 
question about David's Lord, 956; 



in the Garden, 1100-8 ; to Caiaphas, 

Divorce, why allowed to the Jews, 

259 ; why not to Christians, 260. 
DoceteB, refuted by Christ's Burial, 

Doctrine, summary of Christian, 5 ; 

why taught by familiar things, 82; 

revealed gradually, 96; which, first 

taught, 154; without practice vain, 

365; supported by miracles, 376; 

not to be pressed unseasonably, 443; 

may vary according to the persons 

addressed, 517; seldom put forward 

by J, C, 869. 
Doing and teaching, why joined, 232. 
Dress, excess of, censured, 56, 673, 

1162; hinders devotion, 674; leads 

to sin, 695; to pride, 1163. 


Eco7iomy. (?ee Incarnation.) 

Electio?i, of the Wise men, 84 ; time 
and extent of, 868 ; is of Grace, but 
requires work, 932; belongs to all 
believers, 1010. 

Elijah, despair of, 326 ; boldness of, 
372, 634; why at the Trans- 
figuration, 758 : in what sense, 
come already, 773 ; how to come 
hereafter, 774. 

Elisha, why, would not see Naaman, 

End, signs of the, 141, 1011 ; sudden- 
ness of the, 1024 ; to be in the night, 
1025; why concealed from us, 1026; 
is not near, 1037. 

Envy, misery of, 571 ; of the country- 
men of J. C., 649 ; rebuked in 
the labourers in the vineyard, 

Epiphany, mystery of the, 100. 

Error, worse than ignorance, 1003. 

Esmi, self-rejected, 32, 127. 

Eunuch, the Ethiopian, believed after 
search, 12. 

Eunuchs, how far praised, 845, 1036. 

Evangelists, candour of, J063, 1115, 

Evil, cause of, 805 ; not necessary, 

Evil ."peaking, sinful and dangerous, 
26-7, 56, 241 ; not to be liste'ned to, 

Example, force of, 216; of Christ and 
His Saints to hti followed, 872 ; to 
be found in deserts, 970 ; neglect of, 
diingerous, 100(1; of some, condemns 
others, 1049. 

Excommunicatio7i, threatened by St. 

Chrysostom, 268, 1094. 
Expense^ sinfulness of, 1032. 


Faith, in Hell necessary, 184 ; why 
not required at first by J. C, 
193; must be followed by practice, 
366, 869; examples of, 377, 386, 
391, 428, 448, 449, 70i, 776, 889, 
890, 1059; need of, 682; in the 
doers only, has worked miracles, 776 ; 
bow a mustard seed, yet moves 
mountains, 778-9; hindered by fear, 

Faithful, the, will endure to the end, 

Falling back, after Baptism, dangerous, 
603, 869; how recovered, 1031. 

Fasting, benefits of, 161, 174; of 
J. C. liow ordered, 176; Christian 
rule of, 306; why not enjoined to 
the Disciples, 441 ; inferior to Cha- 
rity, 636 ; a help to prayer and 
almsgiving, 780 ; when commend- 
able, 1033. 

Fear, of men censured, 500. 

Fig-tree, the, an example of vengeance, 

Forbearance, duty of, 813, 819. 

Forgiveness, how gained from God, 
74; how connected with John's 
Baptism, 134 ; not to be had in the 
next world, 195; gained by for- 
giving, 222 ; hope of, taught by the 
Lord's Prayer, 296; depends on our- 
selves, 297; duty of, unlimited, 826, 
834; forfeited by cruelty, 835, bene- 
fits all parties, 836 ; reasons for, 

Fornicator, guilt of, how measured, 

Free-iuill, not destroyed by Grace, 84 ; 
allowed by Christ, 802 ; proved by 
our own conduct, 804 ; of Judas 
asserted, 1072; needs God's help, 
1090; of J. C, 1098, 1108. 

Friendship, Christian motives of, 824. 


Gabriel, appearance of, explained, 51. 

Genealogy, the, difficulties of, 12, 43; 
why mentions bad women, 12, 36, 
37; why omits three kings, 13; the 
vestibule of the Gospel, 17; sum of 
the Gospel, 21 ; of females, not traced, 
24; why divided in three parts, 43. 



Gentiles, Call of the, sipfnified, 55, in 

the St:ir, 81, in the Wise men, 100, 
in ' These Stones,' ]49, in Christ's 
settling at Capernaum, 188, 3i)3, 
by Isaiah, 5G&, in the Ass's colt, 
8l)2, by the Children in the Temple, 
902, in parables, 917, 928, 930, 
in Mary of ]5ethauy, lOGO; spiritual 
pride of, 12G; condition of, before 
J. C, 189, 527; sin and punish- 
ment of, 529; to be respected in our 
lives, 606. 

Gentleness, needful to the Ministry, 

Glory, personified, and shewn worth- 
less, 796. 

God, spake to the Patriarchs, 2, to 
Moses, 3, in the Apostles, 3 ; 
Kingdom of, described, 11; speaks 
in Divine service, 14; threatens 
hell, 14; City and Court of, de- 
scribed, 15, 10; present at Baptism 
of J. C, 94; deceives His enemies, 
108; appeared in fire, 154; long- 
suftering of, 18-?.-3, 338, 432; why 
must reward His Saints, 185; how 
our Debtor, 217; rewards His own 
work in us, 250 ; how we may 
resemble, 277 ; is Invisible, 291 ; 
why mentioned in the Lord's Prayer, 
293, why in the Sermon, 300 ; 
cannot agree with Mammon, 320; 
sure bounty of, 333 ; unfailing Good- 
ness of, 341, 514; Providence of, 
499; how gives to him that hath, 
622; how near to His servants, 
738 ; appears ever in clouds, 762 ; 
wills the salvation of all, 811 ; His 
gifts to man, 828; calls each in his 
season, 858 ; Throne of, inaccessible, 
879; has given His bond for our 
alms, 899 ; why sometimes speaks 
uncertainly, 915; a Teacher of good 
works, 958 ; Unity of, why declared 
in Holy Scripture, 467,953; hates 
bloodshed, 986; why speaks as if 
ignorant, 1027. 

Godliness, how gainful, 919, 

Good name, to whom, useful, 1144. 

Good-will, value of, 1 124. 

Good woi'kii, our own to be forgotten, 
39 ; magnified by humility, 40 ; 
spoiled by pride, 217; necessary 
to salvation, 869, 1090; which the 
best, 1032; the best furniture, 1103. 

Gospel, t/ie, contrasted with the Law, 
2; excellency of, 8; how higher 
than the Law, 50, 365; desciibed 
by Isaiah, and John, 137; all things 
raised by, 1()9; how a Light, 189; 
comprises the Law, 239 ; how brings 
war, 608 ; raised the standard of 
faith and practice, 627; how soon 

spread, 998; triumph of, 1000; how 
a Testament, 1083. 
Gospels, the, why several, 4; harmony 
of, 5; accepted by all Heretics, 7; 
simple purity of, 10, 11 ; letters of 
the Divine King, 16 ; nature of, 29 ; 
object of, the Life of J. C, 651 ; 
written in mildness, 658. 


Habit, no excuse for sin, 266; how 
broken through, 267 ; danger of evil, 

Hannah, sorrow of, blessed, 87. 

Harvest, one here, one hereafter, 640. 

Heart, the, how a treasure, 588. 

Heaven, glories of, 14, 15 ; by what 
usury gained, 75 ; first named by John, 
140; why opened at Christ's Bap- 
tism, 167; unseen but certain, 184; 
to be sought before ail else, 334 ; 
will be given impartially, 880. 

Hebrews, wickedness of the old, 1. 

Hell, object of, 14 ; descent to, 18 ; 
typified by the furnace, 13 ; first 
named by John, 140; proved by 
John, 155 ; prepared for avarice, 
172; proportioned to present im- 
purity, 182 ; confessed by devils, 
183; when first mentioned by J. C, 
242 ; why less than Heaven, 281 ; 
intolerable, 359 ; pains of, 603 ; 
mention of profitable, 605 ; how de- 
scribed by J. C, 857; not prepared 
for us, 1 150. 

Heretics, involuntary witnesses to the 
Truth of Holy Scripture, 7 ; reproved 
by the Monks' Grace, 751-2, by 
Christ's blessing children, 790; how- 
to be dealt with, 630; meant by 
ihe Tares, 628 ; denied the Passion, 
1085. (See Mamwj, 4-c.) 

Herod, folly of, 97 ; an example of the 
profane, 102; compared with his 
Son, 1 18 ; overcome by John, 373. 

Herod, (Antipa?,) marriage of, why 
illegal, 653. 

Herodias, aggravated sin of, 655. 

Hezekiati, prayer of, commended, 726. 

High Priest, how, more than one, 

Holy Spirit, gift of, higher than Holy 
Scripture. 1 ; bow came on the 
Apostles, 2; signs of, 3, 167; equa- 
lity of, 3, 168; ins[)ired the Evan- 
gelists, 7; Descents of, shewed the 
new dispensation, 20; absolute need 
of, 25 ; I lis operation in the Incarna- 
tion, 47, 54; moved the Magi, 
Cyrus, Paul, 84 ; why appeared in 
fire, 86, 154 ; why first named by 



John Baptist, 154 ; an earnest of 
Judgment, 155; why descended on 
J. C, 165, why as a dove, 167; a 
token of Heaven, 187; gifts of, 
sometimes without holiness, 367 
what the Blasphemy against, 682 
eflect of, upon the Apostles, 881 
gift of, always ready, 910; saves 
not the unwilling, 1090. 

Honour, contrasted with meekness, 

Humanity, raised to heaven by J. C, 
3, 169. 

Humanity (of Christ), the bond be- 
tween earth and heaven, 20; how 
proved by Paul and Matthew, 48 ; 
denied by Valentinus and others, 48 
(note) ; preached earlier than the 
Godhead, 96 ; shewn in the Epi- 
phany, 100, 108, in His fasting, 
1/5, in .His sleeping, 217, in His 
sailing, 428, in feeling the crowd, 
451, in His prayer to God, 666, in 
His agony, 1096. (See Incarnation.) 

Hu7uility, the crown of virtue, 37 ; 
examples ol, 40 ; why first named 
in the Sermon, 200 ; the true wisdom, 
383 ; happiness, 795 ; neglect of, 
fatal, 870; the way to glory, 883; 
in the Monks, 967- also in seculars, 

Hypocrisy, what it is, 2S8-9, 308 ; 
provoked the severity of J. C, 942 ; 
ruined the Scribes, 972 ; worse in 
Christians, 974. 

Idolatry, grossness of, 9. 

Ignorance, better than error, 1003. 

Incarnation, the, declared by the three 
first Evangelists, 6 ; binds Heaven 
and earth, 21 ; reserved at first, 32, 
112; account oP, 47, 68 ; when first 
taught, 96 ; shewn in The Fasting, 
175, and Temptation, 176, in His 
retiring to the desert place, 664, in 
His question io St. Peter, 729; His 
care to prove it, 919, 1096; The 
Great Mercy of God, 382. 

Indulgence, cruelty of, 235, 268 ; un- 
fits for Heaven, 1029. 

Innocents, the, murder of, why per- 
mitted, 119; was foretold, 122. 

Insolence, against Charity, 242 ; to 
the poor, censured, 517 ; to be suf- 
fered, not acted, 1042. 

Intemperance, evils of^ 618 ; vileness 
of, 781 ; lasting debasement of, 783 ; 
its punishment, 784 ; mother of lust, 
947 ; power of, overcome by the 
Monks, 948 ; sinfulness of, 1030. 

Intercession, duty of, 4)3; not always 

effectual, 72, 822. 
Investment, which the best, 1016. 
Isaiah, E\ angelical prophecies of. 68, 

136, 526, 568, 623, 738. 
Israel, a figure of believers, 96. 

Jacob, an example of freedom from 
care, 326; of forbearance, 590; 
trial of, 679. 

James, St, the first Bishop, 71. 

Jerusalem, old names of, 69; Council 
of, 71 ; destruction of foretold, 930. 

Jesus, mysteries in the name of, 23, 

Jemels, shewn useless, 1164. 

JeiL's, the, account of their unbelief, 31, 
166, 189, 260, 596, 895; their pride 
of birth, 33 ; gained nothing from 
Abraham, 127, 149; envious dis- 
position of, 93, 188; reproved by 
Heathens, 81 ; were first favoured 
in the Gospel, 96, 932, yet outrun 
by the Gentiles, 101 ; said, and did 
not, 365 ; confusion of, 272 ; unthank- 
ful, 382; convicted by their incon- 
sistency, 539 ; punishment of, fore- 
told, GOl, 869, 914, 928; blindness 
of, proved wilful, 621 ; asked no 
right questions, 537, 624, 638; final 
conversion of, by Elijah, 774 ; how 
to be judged by the Apostles, 863 ; 
craft of, 904 ; cowardice of, 905 ; 
how bidden, 929 ; their troubles from 
God, 996; hated by all, 999; why 
to flee, 1008; how much and why 
punislied, 1009; madness of, against 
J. C, 1052, 1114,1138; government 
of, changed, 1063; how broke the 
Passover, and why, 1109, 1129; 
perverted justice in the trial of J. C, 
1110, 1126; resisted all warning, 
1120, 1130, yet not all reprobated, 
1 130; sole authors of The Passion, 
1137 ; used all cruelties, 1138 ; how 
convicted themselves, 1157. (See 

Job, patience of, 182, 369; bore all but 
reproach, 209; charitable inter- 
ference of, 218 ; not a slave to 
wealth, 322,671 ; virtues of, eminent, 
491, under special disadvantages, 
491, as compared with other Saints, 
493 ; prevailed by His piety, with- 
out miracle, 632 ; trials of, ordered 
by God, 421, 679. 

John, the Baptist, humility of, 40; 
tiine of His preaching, 132; why 
sent, 1 33 ; how baptized (orRemission, 
134 ; how prepared for Christ, 135 ; 



efifect of His preaching, 136, 140; 
austerity of, 138; great before Grace, 
139; why did no miracles, 190; 
disciples of, envious of Christ's, 440; 
message of, explained, 521; how 
predicted the Cross, 625 ; equalled 
the Prophets in knowledge, &2C ; 
clear from charge of fickleness by 
J. C, 533; stood between the Law 
and the Gospel, 534-6; his system 
contrasted with Christ's, 538 ; mur- 
der of, how aggravated, 656; in 
what sense, Ellas, 774 ; triumph of, 

John, St. the Evangelist, purpose of his 
Gospel, to establish the Godhead, 
6 (note); character of, 71 ; not jealous 
of St. Peter after Pentecost, 882 ; 
why did not speak of the destruction 
of Jerusalem, 1010; the most spiri- 
tual in doctrine, 1063. 

Joseph, an example of forgiveness, 
837; of self-denial, 1113 ; a type of 
Christ, 1114. 

Joseph, St. genealogy of, why traced, 
12, 24, 30, 40; his descent from 
David proved by his marriage, 23 ; 
his espousals were to shelter the 
Virgin, 30 ; his conduct proved the 
miraculous birth, 49; encouraged to 
adopt the Child, 54; referred to the 
Prophets, 68 ; praised for self-re- 
straint, 50, and for obedience, 70. 

Joseph, of Arimathsea, emboldened by 
the Cross, 1150. 

Josephus, to be believed, because a 
zealous Jew, 1009. 

Judah, incest of, why mentioned in the 
Gospel, 36. 

Judas, ruined by avarice, 130, 422, 
i064, 1075; irritated by reproach, 
207; had received Grace, 367; had 
been once elect, 862 ; hardness of, 
1063, 1199; deaf to all warning, 
1064 ; not excused by Predestination, 
1072 ; utter ruin of, 1119; downward 
progress of, 1132. 

Judgment, of others blamed, 873; of 
our own soul, commended, 592. 

Judgment, The, why compared to 
threshing, 156; certainty of, 186; 
Day of, a Theatre, 288 ; suddenness 
of, 318; will be equitable to all, 
529; foreseen by Tsaiah, 668; is 
partly present, partly future, 683 ; 
fairness of, 589 ; expectation of, in 
the early Church, 749; why named 
in the Monks' Grace, 750; shewn in 
the Transfiguration, 765; how to be 
thought of, 1015; how proved, 1019; 
why hidden, 1026; not really de- 
layed, 1029 ; justice of shewn, 

Julian, miracles in the time of, 


Kingdom, the, rewards, guides, and 
wars of, 11; glories of, 15; a New 
Polity, begun at the Baptism of 
Jesus, 94 ; how said to be come, 
569; shewn to be distant, 1011; ia 
our inheritance, 1049; yet of Grace, 

Knowledge, of the world, condemned, 


Labour, pleasantness of, 725. 

Lamech, what the sin of, 985. 

Landlords, oppressions of, 831. 

Laughter, excess of, reproved, 66, 88. 

LaiD, the, given in terrors, 2, 1" ; VFas 
typified in Phares, 34, 36 ; given in 
consequence of Gentile grossness, 
82; ceased at the Baptism of Christ, 
831; enlarged by J. C, 225; with 
new sanctions, 230; bow fulfilled by 
Christ, 223, 235; not evil, though 
defective, 233; retaliation of, really 
merciful, 237, 270; how permitted 
evil, 263 ; an education for the 
Gospel, 264 ; respected by J. C. 
in His charge to the leper, 379 ; 
abrogation of, hinted by J. C, 693, 
722, 1010; how hangs on Love, 
952; put for the whole Old Tes- 
tament, 961; in morals confirmed, in 
ceremonials repealed, 962, 973 ; how 
measured punishments, 1004 ; rites 
of, when ceased, 1083. 

Life, inequalities of, solved by the 
doctrine of a judgment, 186, 1018; 
a prison, 195; ftjll of joy, as of 
sorrow, 724 ; different ages, and sins 
of, 1080. 

Lord's Day, the, how to be spent, 67 ; 
little improved, 159. 

Luke, St. addresses heathens, 6; his 
genealogy fuller than Matthew's, 
13; imitates the style of St. Paul, 
44 ; added to St. Matthew's ac- 
count, 61, 208, 389,440,448,451, 

Lust, a possession of the Devil, 422 ; 
leads to cruelty, 667; how best 
cured, 816; comes of drunkenness ; 
917; invites Devils, 949; forbidden 
in thought, 1 135. 

Luxury, why compared to thorns, 618 ; 
in feasting reproved, 669, and in 
dress, 672; puin of, 725; lust the 



cause of, 781 ; destructiveness of, 
948; sin of, J 030. 
Lysias, compared with Pilate, 1129. 


Maccabees, praise of the, 527. 

Macedonians, Heresy of the, 168. 
Manichees, Heresy of the, 236, 396, 
667, 695. (See Creatures.') 

Marcion, Heresy of, 100, 552, 598, 

Marriage, Jewish law of, 23, 24, 47, 
53, 944 ; a great mystery, 90 ; 
duties of, 106; protected by J. C, 
260; law of, explained by J. C, 
841; prudent, in youth, 816; abuse 
of, 970. 

Martyrs, the, the real conquerors, 1113. 

Mary the Virgin, St. the parents of, not 
named by St. Matthew, 12, 13, 24, 
25; protected by her marriage, 31, 
47; character of, considered in the 
Annunciation, 51; the perpetual 
Virginity of, not contradicted by 
St. Matthew, 70, 71; made illus- 
trious by her stay in Egypt, 113; 
vanity of, reproved, 609. 

Mary, of Bethany, promise to, 686 ; 
the faith of, 1058; fame of, 1060; 
an example of liberality in Church 
ofiferings, 1062. 

Mary Magdalene, St. blessed by re- 
pentance, 87. 

Matthew, St. the humble condition 
and high graces of, 3 ; wrote in 
Hebrew for the Jews, 6 ; Christ 
spoke in, 11; difficulties of, 12; 
wrote before Mark, 43 ; call of, 
434; how trained by J. C, 449; 
virtues of, 645; candour of, 757. 

Meats, question of, indirectly settled, 
694; Christ's law of, 697; Mani- 
chman doctrine of, reproved, 753. 

Meditation, the benefits of, 25; neglect 
of, too common, 593. 

Meekness, duty and benefits of, 203, 
270, 1055, 1143 ; better than honour, 
363; the true mode of following 
Christ, 1041. 

Mercy, man's different from God's, 
205 ; benefits of, 222 ; sometimes 
lies in severity, 237; of both Cove- 
nants, 239; preferred to Sacrifice, 
439; God's, a reproof to ours, 615; 
of kind answering, 515; enforced by 
the mercies of Christ, 626; praise of, 
617; of Christ, shewn in severity, 
746 ; brings ease, 767 ; how to be 
shewn to the brethren, 819, how 
towards heathens, 820 ; to be shewn 
to Christians, for Christ's sake, 832 ; 

is for others, not ourselves, 963; 
must be had before death, 1038. 

Ministry, the, responsibility of, 211; 
has need of gentleness, 432 ; and 
caution, 443 ; how a Harvest, 465 ; 
how like sheep and doves, 480; 
made strong in weakness, 481 ; 
must have Scripture knowledge, 
643; warned in the Transfiguration, 
750; sin of heinous, 1005; should 
be free from secular care, 1124. 

Miracles, why told differently in the 
Gospels, 5; use of, 44, 192; ceased 
when no longer wanted, 44; some 
under Julian, 45 ; why few at first, 
94, 112; declared the Creator, 226; 
did not save the unholy, 367 ; alter- 
nated with doctrine, 376 ; confirmed 
by prophecy, 394; abundance of, 
405 ; defended by J. C, 570 ; 
Christ's care to prove, 431, 451; 
inferior to obedience, 477; nothing 
without holiness, 634 ; why always 
followed the predictions of the Pas- 
sion, 775; sometimes followed, some- 
times went before faith, 77Q ; some 
wrought by the garments of J. C, 

Mirth, excess of, censured, 89. 

Monks, holiness of the Egyptian, 115; 
some, never drank, 327; number of 
the, 487; their Grace before meat 
commended, 760 ; devotion of, an 
example to seculars, 755; their 
retreats, dress, devotion, labours, 
music, contrasted with the stage, 920, 
&c. have the Wedding Garment, 
935 ; soldiers of Christ, 936 ; con- 
verse with Angels, 937; nobility of, 
938; victorious over the vices, 947; 
humility of, 967. 

Moses, mission of, contrasted with 
Christ's, 1-3, 21; prayer of, once 
rejected, 72; self-denial of, 117; 
the sons of, rejected for unworthi- 
ness, 127; why at the Trans- 
figuration, 758 ; an example of for- 
giveness, 837 ; how honoured by 
J. C, 962; why loved by God, 

Mourning, for sin, blessed, 87, 201 ; 
excess of, censured, 454, 724; pro- 
fitable for the soul, 575. 

Mutilation, a device of Satan, 845. 

Mysteries, the. (See Holy Cotn- 


Names, used to represent events, 69; 
significance of, in Holy Scripture, 

4 G 



Nativities, casting of, censured, 1002. 

Nature, proved not evil, against the 
Maniehfcans, 790, '805; often sym- 
bolized by J. C, 1021. 

Nazareth, why our Lord lived at, 125; 
His second visit to, 648. 

Ncbuchailnezzar, pride of, 60; repent- 
ance of, 183; did justice to the 
virtue of the Three Children, 215; 
received a revelation, 368. 

Necessity, doctrine of, disproved, 396 , 
not implied in our Lord's preference 
of the Apostles, 621-4.; in what 
sense taught by J. C, 1020-1. 

Necromancers of Antioch censured, 

Neutrality, impossible to Christians, 
581 ; not eiiough for salvation, 1041. 

Ninevites, the, a reproach to the Jews, 
82 ; the repentance of, deferred 
God's wrath, 598, 862. 

Nobility, what it is, to Christians, 34 ; 
pride of, condemned, 37; is no sub- 
stitute for virtue, 72 ; reproved by 
Christ at Nazareth, 126; vanity of 
the common, 792 ; real, in John the 
Baptist, 793, in the Monks, 938. 


Oaths, against God's glory, 262. 

Obedience, to be joined with prayer, 
352 ; the end of our Lord's teaching, 
371 ; the best miracle, 4 78 ; joins to 
J. C., 611; necessary to salvation, 
862 ; must be perfect, 869-70 ; 
easiness of. 1171. 

Offences, why not removed, 801 ; why 
"foretold, 800,808. 

Oneness, oi GoA, why often mentioned, 
953, 967. 


Parable, the, of the relapsed demoniac, 
applied to the Jews, 600; of the 
Sower, why the first, 613 ; of the 
Tares, against htresy, 629; not to 
be explained literally throughout, 
639, 867. 

Parasites, encouragement of, un- 
christian, 660; a cruelty, 661. 

Parents, wickedness of, not dangerous 
to pood sons, 117; goodness of, not 
a shelter to the evil, 127; in what 
.sense to be hated by Christians, 

Passion, the, when first predicted by 

J. C, 703; prediction of, preceded 
and followed by miracles, 775 ; fore- 
shewn at the Transfiguration, 764, 
in Galilee, 785, in the way to 
Jerusalem, 874; warnings of, not 
understood, 876 ; why a Baptism, 
878; how Christ prepared the dis- 
ciples for, 1051 ; how foreshtwn by 
Mary of Bethany, 1062; why took 
place at the Passover, li)70, 1083; 
a mystery, 1084; denied by what 
heretics, 1085 ; by whom caused, 
1137; how our glory, 1137; de- 
scription of, 1 140 ; of what a lesson, 
Passiotis, the, how to be mortified, 59, 
160, 737; must be tamed as beasts, 
815; sleep in children, 847; when 
to be checked, 1131. 
Passover, the, why observed by Christ, 
1070, 1083; how broken by the 
Jewish rulers, 1 109. 
Patience, how taught us by God, 144; 
subdues calumny, 215; blessing of, 
275; duty of, 278, 432; praised in 
the woman of Canaan, 707; victory 
of, 1112. 
Patriarchs, inspiration of the, 1 ; 
Church of, appeared first, then with- 
drawn, 33-36 ; humble parentage of, 
34; praise of, 126-7. 
Paul, St. an example of humility, 40, 
969, love of Christ, 60, obedience, 
84, zeal, 86, 139, disinterested 
labour, 115, 8S1, thankfulness, 382, 
repentance, 433-5, spiritual power, 
487, final triumph, 726; sometimes 
used tempcral sanctions, 248; con- 
version of, seasonable, 868. 
Paul, of Samosata, deried the Divinity 

of Christ, 100. 
Peace, salutation of, enjoined to the 
AposJes, 472; sin of breaking, in 
the Church, 474; of Chiistians, to 
be gained only by war, 506. 
Peace-mahers, blessing of the, 205. 
Persia, first heard of the Messiah, 80, 

81, 85, 93, 101, 108. 
Persecution, sufi'ered unjustly, does 
away sin, and increases reward, 
120-1; ])uts us in communion with 
the Prophets, 207; real gain, 370, 
and liappiness, 372; Christian pre- 
paration for, 490; injures the doer 
most, 590; from relations, foretold, 
Peter, St. humility of, 40; stvle of his 
Epistle, 44; call of, 190; "first fall 
of, 680 ; forward zeal of, 690, 695, 
1042; second " ottence" of, 734, 
1042; his all-forsaking, and reward, 
860 ; had sometimes the first place, 
882 ; indulged in freedom of speech. 



by J. C, 995; last presumption of, 
1087; why suffered to fall, 1088; 
how affected by his fall, 1098, 1106; 
denial of, harmonised, 1117; finally 
blessed in poverty, 1174. 

Pharaoh, an example of God's long- 
suffering, 182; why, being sinful, 
received a Revelation, 367; shewn 
Inferior to Abraham, 887; dream of, 
why repealed, 1097. 

Phare'/, a type of the Jewish Church, 

Pharisee.t, design of the, against John, 
146; righteousness of, real, but de- 
fective, 232 ; Ignorant of the Scrip- 
tures, 439 ; how " wise and prudent," 
549 ; enraged with the Disciples, 
658, with Christ's healing, 565, on 
account of envy, 578 ; false sons of 
Abraham, 587 ; why they asked, and 
were refused a sign, 595-7, 720-2 ; 
unbelief of, foreseen, 598 ; self- 
convicted of adding to the Law, 
690, of breaking it, by J. C, 691, 
by Isaiah, 692 ; why put questions 
often, 840; never abashed, 854 ; gave 
a third of their goods in charity, 870; 
never repented, 907, 940; vainglory 
of, 956, 965, 974, 984; when in real 
authority, supported by .!• C., 962; 
yet rebuked for hardness, 964 ; cor- 
rupters of youth, 972 ; whence ruined, 
975; how worse than their fathers, 
983. (See Jeivs.) 

Pharisee, the proud, lost for want of 
humility and charity, 37, 200, 872, 
in spite of almsgiving, 870. 

Philistines, the, taught the truth by 
the heifers, 83. 

Philosophers, the Grecian, doctrines 
of, unnatural and devilish, 9; de- 
spised by Chiistians, 115; despised 
externals, 126,216; contrasted with 
John the Baptist, 139 ; a shame to 
evil Christians, 216; exalted by the 
Apostles, 486. 

Pilate, character of, compared to that 
of Lysias, 1127. 

Plato, the Republic of, censured, 9, 
and contrasted with Christ's, 11. 

Pleasure, when innocent, 546 ; of 
labour, 725 ; has its proverbs, 

Plotinus, his doctrine of souls refuted, 

Poor, the, ill-treatment of, censured, 
517; represented by the Apostles, 
861 ; only a tenth part of the popu- 
lation, 896; how Christ's brethren, 
and ours, 1048. 

Poverti/, a furnace, 63; outward and 
inward care of, 64; of the rich 
man in torment, 128 ; praise of 

voluntary, 199; Christ's gradual 
training for, 327 ; real lightness of, 
555 ; glory and reward of, 646-7 ; 
real dignity of, 1102, 1173. 

Praise, danger of, 208 ; love of, a 
snare, 574. 

Prayer, for others, not alway effectual, 
72, 822 ; requires perseverance, 
143, 339; never unseasonable, 3Jl ; 
Christ's rule of, 289 ; forgiveness, 
the special moral of the Lord's, 
300; enjoined after hard commands, 
350; two conditions of, 351; a 
remedy for sin, 585; requires purity 
of tongue. 608, and of heart, 699; 
Hezekiah's, 726; blessedness of 
concord in, 822. 

Preaching, a school, 158 ; why neces- 
sary, 1 153. 

Predesfinatioti, no excuse for Judas, 
1072 ; objections from, how answered, 

Profaneness, censure of, 160 ; sin of 
listening to, 541-2. 

Promises, the, of Chiist always con- 
ditional, 862. 

Prophets, the, why appealed to per- 
sonal Revelations, 44 ; disregarded 
by the Jews, 81 ; of the Philistines, 
seconded by God, 83; maintained 
the doctrine of Providence, 123; the 
works of some lost, 125 (note) ; 
anticipated the history of John, 137; 
rebuked pride, 147; double sense of, 
155; persecution of, 207; how ful- 
filled by J. C, 228; confirmed by 
miracle, 394 ; accuracy of, 568, 895; 
all had wives, 755. 

Providence , doctrine of, maintained by 
the Prophets, 123; urged by J. C. 
to console the Apostles, 499. 

Psalms, study of, profitable, but neg- 
lected, 27, 28 ; chanted in the 
Church, 159. 

Publican, the, an example of humility 
39 ; saved by penitence, 433 ; a 
lesson not to despair, 992. 

Publicans, the, virtue of, a shame to 
Christians, 281; trade of, mean, 
436; why Christ sat with, 437; 
wickedness of, proved, 821 ; com- 
parative obedience of, 916. 

Punishment, scale of, under the Gos- 
pel, 242, under the Law, 1004; 
separation from Christ, the greatest, 
259 ; two kinds of, 822. 

Purification, the, waited for by Mary, 
125 ; law of, enlarged by the 
Pharisees, 684; must be inward, 

Purity, blessing of, 205; required 
for prayer, 698 ; Christ's law of, 

4 G 2 




Rablfi, title of, wliy forbidden, 9G6. 
Rahab, why mentioned in the gene- 
alogy, 36. 

Reconciliation, religious duty of, 245, 

Regeneration, by tlie Spirit, in Bap- 
tism, asserted, 20, 87, 127-8, 133-4, 

i?e/a;we after Baptism, dangerous, G03 ; 
how to be recovered, 1031. 

Repentance, blvjssed in Hannah, 87; 
good works, a great part of, 142; 
more needful than bodily cure, 193; 
why ought to be painful, 194; not 
be "had after dea'h, 195, 527-8; 
proved not in vain, by the example 
of David, 397; its power to avert 
wrath, shewn in the Ninevites, 862; 
striking example of, at Antioch, 
908 ; of Manasseh, Paul, and others, 
909; its labour small, its gain great, 
91 1 ; accepted in believing Jews, 

Repetitions, when forbidden in prayer, 
292; why used in Holy Scripture, 

Reproach, the greatest trial, 208 ; 
effect of, on Job and others, 209 ; 
when undeserved and for Christ's 
sake, alone glorious, 214 ; overcome 
by virtue, 215; endured by J. C., 837. 

Reserve, examples of, in Christ's life' 
and teaching: in the Nativity, 21, 
in the Incarnation, 31, 32, 94, in 
the Epiphany, 112, in His early 
life, 135; in John's report of Him, 
164; in the Temptation, 179; com- 
manded in the Sermon, 348; in 
retiring from the Gergesenes, 422, 
from the Serihes, 434; in leaching 
the Resurrection and other mys- 
teries, 443 ; in doing miracles, 453; 
in delaying to heal, 460; after send- 
ing out the Twelve, 52) ; how long 
continued, 568, 753; before Pilate, 

Restitution, duty of, 714. 

Resurrection, the, truth of, argued 
from reason, 185-6; shewn in the 
raising of Jairus's daughter, and 
Lazarus, 451 ; proved real by the 
history of Jonah, 69/ ; shewn in the 
Parable of the Marriage Feast, 929; 
why denied by the Sadducees, 915; 
how contained in the Old Testament, 
946; foretasted by the IMonks, 947; 
should be rejoiced at by Christians, 
1015; natural emblems of, 1021, 
1040; to be at night, 1037; our 
best support in trouble, 1056; how 
most commonly proved, 1085. 

Resurrection of Christ, proved by 
men's faith, 72; reserve in teach- 
ing the, 442 ; foretold by John. G25 ; 
signs of the, 1 1 4b ; how proved by the 
Jews' behaviour, 1157, and by that 
of the Apostles, 1158; why so early 
in the day, 1159; witnessed by the 
guard, 1 168. 
Revenge, sinfulness of, 591 ; reasons 

against, 1054. 
Reviling, the author of, suffers most, 
700; may be borne, by the example 
of J. C, 837 ; brings to hell, 870. 
Reward, of Christians certain, 185; 
is both spiritual, 207, and temporal, 
208; partly given here, 369 ; accu- 
mulation of, in Isaiah, 739; will be 
given impartially, 885; of God's 
grace, not our merit, 1051. 
Ric/ies, contempt of, the true wealth, 
66, 75, taught gradually by Christ, 
310; dependence on, unsafe, 128; 
disquiet of keeping, 311; peril of 
pursuing, 315; love of, unnatural, 
316, 702, how overcome, 317; cast 
out of God's service, 320; compared 
with Charity, 362; love of, con- 
demned in the rich young man, 854; 
engrossing power of, 855 ; may be 
renounced by grace, 857 ; duties of, 
considered, 896; why given to the 
wicked, 1003-4; vanity of, 1018; a 
trust, 1030; inflame desire, 1068. 
Righteous, the, so called ironically, 

Righteousness, is the fulfilling of the 
commandments, 133, 164; includes 
all virtue, 204, 232 ; of the Jews, 
real but iusuflicient, 232; how much, 
required of Christians, 266. 
Romans, object of the Epistle to, 


Sabbath, the, law of, why strict at 
first, 561 ; why straitened by J. C, 
562; kept, at home, 1157. 

Sacrainints, the Jewish, ended by 
Christ, 169; represent Christ, 686; 
are spiritual, 109; how to be re- 
ceived, 1091 ; from whom to be 
withheld, and why, 1094. 

Sadducces, the case proposed by, pro- 
bably fictitious, 944. 

Saints, the, intercession of, how re- 
ceived, 74; why kept waiting by 
God, 144; sufferings of, to he re- 
warded, 185; mourned for others, 
202; the final glory of, 766; some 
actually, and all figuratively, re- 



moved mountains, 779; can not be 
envious, 867 ; our best patterns, 
872 ; why admired, 884 ; how con- 
quered, 1113. 
Smtui) ifati, the good, a shame to 

Christians, 220. 
Samuel, could not prevail for Saul, 75; 

sons of, rejected for sin, 127. 
Saul, injured himself most, in his 
treatment of David, 590; ruined by 
pride, 793; malice of, contrasted 
with David's goodness, 849; en- 
snared by Satan, from small sins to 
greater, 1132. 

Scripture, Holy, given for our frailty, 
1 ; gift of, aggravates sin, 2 ; har- 
monious connexion of, 7; how to be 
used at preaching, 12 ; its necessity 
for all, shewn by examples, 28; helps 
repentance, 29; a mirror of the soul, 
58; a cure of sin, 59; late trans- 
lations of, 69 ; teaches by examples 
from the animal creation, 104 ; both 
New and Old Testaments to be 
studied by ministers, 643 ; negle. t 
of, impoverishes the soul, 644 ; 
speaks acccording to men's own 
notions, 778 ; the Monks' food, 924 ; 
why uses repetitions, 109/. 

Self-denial, persuasive force of, 606 ; 
of the Apostles, our pattern, 607 ; 
what it IS, 744 ; the best victory, 

Self-examination , duty of, urged, 594. 

Selfishness, excludes from Heaven, 

Setisuality, an excess of folly, beyond 
the Devil's, 183 ; the soul's vermin, 
196; a demoniacal possession, 422; 
how best cured, 858; sinfulness of, 

Septuagint, the, the writers of, above 
suspicion, from their time of writing, 

Sexes, the, both impartially treated in 
Holy Scripture, 256. 

Sheep, Christians warned to be pro- 
ductive, by the name of, 1047. 

Sickness, the consequence of sin, 193, 

Signs, imply something beyond nature, 
70 ; use of, to draw the attention of 
the dull to new dispensations, 167 ; 
why refused to Satan, and to the 
Jews, 1 77, 720 ; of Jonas, explained, 
596-8, 1145 ; of the Cross, used for 
self-admonition, 1 1 42. 

Sin, the nature of, threefold, 179; why 
not always equally punished here, 
186: the cause of sickness, 193; 
pleajsant in act, bitter in effect, 194 ; 
a chain, a jailor, 196; used synony- 
mously with its punishment, 282 ; a 

burden here, 374 ; dangerous in be- 
lievers, 395, yet not hopeless in any, 
396 ; is worse in us than we think, 
630 ; a heavier yoke than Christ's, 
554; which The Unpardonable, 582 ; 
the least, dangerous, 584 ; remedies 
for, 585 ; ours against God, greater 
than men's against us, 827 ; the 
sense of, should teach mercy, 832 ; 
foulness of, before God, 977; guilt 
of, how measured, 1004 ; different, 
at different ages, 1080; how long 
blinds men, 1118; progress of, 
described, 1131-2. 
Sinners_,vfhen to be avoided, when not, 
437-8; need never despair, 909; 
why rich, 1003; condemned by the 
example of the righteous, 1049. 
Slander, harms itself most, 589. 
Sloth, dangerous in Church rulers, 
629, rebuked in the Parable of the 
Talents, 1040-41. 
Sodomites, lust of, began in surfeit, 
ard luxury, 89, 175, 781 ; why not 
named in chap. xxiv. 1024. 
Soldiers, wickedness of the, at Antioch, 

Solomon, parentage of, an argument 
against pride, 34, 792 ; prayer of, 
heard, because right, 351. 
Son, TAe, different from servants, 927 ; 
is One with the Father, 928; not 
really ignorant of the Last Day , 1026. 
(See Christ.) 
Songs, profaneness and lewdness of 
those heard on the stage, 27, 28, 
542, 923, compared with the Monks' 
music, 923.^4. 
Soul, state of the departed, 419; will 
be brought up for judgment, 592; 
is commonly neglected lor the body, 
593, 814 ; loss of, irreparable, 747; 
the chief part of man, 748 ; should 
be first thought of, in education, 
81 7 ; meant by the inside of the cup 
and platter, 975 ; treatment of, 989 ; 
the Apostles, the best Physicians of, 
Sower, the, not to blame, but the 

ground, 614. 
Star, the, was not natural, 80; object 
of, to reprove the Jews, 81 ; the 
course of, accounted for, 99 ; wit- 
nessed to Christ's Divinity, 100. 
Stephen, St. an example of forgiveness, 

Steivurdship, the, of God's gifts, how 

dispensed to Christians, 1027-28. 
Strife, in public, to be repressed, 219 ; 
shameful to Christians, 221 ; mon- 
strous, after prayer, 302, alter Holy 
Communion, 476. 
Snjfcring, needful for our own sakes, 



742, but left free to us, 743 ; is 
greater than Charity, 853 ; of Saints 
here, proves a judgment, 1019; 
the truest conquest, 1113; its many 
benefits, 1142. (Sifn Passion.) 

Supper, The, was celebrated in the fifth 
dav of the week, i. e. the day before 
Tlie Feast, 1069. 

Swine, the, why destroyed by J. C, 

Swords, why granted to the Apostles 
in the gardtn, 1106. 

Sympathy, want of, among Christians, 
condemned, 1054. 

Synagogue, the, denounced as unfaith- 
ful by the Prophets, 36. 


Temple, the, remains of, existing in 

time of St. Chrysostom, 994. 
Temptation, why, follows Baptism, 
174 ; comes in solitude, 175; Eve's 
and Christ's, compared, 1 77 ; Christ's 
includes all, 179; may be avoided, 
if possible, 174, 188; the last gene- 
rally, the worst, 179. 
Thamar, Christ's descent from, shews 

His perfect Humanity, 33. 
Theatres, at Antioch, the whole day 
wasted at, 14, 90, 106; corrupting 
eftectof, on men's minds, 28; scenes 
of lawlessness, 56, 90; gross (nockery 
of the mysteries of marriage at, 91 ; 
spectacle of females swimming in, 
J 03, fatal to public morals, 104, and 
insulting to the sex, 106; attract 
evil acquaintance, 258 ; unnatural 
acting of both sexes at, 544 ; the 
cause of frequent adulteries, and 
necromancy, 545; all encourage- 
ment of, blamed, 546; expenses of, 
enormous, compared wiih men's 
alms, 895-7; Devilish company, and 
mu«ic of, compared with the Monks' 
choirs, 922, their contrary effects 
upon spectators, 923. 
Tkemistocles, how inferior to the Apo- 
stles, 486. 
Tongue, the, abuse of, reproved, 26-7, 
66 ; must be clean for prayer, 698 ; 
a talent for what use, 1042 ; how to 
be made like Christ's, 1043, how 
like Satan's, 1044. 
Trnnsjigirration, the, a vision of future 

Glory, 756-7. 
Travcltcrs, zeal and exactness of, a 

reproach to Christians, 14. 
Tr Untie, Ctrsar's, and God's, com- 
patible, 943. 
Truth, duty of always witnessing to 
the, 380." 

Types, use of, to prepare for extraor- 
dinary events, 21. 


Uncharitableness, inexcusable in 
lovers of pleasure, 897 ; is every 
where denounced, 1030; a sin 
against Christ Himself, 1048 ; evils 
of, to the Church, 1123. (See Co- 

Unpr<filableness, danger of spiritual, 

Until, implies nothing for the time to 
come, 71. 

Usury, comparison of Heavenly and 
earthly, cruelty of the latter, 75-6 ; 
forbidden to Chrisiians, 768, and 
even to Gentiles, 769 ; evils of, 770. 

Vain-glory, defeats itself, 37, 850; 
makes us hateful to God and man, 
39, 851 ; rebuked in the Second 
Temptation, 174; spoils our good 
actions, 217; condemned in the 
Sermon, 285 ; in Christ's cure of the 
leper, 379 ; the nurse of covetous- 
ness, 309; the source of unthankful- 
ness, 383; hinders self- know ledge, 
384 ; observed in the Virgin Mary, 
608; folly of, 792; a slavery. 794; 
real baseness of, 884 ; is in the 
Devil, and the wicked, 886; in good 
works the worst, 956; betrays the 
soul to shame, 957 ; in trifles, con- 
demned, in the Pharisees, 964. 

Violence, most hurtful to the Doer, 

Virginity, called Youth, in Holy 
Scripture, 70 ; of Mary, declared 
perpetual, 71 ; how far recommended 
by St. Paul, 203 ; not necessary to 
salvation, and so inferior to Alms- 
giving, 645, 687, 1034; indirectly 
recommended by J. C, 844 ; but 
must be voluntary, and spiritual, 
845 ; a gift, but attainable, 846 ; 
spoiled by selfishness, 1037 ; lies in 
renouncing riches, 1039. 

Virtue, home the best school of, 160 ; 
the Christian scale of, 276, 280; to 
be followed for her own sake, 309; 
has her reward even here, 369; to 
be shewn in the world, for Heathens' 
sake, 606 ; possible to all classes, 
607 ; the best affinity to Christ, 
Gil ; must be perfect, 617; better 
than miracles, 636; poetical descrip- 



tion of, 644 ; must be added to faith, 
869; tli« best furniture, 1103. 
Voice, from Heaven, why sent, 167, 


Watchfulness, must be perfect, to be 

( useful, 617; the especial duty of 
Church-rulers, 629; taught by 
Christ's seeming ignorance of The 
Day, 1025. 

Way, the, easy though strait, 354. 

Wild beasts, more tameable than 
Christians, 68. 

Wine, not the use, but the abuse of, 
evil, (against the Manichseans,) 782. 

Wise men, the, journey of, rash, hu- 
manly speaking, 78 ; their Adoration 
of The Child, absurd, except on 
Faith, 79 ; were moved by God's 
grace, 84 ; their exceeding reverence 
hindered them from suspicion of 
Herod, 98, a type of the Gentiles, 
101, an example of renouncing the 
world, for Christ, 101. 

Womati, the Devil's weapon, 305. 

Woman, the, with the Issue, praised 
for uncommon Faith, 451 ; of 
Canaan, for perseverance under re- 
proach, 707. 

Women, vanity of, reproved by Isaiah 
and St. Paul, 256; to be reformed 
with caution, 444 ; of Antioch, con- 
demned for painting the face, 445 ; 
" The Holy," in " Old Time," 
praised, 446; intemperance of, mon- 
strous, 781 ; tyranny of, 850 ; their 

fashion of wearing little Gospels, 
965 ; once modest, 978 ; reproved 
for love of jewels and dress, 1162; 
how ought to be adorned, 1166. 

Women, the, zeal of, at the Passion, 
1149, at the Resurrection, 1161. 

Works, which the best, 1032 ; neces- 
sary for salvation, 1099; the best 
furniture, 1103. 

World, the, is undergoing a change, 
230 ; compared to children's games, 
361 ; need not be left for cloisters. 
606, 755; must be crucified in us, 
737; love of, a slavery, 794; danger- 
ous to salvation, 814 ; vanity of, 
1018 ; will be worst, at last, 1024. 

Youth, the most important period of 
life, 676; blest, in chastity, 677; 
unbridled passions of, 815, restrained 
by marriage, 816. 

Zaccheus, an example, of the benefits 
of Christian Communion, 437, of a 
rich man, saved, 992 ; adorned his 
home with charity, 1103. 

Zeal, of St. Paul, and the early Chris- 
tians commended, 86 ; of St. Peter, 
729, 1087, 1105; of the women, at 
the Passion, 1149 ; of Joseph of 
Arimathfea, 1150. 

Zebedee's so?is, request of, 877. 

Zorobabel, name of, symbolical, 46, 



xli. 32. 
xlviii. 7. 


i. 3. 


xlix. 7. 



and 20. 




ii. 4. 






iii. 5. 







ii. 24. 




, 455 

iv. 2, 


415, 453 



, 440 




759, 1170 

iv. 1. 


V. 2. 

603, 887 



xi. 5. 




xii. 11. 


viii. 7. 








ix. 2. 






xiv. 15. 




, 110 

xvi. 3. 


xi. 7, 





xii. 1. 


xix. 8. 






xiv. 14. 


XX. 12. 


XV. 15. 




xviii, 7. 






xxi. 17. 









xxii. 1. 

714, 1122 









xxiii. 6. 


xix. 2. 


xxxii. 6. 

89, 781 





XX. 3. 




73, 509 


xxvii. 29. 


xxxiii. 11. 




xxviii. 20. 


xxxi. 29. 


xxxiii. 3. 



xxxvi. 19. 


xxxviii. 27. 


xi. 24, 



xxxix. 12. 



xiv. 1. 




XV. 25. 


xl. 8. 


XXV. 35, 






iii, 11—13. 


xi. 12. 

xii. 8. 


XV. 32. 


xvi. 1. 

XXV. r — 11. 

xxviii. 9, 10. 
XXX. 2. 





73, 401 




265, 609 









11, 12. 







252, 527, 957 
439, 653 


vi. 16. 

ix. 27. 

xxiv. 2. 


i. 1, &c. 
































11, 12 











87, 291 

393, 826 





83, 336 









8i9, 1132 

xii. 7-9. 

xvi. 10. 





1, &c. 



41, 121,209 







34, 35. 






777, 1148 



i. 1. 



ii. 9. 

iii. 2S. 

vii. 16, 

xi. 6. 

XXX. 25. 

xxxi. 1. 

24, 25. 
xxxviii. 7. 
xl. 3, 4. 
xlii. 6, 6. 


i. 1. 

ii. 1. 




593, 1134 






218, 491 


322, 491 


















. 8,9. 

















17, 18. 



13, 14. 

















14 and 23 


























1 xxxiv. 



































383, 969 
37, 446 
199, 886 
526, 1138 
1000, 1092 

cxviii. 71. 

cxxx. 1. 

cxl. 3. 

cxli. 2. 

cxlv. 16. 

cxlvii. 9. 

cxlviii. 12. 


v. 2—4. 

vi. 6. 



ix. 9. 


xvi. 5. 

xviii. 21. 

xix. 17. 

XX. 6. 

xxiii. 13. 

xxiv. 17. 

xxviii. 1. 


i. 2. 
ii. 13. 

vii. 2. 


245, 977 





104, 326 







218, 899 









i. 3. 

26, 27. 
ii. 4. 
iii. 16. 
V. 4. 

5 and 19. 
11, 12. 
vi. 3. 

9, 10. 
vii. 14. 
viii. 3. 
ix. 1,2. 
xi. 6. 
xiii. 9. 


xiv. 13. 

xix. 1. 

XX. 2. 

xxix. 13. 

XXXV. 10. 

xxxvi. 12. 

xxxvii. 36. 

xl. 3. 




696, 915 




256, 1163 










96, 137,526 







455, 740 


401, 460 







568, 721 














89, 175, 181 





541, 1006 






624, 1134 



















526, 736 






XX xiv. 


22, 774 







304, 616 


22, 774 










, 738, 7GG 














'1-! . 




, 644, 887 






62, 494 











468, 1170 
























22, 774 


909, 98/ 










mi, 1047 


16, 17. 









909, 1134 



72, 823 































22, 774 










































915, 1037 



84, 95 






43:?, 917 































ix. 9. 

304, 893 

* — iii. 8. 

134, 142 

xiii. 7. 


— 9. 






522, 525, 535 

465,631, 905 



133, 228, 735 

ii. 13. 


iv. 4. 

324, 751 

iii. 1. 304 

533, 537 



iv. 5, 6. 

537, 773 


V. 3. 




552, 644 





292, 634 

iii. 1. 




vi. 6. 



829, 1134 

xvi. 29. 




xviii. 15. 



34, 35. 





, 300, 332, 837 


572, 821 

i. 22. 


vi. 1—3. 


ii. 2. 




Iv. 8. 




V. 7. 




is. 8. 








X. 9. 




xii. 13. 



470, 991 

xviii. 16. 




753, 9.9, 925 





x^ix. 4. 


vii. 2. 3. 


XXX. 7- 



13, 549 





xxxii. 10. 




xxxiv. 20. 



22, 23. 


552, 643 


1039, 1045 



viii. 2, 3. 


40, 428, 707 

iii. 35. 


11, 12. 


455,570, 864 



20, 126, 

337, 634,871, 1174 


191, 925 




415, 682, 78S 


ix. 2. 





ver. 4, 6, 8. 










X. 5. 

703, 746 





22, 23. 



336, 636 

iii. 1. 










X. IG- 



xvii. 23. 













xviii. 3, 4. 

829, 847, 874 



















, 6.^4 

xix. 4. 






xi. 2. 













874, 1124, 




, 939 


350, 827 








396, 874 







XX. 15—20. 
















42, 636 


xxi. 3. 






xii. 2. 


, 1>6G 






96, 228 













, 821 




, 623 










xxii. 12, 13. 

243, 765 



















82, 535, 864, 










xiii. 43. 


xxiii. 1. 




, 610 



xiv. 1. 











23, 24. 














XV. 11. 






xxiv. 3. 




















XXV. 12. 


xvi. 6. 





439, 6(58 


34—46. 64, 

514, 642, 




765, 10 

78, 1123, 







xxvi. 10, 11. 











761, 876,954, 


















xxvii. 63. 

xxviii. 19. 


1119, 1168 










N.B. These passages of St. Matthew 
are quoted incidentally, in addition to 
the general Commentary. 


i. 7. 










ii, 3. 










iii. 3. 




iv. 10. 










V. 10. 








vi. 5. 



373, 793 



vii. 6. 





339, 703 

viii. 12. 


17, 18. 

717, 722 

ix. 6. 




32. 639, 

776, 785, S76 




367, 581 



X. 10. 





155, 637 









xi. 13. 


xii. 15. 






xiii. 3. 










23, 905 








381, 507 












327, 373 . 




' 180 


232, 650 

38—41. ■ 





385, 428 


■ 435 

36, 37. 









198, 644 







30, 36. 518 














. 18. 









378, 462 


448, 452, 707 

. 8,9. 

393, 651 



28, 36. 

757, 763 


734, 776, 786 

49, 60. 

367, 581 


433, 760 



. 2. 



470, 636 





X. 20. 

366, 477 





550, 730 



i. 1. 


xi. 5. 

292, 339 


321,732, 1023 








10, 11, 















xii. 17. 











40, 522, 905 





405, 522, 525 



31, 33. 


xiii. 4, 








190, 930 





xiv. 26, 


510, 511,. 553 

46, 47, 


XV. 7. 







ii, 1—11. 


xvi. 9. 
















698, 1109 




iii, 13. 







xvii. 1. 


~- 25, 26. 




— 29. 

49, 441 





xviii. 1. 

292, 3.S9, 780 

iv. 1—3. 

664, 889 


285, 441 
















166, C37 





733, 876 



xix. 5 — 8, 9. 

437, 713, 






V. 1—6. 






XX, 6. 


9, 10, 





602, 902 





225, 439,557, 566 





xxi. 3, 







vi. 9, 






669, 720, 1126 

xxii, 3. 



















60, 61, 










6S, 69, 




vii. 4, 6, 6. 

71, 408, 610 





917, 941 




225, 566 



33, 34, 


xxiii, 24, 







, 825 




34 7, 






viii, 13, 

189, 535 





xxiv, 30, 






viii. 39. 


XX. 6. 




xxi. 7. 

139, 680 




G34, 952, 1026, 1033 


253.540, 917,941 






ix. 6, 14. 

557, 666 

16. 432, 

623, 768, 917,941 

i. 7. 

1022, 1089 





X. 18. 









429, 758 

ii. 2. 



638, 634 



xi. 6. 







397, 558, 954 








3, 326, 474 



iii. 6. 

125, 1174 




377, 1090 



iv. 4. 

3, 326, 474 








467, 681, 1042 

xii. 2. 

413, 453 






372, 483 


742, 1021 


321, 474 

28, 29. 


V. 1. 





372, 483 

xiii. 1. 


36, 37. 

140, 657, 941 


1074, 1083 


563, 645 


164, 735 

vi. 14. 




vii. 7. 











1074, 1083 

viii. 10. 








ix. 4. 

432, 1147 

xiv. 6. 










X. 4. 

' 687, 1033 











20, 26. 


XV. 1. 










xi, 3. 






xvi. 5, 6. 


xii. 19. 



443, 733 




144, 456 

xiii. 22. 

41, 684 

xvii. 10. 




22, 23. 


XV. 4. 


xviii. 4. 


xvi. 3. 


10, 11. 

1105, 1106 













xvii. 6, 7. 






xix. 11. 


xviii. 2. 



nil, 1119 

xix. 4. 




XX. 30. 














4 H 



xxi. 11. 




















ixiii. 6, 7. 







wxvi. 5. 











i. 18. 












ii. 5. 


















17, IS. 









iii. 23. 









V. 4. 








vi. 4. 

















viii. 1. 
























.352, 684 

, 812 















ix. 5. 




105, 945 

, 990 

























X. 2. 







, 550 





. u. 






, 909 









xi. 4. 





















, 593 









xii. 12. 










xiii. 4, 5. 













xiv. 9. 










xiii. 9. 

xiv. 20. 


XV. 9. 






xvi. 13. 



527, 848, 1057 



40, 383, 909 



28, 82 

10. 21 





i. 4. 










17, 18 











































354, 553 





802, 997 






342, 752 


75, 896 







475, 894 
802,997, 1174 

795, 1034 
382,481, 824 

476, 894 



i. 4, 5 



i. 2. 





929, 931 

iv. 4. 




726, 864 



V, 2. 








vi. 1. 







598, 737 


ii. 14. 


iv. 19. 

219, 246 

v. 4. 








vi. 2, 


202, 691 


89, 354 


i. 23. 

359, 420, 1033 

i. 4. 











i. 2. 





92, 322 

V. 4. 

87, 643 



990, 1029 




i. 6. 998 

23. 998 

ii. 3. 1023 

12. 133 

1 4. 626 

iii. 16. 381 

17. 751 

iv. 6. 349 



14, 15. 





207, 930 





1015, 1037 







ii. 9, 






iii. 1. 















, 766 









i. 9. 

148, 232 





ii. 8. 

302, 699 






673, 1163 



iii. 6. 

200, 887 




iv. 2. 




V. 5. 

















vi. 6. 












, 860, 991 












ii. 25. 


iii. 6. 


iv. 2. 






726, 881 















i. 12. 




ii. 3. 







772. 864 




iii. 10. 




'O 'AyaTrr]T6s, 509. 
'Ayy apevfff0at, 283. 
'Ayyapevcrai, 275. 
" Ay ta To7s ayiois, 102. 
'Ayiacr/xds, 870. 
'AyvaifMove?!/, 2] 6. 
'Ayxo/xevois, 897. 
Alviyfj-a, 34. 

Ahenr-nu, 108C. 

Aj(5»'as, 1023. 
"AKpoi, 882. 

'AkT7)IJ,0(TVVT]S, 809. 

''A\€(o, 191. 

'AXelcpiffdai, 208. 

'A\ei<pevTa, 325. 

'AAA.o7€wOs, 058. 

'AXuef;/, 318. 

'AvafiaWecrOai els <rrifj.e7a, 03G. 

'Aj'a7xaTs, 152. 

/cara 'Avaya>yr]v, 42 1 . 

'A^aOei^aj, 397. 

'A^aTrTOJV, 589. 

(Te Thv''Av5pa eXcrovTai, 279. 

T^j- ''Aj'Spa opposed to a.vdpunrovs, 905. 

'Ai'€7rax0e's, 421. 

''AviirrepuiQ-r), 94. 

"Aveffiv, 513. 

'Ai/eCTOiXe/oi;, 192. 

'Au7)prr)craT0, 0^4. 

' Aui/xaadai, 783. 

'Awiai, 97. 

'A^/TufiA-OTijUelcrflaj, 272. 

'Ai'co/iaA^as, 294. 

T^ ' AvdofJ.a\oi/ Tov ijdovs, 137. 

'Aira7X'"''C<^>''''<i';', 763. 

'AirapdWaKToy, 928. 

'ATrap^/rjcrdcrflai, 724- 

'ATrapTiffas, 230. 

'AirepiTToy, 193. 

'Airepx'^i^f'"'^' foi' e''''«PX'^M*''0*> *^^^*- 

'ATrTjpTicr^eVos, 438. 

'AttoStj/uioj', 210. 

'ATTOKVpevrrovcn, 459. 

'AiroK?\.r)pd>(Tis, 621. 

'A7roK($i^oi'Tai, 845. 

'AWwia, 283, 009, 79] . 

'AiroTjjS'ijo'ps, 242. 
'ATOCTatrioi;, 259. 
^A-TTOT-qyayL^ofievos, 583, 004. 
' AirpayiJ.oavvr]s, 790. 
'ATrpJcriTos, 1 9. 
'ApvTiadcrOai, 744. 
•'AffTfpes, 382. 
'Acrrpairiiv, 20. 
'A(T(pd\€ia, 5. 
'AreAetrTo;/, 244. 
AvTOTe\T]s, 151 . 
'A<po(TiovijLevos, 543. 
'A<ppov€<n€pov, 701. 
■AO/lSoj, 281. 

Bavauo-os, 015, 072. 

Bapu irpayfjia, 391. 

BeAt^i/Tj;/, 856. 

Bi0\iov aTroaracTLOv, 259. 

BW, 356. 

Bfou TrapaffKevTjv v}pr]\6Tepai', 230. 

B(CDTJ/C({j/, 300. 

BouArjTaj, 551. 

Bw^bs, opposed to Bvaicrryipiov, 044. 

Tvr\(ri6ri/)ra, 397. 
rrco/iTjs, 809. 
rj'uJcrtj', 787. 
rvfxvfj rfj KecpaA'p, 498. 
ru^uj'kC'"", 371, 597. 

Actfcretv, 242. 
Aa\pi\eia, 709. 
A6(T7r(jTT/y, 837. 
AevnpoTTpdoTC}!, 557. 
ATj/ucDSes, 198, 324. 
Aiu/cccScovf(ra?, 182. 
Aia7rAacr(f> 504. 



AjdtTTTjyua, 290. 
AiaTpuyfiy, 1015. 
Tci A'lKaiof, vJTl. 

AikV T^;!- KOLvl)Vy 870. 

AiopOwaai, ."i!}7. 

AtopBov/xevos, 787. 

AiQ.'KtafMfvos, 401. 

A(i^av I'or 6|o5o;', (Liilie 9, 31.) 7r)9. 

AoCj'ai, .'J.')!!. 

Apu/j.a, 19;}. 

AucraiTT^crai, 03. 

'E7/<:a\a)7ri^''J^ei'os, 432. 

ErSoiAoy, 412. 

Eis fxeaop, 108-5. 

Ei(ra7a)7of, 1 1 64. 

^EKarepaidef, 329. 

'Ekk^tttcoj/, 88. 

'EKTro/iireuoir, 287. 

'EK:Tpax'7A<aCf"', 574. 

'^KcnaTiKwTipov, 820. 

'EAaxKTTjTepoi/, 383. 

rb^EAeos, 341. 

'EjUTrapotveiTai, 349. 

'E/.tirop€i'o;'Taj, 325. 

"E.V TTJ, for e<s tV, -110. 

'E{'a7e's, 842. 

Tot ivavTM Sia tcDj/ fuavrlaiv, 380. 

"Ej'ai'Aoi/, 833. 

'Ei'eSeiKj'iiTo, 285. 

'Ej/epysio, 388. 

'Ei'TjxTliTaj'Ta, 730. 

'E^f^aKxevO-n, 831. 

'Ele/cfAttrQTjj/, 447. 

'E^eAuoj/, 224. 

'E^eTpax^Aro-erj, 200. 

'E|r)7rAaJ0»;, 032. 

''E^o/xo\o-ye7adai, 141. 

'Elo/xoAoyTjcre&js, 140. 

"Eltoflev, 5(!. 

'E7ra7covi{($/uej/oi' to?s trporfpois, 118, 

'ETrf/x^aivovTa aiiTov T<f Kaipai, 41. 
'Enearrjae, 345. 
'E7r6Teixi(T€, 351, 358. 
'E7rirJ7a{bj', (i(/8. 
'ETrr/peias, 317. 

'EttI irdfras, (Rom. 10, 12.) 341. 
'E7ri86i|a(r0ai, 470, 407, 
'EirifiKeia, 41, 290,349. 
'EirieiKeis, 72. 
'ETri^eVai, 350. 
'EiriKripwv, 824. 
'EiriKaPeadai, 639. 
'ETrtTrrjSctc, 401. 
'ETriffTaTai, 552. 
'E7ri(ri'»p€(76ai, 208. 
'ETTo/xeVois «6XP^<''^"'> ii2. 
''Epavos, 345. 

'EpHTe, 13. 

'Ep€l/y(5;ue^'os, 924. 

''EpKpoi, (pl<pia, 1047. 

"EpojTa, 29 1. 

'EiTKuAfj-ivoi, 4(;4. 

'EtrxaTor, for ikaxiTTOTepov, 383. 

'EraaQiicTovTai, 397. 

Ei/yeVeiof, 518. 

EliKoKia, 47 1. 

EupiTTov T/So/'^s, 103. 

EvxapLffrlav, 25, 38}. 

'Ec^flao-e, 134. 

'E^cJSioj/, 50. 

'Ex<^p«y€i( 1 130. 

Zp Kt;p(os, 204. 
ZcoSio);/, 072. 



'H5o;'^s evpiirov, 103. 
'HeeAoi/, for t1 Oe'Aw, 86. 
"HAet^e, 510. 


@avfia oiKfTov, 1131. 
Qearpov, 135. 
©fVis, 026. 
Qeiiipiav, 40. 
&7ipafjLa, 98. 


'Itroj/OjUia, 938. 

'Icrx^!', 032. 

Kara 'Icrroplav avayivdiaKuv, 405. 

'louSoiot, 1129. 

'IcojSrjAai'y, 870. 

KafJapi'^'cor, for KaOdpi^ov, (Mtuk 7, 

l!».) 097. 
Ka0i/cj'ou;U€j/os, 735. 
Kaeo\iK6s, 1024. 
Tt) Kaij/oj/ axK^h -i^^- 
KaKovpyodvT(s, 31. 
Ka7n)A€voii(rii', 325. 
Kora Aeler?, 807. 
KaTa(popiKc!>Tfpos, 983. 
KareAa/Se, 134. 
Ka/Tiarvfjipiivuiv, 212. 
KaT($p(?£i)/xa, 408. 
Kexp^c^"" TO?s iirofifyots, 441 • 



Kr^pvyfxa, CGI. 

Ktyjicras, 2oy. 

'H Koiyrj 5i/ci7, 370. 

Ko\o<pcvi'a, 790. 

K6fj.jxaTa, 7. 

Kopu(pa7os, -107, 729, 7.S2, 1119. 

K6(pivos, "pp. to (TTTUftis, 719. 

KpoKcoTci, 935. 


Ae'lis, 867. 

Anrap6v, 234. 

Ao7it7;u,o'j, .59, 040. 

Af^yoj, 151, 174,227,271,809. 

Aotfioi, 972. 

Aoifj.wy ffvveSpLoy, 1 109. 

Oi eVl rbj* Aou/cSz', 418. 

ACcrai, 431. 


Mapydpov, 61. 

MapTvplav avayiyvaxTKoov, 405. 
M€0ap,u(j(,'eTai, 457. 
MecrafT/xoi^s, 848. 
Me(To\a(3ovvTOS, 765. 
els MeVo;/, 1085. 
'Ev /J-ea-cv, 197. 
Mcre'copos, 473. 
MeroxeTeuei, 990. 
MrjTprfTroAis, 800. 
Mi/cpoif/ux'"^) '-^tiO, 822. 
Moj-coTaros, 430. 
Mcofjai'flero-aj', 210. 

Neaj/i/cfjs, 277. 
NeapJrrjTt, 210. 
NiKYjee^a-at, 1037. 

NoTJTTJf, 202. 

IlayKpaTta, 1017. 

riaiSayoj-yc^s, '^17. 

na;'5a((r^a, 920. 

To, Trap' eavTwv, 1154. 

Tlapa^riXovures, 804. 

riapafj-vdiav, 808. 

TiapappnrTfladai, 02. 

napacKcuvjf jSi'ou, 230. 

Tlapa^ep6/j.ii/os, 781. 

na/>axapaTT6ij', 24. 

nap6/3ouA€u<:To, 701. 

IlapeA/cet, 400. 

na/3p77<nW, 59, 407, 436, GIO, 890. 

TiaTwv for avamoiv, 589. 

ITaxiJTepoi', 042. 

nepteeiWi, 218. 

Vlipiovcrias, 98. 

nepK^a^/e.'aj, 482. 

nAaSapJj/, 618. 

IlKiKTixvai,, 956. 

nA60i'€«Te? T^ Xp6ucj}, 501. 

noie?j/, 390, 859. 

noioC^/Tas Trjf avo^lav, 040. 

rioAiTeiaj', ^23. 

IToAiTeuo'^ei'os, 200. 

Tlov-npia, 298, 352. 

npay^ua, 135, 391,415. 

IlpaT'^aTeuEcrOai, 370. 

nptaTr}po€iS7)s, 156. 

rtpoa^pefny, 388. 

npo/jyoi^^ews, 259, 334, 550, 051. 

Tlpo(Te^pl<p6ai airXios, 5. 

XlpocricrTaTo, 433. 

npocrcTT-I^i/ai, 393. 

UpocTTarria, 205, 1041. 


Hrepo'is, 1160. 
riw/ua, 412. 

'Ponrjs, 1158. 

OfKeroj/ davfia, 1131. 
O'tKeiais fX^"'> 1017. 
OlKovo/xia \6yit}y, 227. 
'H Ol/coi/o^ra, 0, 94, 174, 307, 382, 065, 
1044, 1086, 1097. 

OlKOVOfXlKCOS, 881. 

O'lKoyoixH, 53, 80, 93, 190. 

OIkotp'i^oov, 219. 

"O/xoios for woi, (Matt. 5, 45.) 270. 

'O/noAo-yeTv, 39. 

^OvetpoKoXuv, 130. 

"OpfiadoT, 480. 

"Oo-jof, 409. 


Sctcttn, 978. 
Secrapuiay, 50. 
Seiryp/ue'fTjj', 985. 
'S.Tifj.flctiv viipdSas, 1 92. 
S^i^is, 040. 
2/foros, 126, 2S7. 
^Kd/jLfJLaTa, 529. 
SfacSaAa, !~;02. 
'SKipT-ficrere, 304. 
20/3671', SIH. 
l.TTvpis, 719. 
2Tr;6o5€(rjui5os', 001. 
2x^x01/, 100. 



Sroixftoi', 77K. 
'StvyKara^, 01, 
2,vyKeK\7]poi>fxevriv, 87. 
^vyKpoTuu, 5, 274, 355, 
2,v\\eyovTos, 38. 
'XvWoyiffixdT, 897. 
^vvaipeTv, '-l-Hi. 
'H 2wa|<y, 304, 1154. 
^vpeSpiov, 1100. 
2u;'€i(raKTo/, 25.5. 
'2,vv(\6vTa TO. TrpoKei/jLfva, 245. 
XvyoiKovs irapOevovs, 255. 
'S.vvTffxvsi, 47. 
'Svi/rpi^ri, 330. 
2ui>vTTOKpiv6/j.evos, 211. 
2vp(p€T(L5cos, 290. 
SufTiriToiis, 003. 
^cpaytacrdeyra, 124. 
SxVH-aros, 119,335, 1012. 
'Sdo/u.ara, 422. 
Stijuaroi AafiTT-pov, 1012. 
Sco/CiaToiv ivvoiav, 2. 
2tt)fj.aTtKrjs ^avraaias, 2. 

'rirfpfioA-fiv, 273, 325. 
'rirfpOfffis, 143. 
'TTrfpTiOeTat, 143. 
'tvicrraKixivws, 23 1 . 
'Two^oAi/ddtoi, 84. 
'TWt)«o-zs, 135. 
'TTropvTTCuy, 4418. 
'T(pu>pp.ov(rav, 5.32. 


*a»/€pby elmj, (John 7, 4.) 610. 

4>a/}r), 9.35. 

*iA.o(ro4)eri', 297, 391. 

^jAoo-o^raj/, 108, 150, 379, 383, 410, 

415,434,472, 529. 
^iXoTifiiav, 187, 072. 
'J'lAoi^/iej/os, 509. 
^i\Tpov, 381. 
^vpa/j-aros, 49. 

To/tietyerai, 218. 

TaTreij/c^s, 199. 

Tie\ifj./j.furi, 353. 

T€Ai;/ai, 282, 285. 

T'lKTeiv, 770. 

TiyuV for eiivoiav, (I Cor. 7, 3.) IOC. 

Tifj-oopoifxevos, 418. 

T(^Koy, 770 : 'O TJ/cos, 53. 

Tpa7£o5/ay, 457. 

'H TpciTreCa, 382, 473. 

Tpc^TTOS, 191. 

Xttjuol ffupofievcoy, 198. 
Xawofs, 2 1 2. 
XepcroBefTes, 150. 
XpiJcrea xaAKe^coi', 425. 
Xi^/uJs, 310. 

'H ^ux^. 323. 

"rppeais, 340. 
'T-jraKovffdvTuu, 640, 

'nSivas eKvaef, 107. 
'flparos, 400. 





Pnnceion Theotoqical S«nn»»ary-Sp«' L' 

1 1012 01128 4587 




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— "*"'»«mi^;^-W /\i 



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